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tihxary of Che Cheolo^ical ^tmxmvy 


From the Library of 
James Lenox 

»iN^^8^-^^¥&jBl-3 1763 v . li 
Witsius, Herman, 1636-1708. 
The oeconomy of the 
covenants between God and 


O.Mvt I 

OF WS5^ 

T H E ( JUN 5 1975 



O F T H E 





A Complete Body of Divinity. 


ProfefTor of Div^inlty in the Univerfities of Franeker, Utrecht, 
and Leyden ; and alfo Regent of the Divinity College of 
the States of Holland and Weft-Friefland. 

Faithfully tranflated from the Latin, and carefully revifed. 

To which is prefixed. 
The Life of the AUTHOR. 

VOL. I. 

— ■ ■ -, ■■ . 2 ■■ « 

Printed for Edward D i l l y, In the Poultrj: 




.. ^!^ H E famous Herman Witsius, Profeflpr of 
J^ Divinity at Utrecht in Holland, and the au- 
,th6r of a treatile entitled, ^e Oeconomy of the Cove- 
nants between God and Man^ and various other learned 
and theological trafts, v/as a writer, not only emi- 
nent for his great talents, and particularly folid judg- 
ment, rich imagination, and elegancy of compofi- 
tlon ; but for a deep, powerful, and evangelical fpi- 
rituality and favour of godlinefs : and we moil 
heartily concur in the recommendation of his works 
to ferioLis Chriftians of all denominations, and eipe- 
cially to minifters and candidates for that facred 

John Gill, D. E?. John Walker, L. L. I?. 

Thomas FIall. John Brine. 

William KjNG. Thomas Gibbons, M. A. 

The late reverend, learned, and pious Mr. James 
Hervey, in his Therpn and Afpafio^ Vol. H. p. 366, 
having mentioned a work of the above Wits i us, 
iidds, " The Oeconomy of the Covenaras^ written by the 
V fam,e hand, is a body of divinity, in its method fo 
" welldigefted; in its dodcrines fo truly evangelicaU 
" and (what is not very ufual with our fyftematic 
" writers) in its language fo refined and elegant -, 
** in its manner foaffeftionate and animating-, that 
" I would recommend it to every ftudent in divi- 
" nity. I would not fcruple to rifk all my repu- 
" tation upon the merits of this performance -, and I 
':* cannot but lament it, as one of my greated lolfes, 
" that I was no fooner acquainted with this mod ex- 
" cellent author, all whofe works have fuch a deli- 
*' cacy of compofition, and fuch a fweet favour of 
" holinefs, that I know not any comparifon more 
" proper to reprefent their true charader than the 
" golden j)ot which bad manna •, and was, outwardly, 
" bright with burniaied gold j inwardly, rich with 
" heavenly food." 




7o the 'uery reverend^ learned^ and celebrated 
Profejfors of Divi?iity in the Univerfities of the 
united provinces of Holland', pajlors of the re- 
formed churches \ and 2iealous defenders of the 
Faith once delivered to the Saints. 


"1 HE prefent age furniflies fuch a number 
of books, that the world is ahiioft weary 
of them, and the church certainly 
groans under their weight : as this never flour- 
ifhed more than when, in the pure fimplicity of 
faith and love, and without any fondnefs for 
difputations, it regarded the dodrine of our 
Lord alone, and drew the pure and undefiled 
truth from thofe writings only, which could 
make David nvifer than all his teach ersy and the 
man of God perfect^ thoroughly i7i/i?'uthd to every 
good work. It is indeed, very difficult to write 
any thing now-a-days, which can pleafe. For 
ib great is every where the fruitfulnefs of Icarn- 

[ 4 ] 

ing, or the vain imagination of Iclencc ; To ob- 
ftinate the attachment to once received Hypo- 
thefes, fo fixed the fludy of particular parts, 
and fo malevolent the judgment paffed on other 
peoples works (which even fometimes affedls 
the minds of good men againfl: their wills) that 
whoever thinks by his writings to fatisfy your 
dehcate minds, or thofe v^'ho are engaged in a 
inore general fearch after knowledge, feems 
to attribute too much to his own capacity, and 
to be iofnorant of the difpofition of the times. 
But I am confcious of the flendernefs of qiy 
own abilities : and it is impoflible for a perfon 
not to know the world, who is at all converfant 
with it. It therefore feems proper to aflign 
fome reafons for my appearing in public again ; 
and to fliew the defign of the work I now offer 
to the churches. 

And to whom, reverend and learned Sirsy 
fhould I render thefe reafons rather than to you, 
who are competent judges of what I v/rite^ and 
by whom, next to God and my own confcience, 
I long to have my fludies approved. In the 
firft place then, I lincerely declare, that it is not 
an incurable itch of v^^riting, a raging thirft 
after vain glory, an envious difpolition of mind, 
a deteflabie defire of widening the wounds al- 
ready made in the churches, the odious pleafure 
of blackening another's character, by giving a 
wrong turn to what is really right ; nor, laflly 
the infamous dcfire to make, encreafe, or con- 
tinue flrifes, which have cccafioned my writing 
at this time. Befides my own declaration to 
^he contrary, the whole work itfelf, though 


[ s ] 

but flightly attended to, will acquit me of aft- 
ing on fuch motives. 

To fee the minds of tlie godly difturbed by 
the inconfiderate affcrtions of fome, and their 
uncommon interpretations of the Scriptures; 
or the fufpicions of others (not at all times 
dilated by charity, whatever fliare prudence 
may have in the cafe,) gave me indeed the 
greatell concern. And for as much as the doc- 
trine of the covenant of grace, by which the 
manner of the reconciliation of finners to God is 
fhewn, and the manifold difpenfation of that 
covenant, have been the unhappy objedt of con- 
troverfy in the Netherlands ^ fo that whatever 
points are now difputed upon (if we except the 
new method of interpreting the prophecies, 
and the opinions of the modern philofophy, 
which are imprudently introduced into the pre- 
fent fyftem of divinity, may and ought to be 
referred to this (I have thought this fubjed: in the 
firft place deferving my notice. But I have treated 
it in fuch a manner, as is agreeable to the truths 
hitherto received in the churches; and without 
that levity or feverity, which is not confiftent 
with the law of love. 0\\ which account I 
have not confined myfelf to bare difputations, 
v/hich are generally unprofitable ; and, if it 
were not that they were feafoned with a degree 
of acrimony, would be deftitute of every kind 
of elegance. 

I have chofe to enter on this fubjed: from its 
very beginning : and have endeavoured, as far 
as I could, to explain it methodically and clear- 
ly, enlightening the obfcurer paflages of Scrip- 

A 3 ture. 

[ 6 ] 

ture, carefully examining the phrafes ufed by 
the Holy Ghoft, and referring the whole to 
the pradlice of faith andgodUnefs, to the glory 
of God in Chrift, that my expofition might 
be the more ufeful and entertaining. And aS 
nothing was m.ore profitable and deHghtful to 
myfelf, fo nothing could more evidently and 
fully convince the minds of others, than a clear 
and fober demonftration of the truth to the con- 
fcience; which, by pleaiing advances, begin- 
ning with plain and acknowledged truths, and 
connedling them together, gradually leads to 
the more abftrufe points, and forces an affent to 
them, not lefs ftrongly than to thofe we are 
obliged to agree to at the firfl: view ; and at 
the fame time, by its efficacy, prefents fome 
before unknown truths to the inmoft foul, fix- 
ing it with a degree of aftonifliment on the 
contemplation of the admirable perfedlions of 

I have found it abfolutely neceflfary to op- 
pofe different opinions ; either thofe of the pub- 
lic adverfaries of the reformed churches, a- 
mongft whom I reckon firft the Socinians, and 
the Remonftrants, who, by their daring com- 
ments have defiled the doc^trine of God's cove- 
nants; or thofe of fome of our brethren, who 
have taken it into their heads to form new hy- 
pothefes, and thereby almoft root out all true 
divinity. I perfuade myfelf, it is not in the 
power of malice to deny that I have adled 
with candour and modefty : I have flated the. 
controverfy juftly, not attributing to any one, 
any opinion which he ought act to allow to be 


[ 7 ] 

his own ; and have made ufe of fuch arguments 
as had before fatisfied my own confcience ; as 
if thefe were not of themfelves convincing, I 
could not think that any force would be added to 
them by great warmth : Efpecially, I thought 
that the opinions of our brethren were to be 
treated with candour. And I have never fought 
after any inaccurate word, harfli phrafe, or 
crude expreflion, in order to criticize on them; 
efteeming it much better, to point out how far 
all the orthodox agree, and how the more im- 
proper ways of expreffion may be foftened ; re- 
marking only on thofe fentiments, which are 
really different : and thefe, I dare affirm, will 
be found to be fewer and of lefs moment, than 
they are generally thought to be, provided we 
examine them without prejudice. Yet, lean- 
not pafs over in filence fome uncouth expref- 
fions, foreign interpretations, or contradidory 
thefes : and fometimes I note the danger at- 
tending fome of them; but without any male- 
volence to their authors. For I confefs, I am 
of their opinion, who believe that the doctrine 
of the covenant has long fince been delivered to 
the churches on too good a foundation, to ftand 
in need of new hypothefes ; in which I cannot 
find that folidity or ufefulnefs, as is neceffary 
to eftablifh their divinity. 

The obfervation of the threefold covenant of 
grace ; the flr/i, under the promile, in which 
grace and liberty prevailed, without the yoke, 
or the burden of an accufing law 5 the Jeco/i^^ 
under the law, when the Old-Teftament took 
place, fubjedling the faithful to tlie dominion 

A 4 of 

[ 8 ] 

of angels, and the fear of death all their lives, 
and lad of all, to the curfe, not allowing to 
to the fathers true and permanent bleffings^ 
the third, under the Gofpel, when the godly 
began to be fet at liberty from the dominion 
of the angels, from the fear of temporary 
death, and the curfe which an exad obfervance 
of the ceremonial law carried with it, and at 
length enjoyed true and lading bleffings, the 
circumcifion of the heart, the law written 
there, the full and true remiffion of fins, the 
fpirit of adoption, and fuch like things ; this 
obfervation, I fay, does not feem to me worthy 
to be infifled on in fo many academical led:ures, 
fo many fermons, and fuch a number of books, 
as have been publiflied in the Latin and our own 
languages, as though the whole of theological 
learning confifted in thefe. For, in the follow- 
ing work I have fhewn that, how^ever thofe 
docflrines are explained, they are horrible to be 
mentioned ; and are not to be defended without 
wrefting the Scriptures. 

But I efteem much more dangerous the opi- 
nions of fome men, in other refpedls very 
learned, who deny that a covenant of works 
was made with Adam ; and will fcarce allow 
that by the death, with which he was threatened 
in cafe he finned, a corporeal death is to be un- 
derjftood > and deny that fpiritual and heavenly 
bleffings, fuch as we now obtain through Chritt, 
v/ere promifed to Adam on condition of perfedt 
obedience : and by a mufly diftindion, divid- 
ing the fufferings of Chrift into painful and ju- 
diciary, affirm, that the latter only, or, as they 


[ 9 ] 

fometimes foften the expreffion, chiefly were 
fatisf;a6lory ; excluding by this means his for- 
rows in the garden, the lentence palled on him 
both by the Jewifli council, and the Roman 
governor, the ftripes with which his body was 
wounded, his being nailed to the curfed crofs, 
and laft of all his death itfeif. On thele fub- 
jedls I have given my mind freely and candidly, 
as became a defender of the truth and an oppofer 
of falfjood : which laudable character was 
given of the emperor Conjlantine the fourth, by 
the fixth Oecumenical Synod, which met at 
Conjlantinople -, and which is wh'at all of our 
order ought to endeavour to deferve. 

I have alfo made remarks on fome things of 
lefs moment, which did not feem to have a 
folid fcriptural interpretation, or are lefs accu- 
rately conceived of than they ouglit to be. 
Nor has my labour been without profit. Am- 
philochius is juftly commended by Bafilius, be- 
caufe he thought that no ^ivord ivhich was ufed 
concerning God, flooidd be pajjed over without the 
moft careful inqw'ry into its meaning. Bat I have 
done this without rancour or raillery : not -with 
a view of reproving the authors, but that the 
fudious readier might be benefited by having their 
errors fiewn him, as I remember Polibius (oxnQ^ 
where exprefles himfelf. And I hope it will 
not be taken ill by the learned and ingenuous, 
to whom I grant the fame liberty I myfelf take, 
if, (to ufe nearly the fame words which Auguf- 
tine ufes when he declares his diffent from Cy- 
prian) whilft / cannot arrive at their degree of 
?nerit, acknowledge my writings i?iferior to many 


[ 10 ] 

of theirs, love thtir ingenuity , am delighted with 
'what they Jay, and admire their virtues ; yet^ I 
cannot in all things agree with them, hut make 
life of the liberty wherewith our Lord has called 
us, Efpecially when they fee, that I have wil- 
lingly adopted their own ingenious inventions, 
what they have happily found out by fearching 
into the original languages, have learnedly re- 
covered from the reliques of hitherto unknown 
antiquity, have judicioufly confirmed, or clearly 
explained ; and have highly recommended 
them to the reader. 

They will alfo find that, wherever I think 
them right, however they may be cenfured 
by others, I have cordially defended them, and 
have wiped off the ftamp of abfurdity and no- 
velty. And this I have done fo frequently and 
foUicitoufly that, without doubt, fome will 
fay, I have done it too much. But I cannot 
yet allow^ myfelf to be forry for having dealt fo 
ingenoufly by them. For how could any one 
have done otherwife, who is not attached to any 
fadtion, or is not a flave to his own or another's 
affedtions ; but has dedicated himfelf to truth 
alone, and regards not what zny particular per- 
fon fays, but what is faid. He who loves the 
peace of yerufalemi had rather fee controver- 
fies leffened than encreafed : and will vi^'ith plea- 
fure hear that feveral things arc innocent, or 
even ufeful, which had iomctimes been made 
the matter of controverfy. 

All good men indeed are juflly offended with 
that wantonefs of wit, which now a-days, by 
dogmatical attacks, raflily aims to overturn 


[ II ] 

wife opinions ; and infolently offers a bold, and 
often ludicrous, interpretation of prophecy, 
ridiculoufly bawling into their affiftance, what 
contains nothing but the dodrine of our com- 
mon faith and holinefs; by which the publicand 
our facred functions arc not a little abufed : and 
it is not to be wondered at, if the warmer zeal of 
fome has painted this wantonefs as it deferves, 
or, perhaps, in too flrong colours. But yet, a 
medium is to be regarded in all things : and I do 
not approve the pains of fome, who, whilft 
they difcourfe on their differences, not only 
name fome decades of our controverfies, but 
centuries of them ; and freqently with cruel 
eloquence are very violent on fome innocent 
fubjed:s. Whether this method of difputing 
greatly conduces to the promoting of faving 
knowledge, or the edification of fouls, I will 
not now fay: but I am certain of this; the 
enemies of our church are hereby greatly de- 
lighted, and fecretly rejoice, that there are as 
many and as warm difputcs amongft ourfelves, as 
with them. And this, not very fecretly neither : 
for they do not, nor will ever, ceafe to caft this 
reproach upon us ; which, I grieve to fay, is 
not fo eafily wiped away. 

O ! how much better would it be to 
ufe our utmoft endeavours, to leffen, make 
up, and, if it could be, put an end to all 
controverfy i' Make this reverend and learned 
Sirs, your great concern. This all the godly 
who mourn for the breaches in Jofeph -, this 
the churches who are committed to your care; 
this Jefus himfelf, the king of truth and peace, 



require and expedl from you; in the moft earneft 
manner theyintreat it of you. If therefore there 
he any confolation m Chrf, f a7iy comfort of 
love^ if any fellow floip of the fpirity f any bowels y 
and mercies : fulfil ye 7ny joy ^ fulfil ye the joy of 
all faintsy fulfl y^ the joy of our Lord Jefus 
hiffifelf that ye may be bke-?mnded, having the 
fame lovCy being of one accord^ of one 7nind. 
There have been already more than engugh 
quarrels, flanders, and fufpicions -, more than 
enough of contentions amongft brethren, which, 
I engage for it, will afford no juft caufe of 
triumph ; more than enough inteftine divifions, 
by which wx deftroy one another ; and 
more than enough of paffion. Let the 
love of divifions, a thirft after pre-eminence, 
and fchifmatical names be hence-forward 
baniflied from amongft us. Let all litigi- 
ous, fatyrical, and virulent writings be blotted 
out ; as they 07ily ferve to revive the fires of hurt- 
ful quflions. But if we muft v/rite on thofe 
controverfies, let us lay afide all evil difpoli- 
tions, which are hindrances to us in our en- 
quires, and millead our readers. Let us fight 
with arguments, not railings, bearing in our 
minds this faying of Arijlophanesy it is difio- 
norable^ and by no means becoming poetSy to rail 
at each other, Hov/ much lefs does it become 
chriilians to do fo ! The ftreams of divinity are 
pure : they rife only fi'om the fountain of facred 
learning, and ftiould be defiled with none 
of the impure waters of the ancient or modern 
philofophy. Let us abflain from harili and un- 
ufual exprefllons, and from crude and rafli 

affertions ; 


aflertions ; from whence arife envy^ ft^^f^^ ^^i^- 
ings, evil fiir?njjlngs. The inilruments of both 
covenants llioukl be handled dih'gently by all, 
but with facred fear and trembling. Let none 
pleafe himfelf with his conuncntaries, becaufe 
they contain fomething new and nr.i;nown by 
our predeceflbrs. Let him who thinks he has 
found out fomething preferable to the received 
opinion, offerit to the publicwith modeily, with 
out \«lifying the brethren ; not afferting or deter- 
mining raftily, but fubmitting his thoughts to 
the cenfure of the learned, and the judgement 
of the church; not forcing them on the com- 
mon people to the diftradtion of their minds ; 
nor haftily offering them to incautious youth, 
who are improper judges of fuch weighty mat- 
ters. Nor let any rejedl, on account of its no- 
velty, what is agreeable to the meaning of the 
words, to Scripture phrafes, to the analogy of 
faith, or to the relation the text bears to others. 
Cajeta72y who is commended by our Cbamelr^ 
has not badly expreifed himfelf on this head : 
If a new fen/e of the text offers itfef, though it 
be diflerent Jrom that of divines in general, let 
the reader judge of it for himfelf And in another 
place he fays. Let none refufe affenting to a new 
fenfe of facred writ, becaufe it differs from that 
given by the ancients ; for God has not bound him- 
felf to the truth of their expoftions of the Scrip- 
tures, Let the depths of Prophecy be air 
fo diligently fearchcd into : but reverently, 
without wrefting the fcriptures, without vio- 
lating thofe bounds wherewith it has pleafed 
Go4 to keep them from human intuition ; leafl 


[ H] 
he who attempts to fearch into the majeftyfhould 
be overwhelmed by the glory. 

Let no one,of however great name,by his au- 
thority bind the free confciences of the faithful: 
but, as Clejnens Romanus once faid. Let the truth 
be takejijrom the Scriptures themf elves; by thefe 
alone it fhould ftand or fall in religious affairs : 
hy thefe are all controverfiesto be fettled. And it 
was by the facred and undefiled Gofpels of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift, that the ancient 'councils 
were influenced, Neverthelefs, let not any one 
inconfiderately on this pretence, withold bis 
affent to fuch forms of expreffion which are 
taken from the w^ord of God, and are agree- 
able to the fcriptures, are the bonds of church 
union, the marks of orthodoxy, the bars of 
herefy, and the limits of wanton wits ; as tho' 
they were the remains of the Babylonifh tower, 
which obliged men to think and fpeak a-like 
in religion. 

Let no one choofe for himfelf a guide out of 
the modern divines ; all whofe dictates he is de- 
termined to receive and defend as celeftial ora- 
cles ; as one who is given as a new teacher and 
light of the world, as the ancients faid of Bqfi- 
lius 'y and in comparifon of whom, all others ap- 
pear as little children or dwarfs; when he 
himfelf perhaps protefts, that he would not be 
thought the author of any thing new, and 
made the head of a fed:. On the other hand, let 
no one defpife fuch a man, as if nothing true or 
good, nothing ufeful to the underftanding of 
the Scriptures could be learned from him : for 
Gqd has not put it into the heart of any pious 



perfons to fearch the Scriptures night and day, 
without opening to them thofe treafures of his 
facred wifdom. 

Let us preach the good tidings of the Gof- 
pel ; let us congratulate the church on account 
of them; and make the beft ufe of them our- 
felves we can. Let no one who has in general 
expreffed the truth in eloquent language, be 
heinoufly cenfured on account of an improper 
word, or harfh expreffion, which has flipped 
from his pen : Poifon does not lie hid in Jyllables ; 
nor does truth conjijl in founds but in the inteji- 
tion : nor godJifieJs in the tinkling of brafs, but 
in the meaning of the things fignified. Yet, let 
us all endeavour to exprefs ourfelves as accu- 
rately as poffible ; and not take upon us to de- 
fend what has been imprudently faid by our 
friends, or ourfelves, leaft others blame us for 
\\, : but as far as ingenuoufnefs, truth, charity, 
and all good men will allow of it, let us pafs 
by, cancel or corredt any miflakes ; which has 
\>cen the pradtice of fome great men, both 
amongft the ancients and moderns, to their ve- 
ry great credit. Let none of our brethren be 
ftigmatized with the brand of herefy, on 
account of what is fuppofed to follow from any 
of their expreflfions, when they themfelves deny 
and deteft the confequence. Solid learning, 
manners conformable to chriftian fandlity, a 
peaceable difpofition, and a faithful difcharge 
of our duty without noife and confufion, will 
procure favor much more than inconfiderate 
warm zeal, and the violent efforts of a paflion- 
ate mind; which are defigned for the moft 


[ i6] 

part, to heighten our own glory and Teeming 
importance though the caufe of God be made 
the pretence for them. 

Let fome Hberty alfo be given to learned 
men, in explaining texts of Scripture, in the 
choice of arguments for the defence of the 
common truth, in the ufe of phrafes and terms, 
and in refolving problematic queftions, (for in 
this our flate of darknefs it is not to be ex- 
pected that all men fhould think and fpeak 
alike): but let this liberty be confined within the 
bounds of modefty, prudence, and love ; leaft 
it degenerate into petulant licentioufnefs^ and 
turn our Zton into a BabeL 

Thefe, revereitd and learned Sirs, are my 
earneft wifhes -, thefe my fentiments, which I 
recommend to your prudence, faith, and piety ; 
as I do yourfelves and your pious labours, to the 
grace of ourGreat God and Saviour Jefus Chrift; 
who can make you perfect to every good work, to 
do his wilU working in you that which is well 
pleafing in his fight -, and, at laft, when you hap- 
pily have fought the good fight of faith , can blefs 
you with an everlafting crown oj glory. This was 
long fince, and is now, the moil earneft wifh of, 

Reverend and learned Sirs, 

Your fellow-labourer, and 

Servant in the Lord, 

Utrecht, . H. WIT SI US. 

Od. 20, 1693. 



O F T H E 



HERMAN WITS (of as he is com- 
monly called, Witfius) was defcended from 
reputable parents. His father, Nicolatis 
JVits^ was a gentleman univerfally eftecm- 
ied by his fellow citizens at Enkhiyfen^ to whom he 
fendeared himfelf by his fidelity, modefliy, juftice, 
benevolence, and nnafFe6led piety in every chara(5i:er 
he fuftained, either in the church or in the city, for 
in the formef he was firft a deacon, and afterwards a 
ruling elder, and treafurer in the latter. His mother 
Was Johanna^ a gentlewoman of great piety and 
prudence, the daughter of Herman Gerhard ; who, 
after many dangers and diflreiTes, obtained a calm 
and fecure fettlement in the church at Enkhuyfen ; 
where he preached the gofpel for upwards of thirty 
years, with great reputation ; and fuch was the af- 
fe6tion he bore to his church, that he rejecfted the 
mofi: profitable offers that were m.ade to him. 
\0L. L B The 

1 8 Life of the k\s T H o^.'l 

The parents of our Witsius having vowed to 
devote a child to the ininiftry, did, upon the birth 
of this fon, call him after his grandfather, praying 
that in Herman^ the grandfon, might be revived the 
fpirit of the grandfather ^ and that, endued with 
equal, if not fuperior talents, he might imitate his 

Herman Witsius was born on the 12th of 
February, 1636, at Enkhuyfen^ a town of Wefi-Friez- 
land\ one of the firfc that threw off the Spanijh yoke, 
aflerted their own liberty, and, once enlightened 
with the truths of the gofpel, retained the purity of 
worlliip ever after, and in the very worft times of 
Arminianifm^ continued, above many, ftedfaft in the 
faith. And though it was a place noted for trade 
and navigation, yet it produced men famous in 
every branch of literature. So that Witfius, even in 
his native place, had illuflrious patterns to copy 

The care which thefe pious parents took of young 
Witfiiis during his tender infancy, was not intermit- 
ted as he began to grow •, for, being ftill mindful of" 
their vow, they brought him up in a very pious man- 
ner, inftru6ling him in the principles and precepts 
of religion and Chriftian piety. In his iixth year 
they fent him to the public fchool of the town, to 
learn the rudiments of the Latin tongue : from 
which, after fpending three years, and being ad- 
vanced to the highell form there, his uncle, by the 
mother, Feter Gerhard^ took him under his own 
private and domefdc tuition : a perfon well fkllled 
in Lct'in^ Greeks Hehretv^ and philofophy. But his 
principal fcudy bad been Divinity. This man, then 
diiengaged from all public bufmefs, and being as fond 
pf his nephew as if he had been his own ion, taught 
him with that afTiduity, that, before he was fifteen^ 
he made no nnall proficiency in the Latin^ Greeks and 
Hebrew^ and acquired fuch knov/ledge in logic and 
other parts of philofophy, that, when lie was after- 

Life of the A VT u o rI t 9 

wards removed to the univerlity, he could ftudy 
without a mailer. At the flime time he learned the 
ethic compendiums of JValUus and Burgerfdicius^ 
with fo much care, as to be able to repeat moft of 
the fentences, very frequent in Burgerfdicius^ from 
the ancients, whether Greek or Latin. He alfo pe- 
rlifed his elements of phyficks, and dipped a little 
into metaphyfical fubtleties \ and committed to me- 
mory moft of the theological definitions and diftinc- 
tions from IFendelin. As his uncle was a man of 
exemplary piety, and was wont to apply almoft to 
every common occurrence of life, fome finking 
paffages of both teftaments, which he often repeat- 
ed, either in Hebrew or Greek, while rifing, drelfrng, 
walking, ftudying, or othervvife employed; fo, by his 
example and admonitions, he ftirred up his nephew 
to the fame pra6lice. Whence it was, that at thofe 
tender years he had rendered familiar to himfelf 
many entire pafTages of the Hebrew and Greek 
leftament, which he was far from forgetting when 
more advanced in life. 

Being thus formed by a private education, in 
1651, and the fifteenth year of his age, it was re- 
iblved to fend him to fome univerfity •, Utretcht was 
pitched upon, being furnifhed vv'ith m.en very emi- 
nent in every branch of literature, with a confide- 
rable concourfe of ftudents, and an extraordinary 
firidlnefs of difcipline. What principally recom- 
mended it, were the famous divines, Gifueri Voetius, 
Charles Maatfiiis^ and John Hernbeekius^ all of them 
great names, and ornaments in their day. Being 
therefore received into that univerfity, he was, for 
metaphyficks,put under the i!iixtCi\ono^ Paul Vcetius^ 
then profefTorof philofophy ; and being, moreover, 
much taken with the iludy of the Oriental Ian- 
guages, he clofely attended on the celebrated John 
Lcufden, who taught thofe languages with incredible 
dexterity, and under him he conftrued almoft the^ 
whole Hebrew text, as alfo the commentaries of 
B 2 Sclouicn 


20 Lifs of the Author." 

Solomon larchi^ Jhcn Ezra^ and Kimcbi on Hofedy 
and the Chaldee paraphrafe of Jonathan on Ifaiah, 
and of Onkelos on a part of the Pentateuch, More- 
over, under the fame mafter, he jull touched on the 
niyilt^ries of the Mafora^ and the barbarous dlflion 
of the 'Talmud;, namely, the parts publifhed by 
John Cocceius,, under the title of Sanhedrimnd Mac- 
ccthy and by Ccnftantins Lempereur, under that of 
BaMja Bathrce : under the fame mafter he learned 
the elements of the Syriac and Arabic languages-, 
which laft, however, he afterwards lefs cultivated 
than the others. What proficiency he made in 
the Hchrc-w, appeared from a public fpecimen he 
gave, at the inftigation of Leufden^ of a well-written 
Hebrew oration about the Meffias of the Jews and 
Chrifiians, in 1654. But though almofl quite fwal- 
lov/ed up in thofe ftudies, he by no means neglected 
the fludy of divinity, to which he knew all the 
others were only fubfervient ; but in that fublime 
fclence he diligently ufed, as mailers, the greateft men, 
and belt it^Vi in the facred fcriptures, whofe moft 
laudable memory no lapfe of time fhall ever be able 
to obliterate -, namely, Gtjhert Voetius, John Hoorn^ 
htekius\ Quaker us Brumicus^ and Andrew Effenius. By 
whofe inllrudions, together with his own extraordi- 
nary application, and true piety towards God, what 
proficiency he made, the reader may eafily judge for 
himfelf. However, he had a mind to fee Gronin- 
gen^ to have the benefit of hearing the famous Samuel 
Marefuis : \v\iii\itx he went in 1654, after the fummcr 
vacation j chiefly applying to divinity : under whofe 
direction he made exercifes in French, by v^^hich he 
gave fo much fatisfadion to this great man, that 
notvvithftanding his many avocations, he deigned to 
correct and purge thofe declamations of Witfius from 
their folecifms and other improprieties, before they 
were recited in the college. Having thus fpent a 
year at Qroningen, and obtained an honourable tef- 
timonial from the theological faculty^ he next turned 


Life of tbe A V T H OR. 21 

his thoughts to Leydcn. But the plague then ran-inq 
there, he refolved to return to Utrecht, in order to 
build farther on the foundation he had there fo hap- 
pily laid : and, therefore, he not only carefully heard 
the profeflbrs in divinity at this time, as before, both 
in public and private, but cultivated a peculiar fa- 
miliarity with the very reverend Juftus van den Bo- 
gaerdt^ whofe piety, prudence, and admirable en- 
dowments he had fuch a value for, that he imagined, 
perhaps from youthful inexperience, no preacher 
equal to him. From his fermons, converfation, and 
example, he learned the deeper myderies of the 
kingdom of God, and of myfticaland fpiritual Chrif- 
tianity. From him he underdood how great the 
difference is between any fuperficial knowledge, 
which fcholaftic exerciles, books learnedly written, 
and a clofe application, may procure to minds, quite 
deflitute of the fan6lification ; and that heavenly 
wifdom, which is acquired by meditation, prayer, 
love, familiar converfe with God, and by the very 
relifh and experience of fpiritual things; which 
proceeding from the Spirit of God, internally illu- 
minating, convincing, perfuading and fealing, glo- 
riouOy transforms the whole man to the moil holy 
image of Chrift. In a word, he owns, that by means 
of this holy perfon he was introduced by the Lord 
Jefus to his mod fecret recedes, while before, he too 
much and too fondly pleafed himieif in tarrying in 
the porch ; and there, at length, learned, difclaim- 
ing all vain prefumption of fcience, humbly to dt 
down at the feet of the heavenly Mader, and receive 
the kingdom of heaven as a little child. But that 
it may not be thought, he fo applied to the form- 
ing of his mind to piety, as tonegledl for the future 
all accademical dudies, the thefes he wrote on the 
Sacred 'Trinity^ againd the Jews, from their own 
writings* may, and ought to be, a proof to the con- 
trary ; and which he publidied in the month of O6I0- 
ber 1655, to be difputed under the moderation of 

B 3 the 

2 1 Life of the A\s T n Q -R I 

the famous Leufdcn ; which, though warmly atr 
tacked by the mod experienced academicians, yet 
the moderator thought the refpondent acquitted 
himfelf fo well as to fuperfede his interpofition on 
any account : and v/hen, according to cuftom, he 
returned folemn thanks to the moderator for 
his trouble, this lad very politely and truely made 
anfwer, He had flood in no need of his help. 
. The time now feemed to require, thzt om fVitJius^ 
very famous at tv/o univerfities, iliould be employed 
in the public fervice of the church., and firft, as ufual, 
give specimens of his proficiency. Therefore, in 
the month of May 1656, he prefented himfelf at 
Enkhuyfen to a preparatoryexamination, as it is called, 
together with his then fellow- ftudent, John Lafdra- 
genis^ with whom he had a familiarity from his youth, 
and v;hom he afterwards had for his mofl intimate 
coilegue and faithful fellow-labourer, firft in the 
church of Leovarden^ and then at Utrecht. And up- 
on this occafion he vv?as not only admitted to preach 
publickly, which he did with uncommon applaufe, 
and gave fo general fatisfadlion, that there was 
jcarce a country-church in North Holland^ where he 
then refided, which wanting a miniiler, did not put 
his name in the number of the three candidates, 
from which the eledian is ufually made. And, at 
the inftigation of the reverend John James le Bois^ 
ininifler of the French church at Utrecht^ he ven- 
tured, upon leave given, to preach publickly to the 
[French church at Bort^ in their language. Ancl 
from that time he often'preached in French^ both at 
IJtrecht and Amfierdam\ as alfo fometimes in the 
courfe of his miniflry at Leovaarden. But becaufe 
he imagined, there was flill fomething wanting to. 
the elegance of his language, he propoled very foon 
to take a tour to France, and pay his refpedls to, 
the great men there, and at the fame time have 
the pleafure of hearing them and improving in their 


Life of the An T u o K. 22 

But providence difpofed othcrwife; for, the fol- 
lowing year, 1657, and the twenty-firfl: of his age, 
being lawfully called by the church of JVefi-Wcudeny 
he was ordained there on the 8th of July. This 
village lies almoft in the mid-way between Enkhuyfin 
and Horn^ and is united with the pari in of Binne- 
Wijfent, And here, for four years and upwards, he la- 
boured with the greateft alacrity of a youthful mind; 
and with no lefs benefit : for, by frequent cate- 
chifmg, and with the greateft prudence fuiting him- 
felf to the catechumens, both boys and girls, they, 
who before were grofsly ignorant, could not only- 
give proper anfv/ers on the principal heads of our 
religion, but prove their afiercions by fuitable texts 
of fcripture, and repeat a whole fermon diftindlly, 
when examined on it, to the joy as well as fhame 
of their parents and older people. The repu- 
tation of fo faithful and dextrous a pallor being 
thus widely fpread, the church of IVormer^ in the fame 
tra6t of North-Holland^ fiafficiently nAimerous and 
celebrated, but then too much diftraded by intef- 
tine commotions, imagined they could not pitch 
upon a fitter guide to allay their heats, and form their 
minds. This call JVitfms not only accepted, palling 
to that charge in Odober 1661, but fpent there four 
years and a half, doing every thing in his power to 
promote Chriftian unanimity and the common fal- 
vation; and as he faw the extenfive fruits of his 
labours among them, fo he was univerfally beloved. 
Wherefore he could not bear to remove from them 
to the people of Sluice in Flanders^ who offered hiiii 
great encouragement to preach ; but the people of 
Goefe in Zealand fucceeded in their call, and he re- 
paired to them about Whitfuntide 1666, and was fo 
acceptable to all by his dodlrine, manners and dili- 
gence, as to live there in the molt agreeable peace 
and concord, with his learned, pious, and vigilant 
collegues, two of whom he revered as his fuhers \ 
and the third, who was younger, he loved as his bro- 

B 4 ther-. 

34 ^^f^ of the A u T H o R." 

ther. He was much delighted with this fettlemenf, 
and often willied to grow old in this peaceful re- 
treat. But the people of Leovaarden in Wefi-Frief- 
land interrupted thefe thoughts; who, in November 
1667, called him, with a remarkable affedtion, to 
that celebrated metropolis of his native country, that 
he might prove a {Lining light, not only in the 
church, court, and fenate of that place, but to all 
the people of Friezland^ who flocked thither from all 
parts to the affembly of the States -, but the people 
of Goefe^ doing all they could to hinder his removal, 
it was April 166S, before he went to Leovaarden, 
And it is fcarcely to be exprefTed, with what vigi- 
lance, fidelity and prudence, he condu6ted himftlf -, but 
at a time of fuch difficulty, when the enemy, having 
madefuch incurfions into Plolland^ and made themfelves 
inafters of moft of its towns, and llruck a panic into all, 
that, a man of fuch fpirit and refolution was abfo- 
lutely necefiary. " Nor do I know of any before or 
fince, whofe labours were more fuccefsful, and who 
was more acceptable to the church, the nobility and 
the court. And therefore he was for fome time 
tutor to Henry Cajimir^ the mod ferene prince of 
J^aJJau^ hereditary governor of Friefeland, too un- 
timely fnatched away by death ; and with remarka- 
ble fuccefs he inftrucled, in the dodrines of religion 
his moil illuftrious {\^tT^ Amelia^ a very religious prin- 
cefs, afterwards married to the di\AkG,oi Saxe-Eifenach-y 
and he prefided at the profefTion of faith, which both 
princes publickly made, to the great edification of 
t}\^ church, in the prefence of the princefs mother, 
Alhertina of Orange. 

It is not, therefore, to be wondered, that when, 
through the injury of the mofl calamitous times, 
and the deceafe both of the venerable and aged 
Chrijlian Schotanus^ and of John Melchior Steinhergius^ 
fcarce inftalled in the profefTorfbip, the theological 
intcrefts of the univerfity of Franequer feemed to be 
fallen to decay j and the extraordinary and truly 


Life of the A V T H Q -R^ 25 

^iGademical endowments of our TVitfius were per- 
fectly well known in Friefeland^ by an experience of 
-feven whole years ; that, I fay, he was appointed to 
the ordinary profefTion of divinity, in the year 
1675, in the academy of his native country, thus 
happily to be reftored. Which opportunity alio the 
church of Franequer prudently kid hold on, being 
then without a fecond minifter, very chearfully to 
commit to him, now appointed profeflbr, that fa- 
cred charge. Having, therefore, accepted both thefe 
calls, he came to Franequer ; and, after being de- 
clared dodor of divinity in the academical aiTcm- 
bly, by the divine his collegue, he was, on the 15th 
of April, inflalled profeffor of the fame •, after de- 
livering a folemn oration, with the greateft ap- 
plaufe of a eoncourfe of people from all parts; in 
which he excellently exprefled the character of a 
genuine divine : and as fuch he foon after demeaned 
himfelf, together with the venerable and aged Nico- 
laus Arfioldus^ his moll: intimate collegue. 

In the pulpit Witfius addreffed himfelf with fo 
much gravity, elegance, piety, folidity and ufeful- 
nefs, that the general inattention of the people was 
removed, and religious imprelTions made both on great 
and fmall. The academical chair alfo gained a warmth 
from his facred fire, to which, from the different 
and moit diflant parts of E^r^/)^, the youth, intended 
for the miniilry, reforted in great numbers. And not 
to be wanting in his duty, or difappoint the inten- 
tion of thofe who called him, in any particular, he 
no fooner entered the univerfity, than, notwithfland- 
ing his many daily public and private labours, in 
both his offices, he fet himfelf to write, and in a ve- 
ry little time publi(hed, befides Selc5i academical T)'if- 
futations^ moftly tending to eftablilh the peace of the 
church, and a fmaller difiertation, two works pret- 
ty large and learned, which went through feveral 
editions, and were fpread over Europe \ being every 
where read with univerfal approbation. And be^ 


i6 Life of the K\5 i: i\ o r; 

{ides, there was nothing of extraordinary impor- 
tance to be tranladled, even with the fchifmatic fol- 
lowers of Lahadie^ who had then fixed their princi- 
pal refidence in JVeJl Friefeland^ which both the no- 
bility and the overfeers of the church did not think 
proper fhould be difpatched by this man. 

About this time Mr. J. Mark^ on his return from 
his ftudies at Leyden^ commenced his acquaintance 
with JVitflus^ who recommended him as paftor to 
the church of Midlnmen^ between Franeq_uer and 
Harlingen ; and afterwards procured him the de- 
gree of dodor in divinity ^ and, by his intereft with 
his ferene highnefs and others, clodor Mark was 
appointed third ordinary profefTor of divinity. 

But, the juftly-renowned charadler of our Wit- v/as fuch, that others, envying the happinefs of 
the people of Friefeland^ wanted to have the benefit 
of his labours themfelves. This was firil attempted 
by the overfeers of the univerfity of Grcriingen^ who, 
to procure a v/orthy fucceflbr to the deceafed James 
Altingius^ as well in the theological and philological 
chairs, as in the univerfity-church, about the clofe 
of the year 1679, fent to Franeqiier a reverend per- 
ibn, to offer the moft honourable terms, in order to 
prevail on Witfiiis, But that attempt proved un- 
fuccefsful. For, communicating the affair to his 
ferene highnefs the prince, and the other overfeers 
of the univerfity, they protefted his fervices were 
moil acceptabl^'to them, and he excufed himfelf in a 
handfome manner to the people of Groningen, But 
thofe of Utrecht very foon followed the example of 
Groningen, in the beginning of the year 1 680 ; when, 
upon the deceafe of the celebrated Burmannus, thc'y 
judged it neceflary to have a great man, to add to 
the reputation of their univerfity, and to maintain the 
ancient piety of their church ; and being well af^ 
fured, that none was fitter for all thofe purpofes than 
Witfius, who was formerly one of their own flu- 
dents, they therefore difpatched a fplendid depu- 

Life of the K V T n ylI t*j 

tation to Franequej\ to intreat him to come and he 
an ornament to their univerfity and church, to which. 
Jie confented with little difficulty, notwirhilanding 
the oppofition made by thofe of Friefeland, who 
were loth to part with one, who had been fo ufeful 
among them ; for his obligations to the univerfity 
of Utrecht were fuch, that he thought he could 
not (hew his gratitude more, than by accepting 
of their invitation. Accordingly, after a moit ho- 
nourable difmiiTjon from the afflicled Friefelander:^ 
he came to Utrecht ^ and was admitted into th'e 
-miniftry of that church, on the 25th of April, and 
four days after, mto the profefTorlhip of the uni- 
verfity, after delivering a mod elegant oration on 
the excelleace of evangelical truth, which fully an-r 
fwered univerfal expedlation. And it can fcarce be 
cxprefiTed, how happily he lived in credit, and la- 
boured above full eighteen years of his mod valu- 
able life, with thefe celebrated men -, viz. Pe- 
ter Maeftricht^ Mekhior Leideckenis^ and Hermannus^ 
then Halenius^ after the example of the doctors, his 
predecefibrs, whom he always had in the higheft 
veneration. In the miniftry he had feveral collegues, 
men of learning, piety, peace, and zeal for God' ; 
among whom were his ancient collegues in the 
church of Leovaarden^ Peter Eindhovius^ and John 
Lajldragerus. In the univerfity, befides the fore- 
mentioned divines, he had not only his own John 
Leufden^ an excellent philologift, but Gerard de Uries^ 
and John hiiitfius^ famous philofophers, who, for the 
benefit of the church, prepared the youth intended 
for the miniftry. Before his pulpit he had a Chrif- 
tian magiftracy and the whole body of the people, 
who admired and experienced the power of his 
elocution, their minds being varioufly affedled with 
religious imprefiions. Before his academical and 
private chair, he had not only a large circle of pro- 
mifing youths from all parts of the world, who ad- 
mired his moft learned, folid, prudent and eloquent 


28 Life of the Av T H o^, 

diflertatlons ; but do6tors themfclves daily reforted in 
great numbers to learn of him. And therefore, he 
declined no labour, by which, even at the expence of 
many reftlefs nights, he might be of fervice to the 
univerfity and church. Nor did he think it fuHicient 
by fermons, leftures^ conferences and difputations 
to produce his ufeful and various ftock of learning, 
but he expofed his treafures to the whole world, 
prefent, and to come, in many public and excellent 
writings, to laft for ever, and never to decay, but 
with the utter extinction of folid learning snd true 
piety itfelf. And to the commendation of the peo- 
ple of Utrecht be it fpoken, that, not only in eccle- 
fiaftical affemblies, they always acknowledged his 
abilities and prudence, feafonably calling him to the 
h:gh::l: dignities in fynods; but even the nobility, 
both by deeds and wprds, teftified, that his endow- 
ments were perfedlly well known to, and highly 
efteemed or by them. And therefore they honoured 
him twice with the badges of the higheft ofBce in 
their univerfity, in 1686 and in z 697. And we muft 
by no means omit, that when in 1685, a moft fplen- 
did embaffy of the whole united provinces was de- 
creed to be fent to James king of Great Britain^ 
afterwards unhappily drawn afide and ruined by the 
deceitful arts of the French zn6. Romifh party ; which 
embafiy was executed by the moft illuilrious Waffe- 
naar^ lord of Duvenvorden^ and the ordinary ambafiador, 
hisexcellency, Litters^Wxxh the moft noble and illuftri- 
ousfVeedlord of Dykveld-, that, I fay, this laft eafily 
perfuaded his collegues of legation to employ none 
but JVitfttis for their chaplain •, a divine, whom, to 
the honour of the Butch churches, they might pre- 
fent in perfon to the EnglifJo nation, without any ap- 
prehcnfion, either of offence, or contempt. Nor 
was Witfius himfelf againft the refolution of thcfe 
illuftrious perfonages, forhevv^cnt cheerfully, though 
indifpofed in body; and on his return, m a few 
months after, owned, thai havipg converfed with the 


Life cf the A V T H o rT 29 

srchblfhop of Canterbury^ the bifhop of London, and 
with many other divines, both epifcopal and diflen- 
ters in difcipline, heobferved not a few things, which 
made an increafe to his (lock of learning, and by 
which he was better qualified to ad prudently on 
all future occafions. And the Englijh, from that 
time, owned, that being thus better acquainted with. 
Witjius^ he ever after juftly deferved their regard 
and applaufe. 

The reputation of Witfius^ thus fpread all over 
the world, made the moft illuftrious overfeers of 
the univerlity of Leyden^ with the Burgomafiers, re- 
folve to give a call to this great man, in 1698 ; in 
order to make up the lofs, which was apprehended 
from the deceaie of the great Spanhemius, which 
feemed to be drawing near. And this refolution 
v/as approved of by our gracious ftadtholder, Wil- 
liam III. king of Great Britain^ of immortal me- 
mory, from that conftant piety, he entertained to- 
wards God, and that equal fidelity and prudence 
he exercifed towards our church and univerfity. 
Nor was there the lead delay, either in determining 
or executing that call to the profefTorfhip of divi- 
nity, or in his accepting thereof. For, though the 
people of Utrecht could have wifhed otherwife, yet 
our V/itfiiis had feveral weighty reafons, why he 
thought it his duty to comply with the Leyden in- 
vitation ; judging it was entirely for the intereil of 
the church, equally as for his own, that hereafter ex- 
empted from the labours of the pulpit, he might, with 
the greater freedom, devote the reft of his aged life 
to the benefit of the univerfity. But efpecially, as he 
was made acquainted with his majefty's pleafure, by 
the illuftrious penfioner Hilnfius. And when his 
majefty admitted him into his royal prefence, he 
fignified the fatisfa6lion he had with his accepting 
the call to the chair of Leyden. He entered on his 
office the i6th of Oclober, after delivering a very 
grave and elegant oration, in v/h:ch he gave tlic 


^o Life of the A V T H o r.- 

charafler of the Modefi Bivins. And with what fi-" 
deiity he dlfcharged this office for the fpace of teri 
years •, with what affiduity he laboured, with what 
wifdom and prudence he taught, with what elegance 
he fpoke, with what alacrity he difcourfed in difpu- 
tations, with what piety he lived, with what fweet- 
nefs of temper he demeaned himfelf, with what 
gracefiilnefs he continued to write, with what lullre 
he adorned the univerfity, are things fo well knowri 
to all, as may iliperfede any particular enlargement. 

But he had fcarce paiTed a year at Leyden^ when 
the high and mighty ilates of HGlland and Weft- 
Friefeland did, on the recommendation of the over- 
feers of the univerfity, in the room of Mark EJfius^ 
thepioufly deceafed infpedlor of their theological col- 
lege, in which ingenious youths of the republic are 
reared, for the fervice of the church, commit the 
fuperintendency thereof to our Witfiiis^ as the mildeft 
tutor they could employ for tlieir pupils ; without 
detriment to all the honour and dignity of his pro- 
fefTorlhip, which he enjoyed in conjunftion with the 
celebrated Anthony Htilfius. When he was inftalled 
•in this new office, the illuflrious prefident of the 
fupreme court o{ Holland^ and overfeer of the univer- 
.(ity, Hubert Roofenhoomius lord of Sgrevelfrecht did, 
in a moil elegant Latin difcourfe, in the name of 
all the nobility, not only fet forth the praifes of the 
new infpedor, but alfo exhorted all the members of 
that college to a due veneration for him, and to 
ibew him all other becoming marks of refpedl. 
WifiUis accepted, but with relu6tance, this new pro- 
vince-, for, had he not judged a fubmiffion to t\it 
•will of the flates, and his laying himfelf out for the 
fervice of fhe church, to be his duty, he would not 
have complied with it. However, he executed this 
great charge with the greatefl fidelity and care, for the 
advantage of, and with an aftedion for his pupils, 
equally with that of his profefTorfliip in the univer- 
fity : till, in the year 1707, on the 8th of February, 


Life of the A u T H o rT 31 

on account of his advanced age, and growing infir- 
mities, he, with great modefty, in the alTembly of the 
Overfeers and Burgomafters, notwithftanding ail their 
remonftrances and entreaties to the contrary, both in 
public and private, and all the great emoluments 
arifing therefrom to himfelf, refigned this other of- 
fice ; being at the fame time alfo difcharged, at his 
own d.t^iXQ^ from the public exercifes of his profef- 
forfhip in the univerfity ; for executing which in the 
old manner his flrengthof body was fcarce any longer 
fufficient ; the vigour of his mind, continued ftill 
unaltered ; but as he often declared, he had much 
rather defift from the work, than flag in it. 

And it is not to be thought, that Witftiis would 
have been equal to io many and great labours, and 
the church and univerfity have enjoyed fo many and 
fo great benefits by him, had he not found at home 
the moft powerful cordials and fupports ; par- 
ticularly in the choicell and moft beloved of 
wives, Aletta van Borkhorn^ the daughter of JVef- 
felvan Bcrkhorn^ a citizen and merchant of good 
charader, at Utrecht^ and a worthy elder of the 
church, and of Martina van Tjen\ whom he mar- 
ried in the middle of the fummer of 1660, after 
three years fpent in the facred miniftry. She was 
eminent for meeknefs, and every civil and religious 
virtue ♦, ihe loved and honoured her hufband, in a 
manner above the common ; v/ith whom he lived 
in the greateft harmony and complacency, about 
four and twenty years, in NGrth-HoIlandy Zeslandy 
■Friefland^ and at Utrecht -, at length, in the year 
1684, after many great and long infirmities of body, 
was taken from him by a truly chriftian death; He 
wasnolefs happy in his offspring, efpecially in three 
furviving daughters, Mzr///2^, Johanna^ and Fetronella^ 
v;ho were indued with every accompiifiiment that 
can adorn the fex, but efpecially in their duty and 
affedlion to their father, which they fhewed, not on- 
ly before, but more efpecially after the death of their 


'32 hife of the Author." 

From what has been faid, may fufficiently ap- 
pear, the admirable endowments and virtues of this 
man. How great was the force of his genius, irt 
apprehending, inveflip-ating and iiluftrating, even the 
moit abilrule fubjecfts ♦, the accuracy of his judg- 
ment, in diftinguifbmg, determining, and arrang- 
ing them; the tenacity of his memory, in retaining 
and recollecting them •, what readinefs of the molt 
charming eloquence, in explaining, inculcating, and 
urging them home •, were well known to ihofe who- 
ever law or heard him. Nor was his gracefulnefs in a 
Latin ftile, as is mod apparent from all he wrote 
and laid, lefs than his readinefs in the Dutch ; in 
which, difcourfmg fro^n the pulpit, with a peculiar 
decency of geflure and voice, he raviflied the minds 
of the faithful to a holy affent, and unbelievers and 
the vicious themfelves he filled with aftonilhment, 
Ihame and terror. And as none will be foundi 
from reading his funeral difcourfe, to have with 
more dignity commended the deceafed Q^ Mary^ 
fo his many facred poems muft have affeded a mind 
fo learned and fo pious. There was no branch of 
learning, neceflary to adorn a divine, in which he 
did not greatly excel ! He fo encreafed his knowledge 
of philofophy, when at the univerfity, that none of 
the quirks or fophifms of infidels could infnare him^^ 
nor any artifice induce him to make fhip-wreck of 
the faith, or embrace, or encourage any of the errors 
of the times. He was mailer of the whole compafs 
of facred philology, Greek and Hebrew, he was 
well acquainted w'ith the elegances of profane lite- 
rature, Latin^ Greek and Oriental ♦, fkilfully borrow- 
ing from thence whatever might ferve to explain, 
in a becoming manner, the facred Scriptures •, pru- 
dently avoiding every extreme. He was perfedly 
well fkilled in hillory, both ancient and modern, 
ecclefiailical and civil, Jewilli and Chriftian, domef* 
tic and foreign : and from it he always fele(5led, with 
the greateft care, what might principally be of pre- 

4 '"'"' 

Life of the Author. 3^ 

fent life. He thoroughly learned divinity In all its 
branches, being as expert in the confirmation 
and vindication ofdoflrines, and in (hewing their con- 
nedlion, as in confuting errors, difcovering their 
origin, and diftinguiOrjing their importance. Above 
all, he was in love with, revered and commended the 
Holy Scriptures ; as that from which alone, true 
v/ifdom is to be derived ; and which, by long prac- 
tice, he had rendered fo very familiar to himfelf, as 
not only to have the original words, upon all occafions, 
very readily at command, but to be able directly, with- 
out hefitation,to explain the moft difficult. Nor did he, 
in this cafe, reft on any man's authority ; moft rightly 
judging fuch a condudl to be inccnfiftent with the 
divine glory of the chriftian faith, declaring and de- 
meaning himfelf the moft obfequious difcipie of the 
Holy Spirit alone. Hence he had neither a difdain 
for old, and an itch for new things ; nor an averfion 
to new, and a mad and indolent fondnefs for old 
things. He would neither be conftrained by others, 
nor conftrain any one himfelf ; being taught nei- 
ther to follov/, nor to form a party. That golden 
faying pleafed him much : Unanimity in things ne- 
ceffary -, liberty in things not neceffary ; and in all things^ 
'prudence and charity \ which he profelTed was his 
common creed. Nor can v/e have the leaft doubt 
of his zeal for the faith once delivered to the faints^ and 
for true piety towards God, which he exprefted in 
his writings, when at Leovaarden and Francquer^ 
againft fome dangerous opinions, then ftarting up 
both in divinity and philofophy : of which nlfo he 
gave a proof at Utrecht and Leyden^ when publickly 
teftifying in writing, that he could not bear the au- 
thority of reafon to be fo extolled above fcripture, 
as that this laft fliould be entirely fobje^l to its com- 
mand, or be overturned by ludicrous interpretations. 
His zeal, in his latter days, was greatly enflamed, 
when he obferved all ecclcfiaftical difcipline againft 
thofe, who v/ould overthrow the chriftian faith, and 
Vql. L C even 

g4 Life of the A V 1^ u o r.' 

even right reafon itfelf, publickly trampled upon 
under the moil idle pretences, and every thing al- 
mofl given up to a depraved reafon, to the fubvert- 
ing the foundations of chrillianity ; while fome in- 
deed, mourned in fecret, but were forced to be 
lilent, and therefore he declared his joy at his ap- 
proaching diffolution, on account of the evils he 
forefavv were hanging over the church -, and often - 
called on thofe who Hiould furvive, to tremble 
when the adverfary v.'as triumphing over the doc- 
trines of falvation, and all true piety, to the deftruc- 
tion both of church and ftate •, and that by men, 
Vv^hom it leaii became, and who ilill artfully diflem- 
bled a regard for religion, and for ecclefiaitlcal and 
civil conftitutions ; unlcfs God, in his wonderful 
providence averted the calamity, and more power • 
fully flirred up the zeal of our fuperiors againft 
Atheifm^ Pelagianifm^ and the feeds of both. I 
don't fpeak of thofe fmaller differences, obfervable 
for fome time pafb, in the method of ranging theo- 
logical matters, in fome modes of exprefiion. All are 
well apprized with what equity and moderation JVit- 
Jius ever treated thefe differences in opinion, and if 
ever any was inclined to unanimity and concord 
with real brethren •, he was the man, who never did 
any thing to interrupt it ; but every thing either to 
eftablifh or reffore it, and to remove all feeds of 
diffention. This is what that genuine chriflianity, 
he had imbibed, prompted him, to; and what the 
fmgular meeknefs of his temper infpired -, by which 
he was ready to give way to the rafhly angry, and 
either made no anfwer to injurious railers, or repaid 
them even with thofe ample encomiums, which, in 
other refpecls, they might def(.n*ve. Thus lived our 
venerable IVitfnts^ giving uneafmefs to none, but the 
greateft plcafure to all, with whom he had any con- 
nexion, and v/as not cafily exceeded by any in offices 
of humanity and brotherly love. There was at the 


Life of the Author."" 35 

fame time in him a certain wonderful conjimdion of 
religious and'civil prudence, confummated and con- 
firmed by long experience, with an unfeigned 
candour. Neither was any equal to him for diligence 
in the duties of his office, being always mod rea- 
dy to do every thing, by which he could be fcrviceable 
to the flocks and pupils under his care, for the bene- 
fit of the church. He did not withdraw from them 
in old age itfelf, nor during his indifpofition indulge 
himfelf too much. His modefty was quite Angular, 
by which he not only always behaved v^ith that deep 
concern in treating the Floly Scriptures and its myf- 
teries ; but alfo, by which he fcarce ever pieafed 
himfelf in the things he mofi: happily wrote and 
faid : and when his belt friends juftly commended 
his performances, he even fufped'ed their fincerity. 
Nor could any under adverfities, be more content 
with his lot, even publickly declaring at Urrecht^ 
that he would nqt exchange his place in rhe 
Univerfity and church, either with the royal or im- 
perial dignity. And to omit other virtues, or rather 
in the compafs of one to comprize all -, he v/as not 
in appearance, but in reality, a true divine^ ever 
difcovering his heavenly wifdom by a fincere piety 
towards God and his Saviour. For, he was conftant 
in the publick ads of worfnip, unwearied in the 
domeftic exercifes of piety, giving, in this, an exam- 
ple for the imitation of others in tlie fear of the Lord, 
jncefTantly taken up in heavenly meditation, and 
continued inftant in prayer, both fcated and ejp.cula- 
tory ; and (hone in them, when under the didaies and 
impulfes of the Holy Spirit : In fine, his chief care 
was, by avoiding evil and doing good, to demean 
himfelf both towards God and man. as became one 
who had obtained redemption through Chrift, and, 
by divine grace, the hope of a blefied eternity in hea- 
ven ; which he confiantly panted after, with the 
utmoft contempt for the things in the world. 

C 2 His 

o Life of the Author, 

His v/ritlngs are numerous, learned and iifeful : 
In 166O5 almofl at his entrance on the minifcry, he 
publiflied his Judcjiis Chrifttanizans^ on the principles 
of faith, and on the Holy Trinity.^ When at IVor- 
r/ier^ he put out in Low-^Dutch 1665, l^he Pra5fice 
of Chriftianity^ with the fpiritual characters of the 
unrec;enerate, with refped to what is commendable in 
them J and of the regenerate, as to what is blame- 
able and wants correction. At Lecvaardcn, he gave 
alfo in Low-Durch, ne Lord's controverfy zvith his 
Vineyard^ and at the fime time, brifkly defended it 
againil opponents. Of his Franeqiier labours, wc 
have, befides fmaller works, afterwards comiorized 
in larger volumes, his Oeconomia fccderum Dei cum ho- 
minibus^ tran dated into Low -Dutch, by Harlingius ; 
and his Exercilationes Jacr^ in Symhohtm A'pojlclorumy 
tranflated alfo into Lov^^-Dutch, by C'-ftcrits. At 
Utrecht^ came out his Exercitationes Sacral in oratio- 
iiem dominicam •, his j^s^yptiaca and Becaphylon^ v/ith a 
diifertation on the Legio fiibiinatri:>c Chrifliancrum^ 
and the firft volume of his Mifcellania Sacra^ and a 
good deal of the fecoad -, befides fome fmaller works^ 
alfo. And at Lcyden^ he pubiiilied at laft the fecond 
volume of his Mifcellania 6'^ rr^/, com. pleat : and at this 
lail place he. fet on foot what he calls his Melete-meta 
Leideiiftay to be occafionally enlarged with a number 
of felecl diilertations. Indeed, all thefe writings are 
juftly in great repute, their ilile being polite, the 
fabjc(51s ufeful, and the whole repleniilied with va« 
rbus branches of learning, and a beautiful llrain of 
piety, all which may defervedly commend them to 
the iatefl pofterity. 

He had been often, formerly, afflicted with rack^ 
ing and painful difcafcs -, whence, fometimes arofe 
the greater apprehenfion of a far earher departure 
by death. And nothing, under divine providence, 
but his vigour of mind, joined to his piety, could 
have preferved him fo long to the world 5 and that 


Life cf the Author. 37 

with fo perfect an ufe of his fenfes, that, not long 
before his death, he could read, without hefitation, 
the fmailen: Greek charaflers by moon-light, which 
none befides himfclf could do. But with his ad- 
vanced years, he fometimes had cruel fits of the 
gout, and ftone in the kidneys ; and once in the 
chair, in the midft of a le6lure, a flight touch cf an 
apoplexy. Thefe diforders were, indeed, mitigated 
by the fkill of the famous doclor Frederic Deckers ; 
but now and then, by llight attacks, threatned a re- 
turn : for his wavering and languifliing ftate of health, 
indicating the pad dilorders not to be entirely ex- 
tirpated, gave apprehenfions of a future fatal dif- 
temper ^ which was occafioned by the fudden attack 
of a fever on the evening of the i8th ofOcftober. 
This fever, though very foon removed, left his body 
exceeding weak, and his mind in a ftate of lethargy, 
an indication that his head was aifected. The good 
man himfelf, confidering thefe fymytoms, with great 
conftancy and calmnefs of mind, told the phyfician, 
and his other friends then prefent, that they could 
not fail to prove moital. Nor did the flightnefs of 
the difeafe make any change in his opinion as to its 
fatal iifue -, while he foreiaw, that the confequences 
of an advanced age, and of the greateft weaknefs, 
could admit of no other event. Nor indeed without 
caufe : for his fenfes were gradually weakened by 
repeated (lumbers j however, about his laft hour, he 
fenfibly fignified to Do6tor Marck^ who attended him, 
his blelTed hope, and his heavenly defires, as he had 
frequently done before, and then about noon, on the 
22d of 06lober 1708, he fweetly departed this life, 
in the 73d year of his age, and entered into thf 
joy of his Lord. 



O F T H E 

• • 

Divme Covenants. 

B O O K L 


O/' t^e Divine Cove?iants in general* 

I- W^^yK HOEVERattempts todifcourfeon the The fub- 
^ -^ h^ fubje6l and defign of the Divine Cove- jed to be 
^^^*^ nants, by which eternal falvation is ad- ^^f "j^-^ 
'*^*^-^-^ judged to man, on certain conditions ^^"* ^^^^' 
equally worthy of God and the rational creature, 
ought, above all things, to have afacred and inviola- 
ble regard to the heavenly oracles, and neither, thro' 
prejudice nor palFion, intermix any thing, which he 
is not firmly perfuaded is contained in the records, 
which hold forth thefe covenants to the world. 
For, if ZaLuais made it a condition to be ob- 
ferved by the contentious interpreteis of his laws : 
That each party ficuld explain the mca:K}{>r of the 
laivgiver^ in the ajjemhlj of the thoufand^ ^ilh hahers 


40 Or THE C O V E N A N T S, Book i; 

, dhout their necks: and that what party foever Jhould 
appear to zvrejl the fenfe of the laruo^ Jhould^ in the 
prefence of the thoufand^ end their lives by the hal- 
ter they wore : as Polybius^ a very grave author re- 
lates, in his hiilory, book I2. c, 7. And if the Jews 
and Samaritans in Egypt^ each difputing about 
their temple, were admitted to plead before the 
king and his courtiers on this condition only ; 
that the advocates of either party ^ foiled in the dif 
fute^ fhould he piinifhed with death ; according to 
Jofphtis in his antiquities; book 13, c, 6, Cer- 
tainly he mud be in greater peril, and liable tu A/rer 
deftrudtion, who fnall dare to prevert, by rafhly 
wrefting the facred myfteries of the Divine Cove- 
nants; our Lord himfelf openly declaring, that 
whofcever Jhail break ens of thefe leafi command- 
ments^ and fijall teach men fo^ he Jhall be called the 
leafi in the kingdom of heaven. Mat. 5, 19. It 
is therefore with a kind of facred av/e I under- 
take this work; praying God, that, laying afide 
every prejudice, I m.ay demean myfelf a tradable 
Difciple of the Holy Scriptures, and, with mo- 
defiy, impart to my brethern, v/hat, I think I 
have learned from them : if happily this my poor 
performance may ferve to lefien the number of 
dlfputes, and help to clear up the truth ; than 
which nothing Hiould be accounted more valua- 
Etymolo- }\ ^' ^^ is by words efpec^aliy the words 
oyof thecf thoie languages, m which God was pleal- 
word ed to reveal his facred mylleries to men, 
^''^^' that we can, with hopes of fuccefs, come to the 
knowledge of things ; it will be worth while, 
more accurately to enquire into the import both 
of the Hebrew word, nnD, and the Greek ^*«^w>5, 
wliich the Holy Spirit makes ufe of on this fub- 
je.^t. And ftril, we are to give the true etymo- 
logy, and then the different fignifiations of the 
Hebrew word. With rcfpec^ to the former, the 


Chap. T. IN General. 4s. 

learned are not agreed : fome dj^rive it from i^^^» 
which in P;el fignifics to cut dozvn : becaufe, as 
we Ihall prefcnt) y oblerve, covenants vvt re folemn- 
Iv ratified by cutting or dividing animals afunder. 
It may be alio derived from the fame root in a 
very different fignincation : for, as ^<'^^ properly 
fignines to crerJe \ -o, metaphorically, 10 ordain or 
difpofey which is the meaning of «^^-'r^S^v£'a^. And 
hence it is, that the Hellenift Jews make ufe 
of TCHTt^=tv. Certainly it is in this fcnfe that Per 
ter, I Pet, 2, 13. calls £l«^'«» power appointed by men^ 
and, for human purpofes, t^^v^c.^'^Uvi y-r^-jia-, the ordinance 
of man; to which, I think, Grotius has learnedly 
obferved on the title of the New ' Teftament. 
Others had rather derive it from n^n,. as ^'^*^ from 
\^y^\ fignifying, befides other things, to chocfe. 
And in covenants, efpecially of friendihip, there is 
a choice of perlbns, between whom •, of things, 
about which, and of condition upon which, a cove- 
nant is entered into : nor is this improperly obferved. 

III. But ri'-n is variou'fiy taken' in Scrip- ^ts differ, 
ture : fomietimes improperly, and pr^- ^'^^J^^ J 
perly. Improperly, it denotes the following things. 
I ft. An immutable ordinance made about a thing : 
In this fenfe God mentions bis ccvejiiint of the day^ 
and his covenant of the night, Jer. 33, 20. That 
is, that fixed ordinance made about the uninter- 
rupted viciilitude of day and night •, which, chap. 
31, V. 36. is called pn, that is, fiatute, li7nited or 
fixed^^ which nothing is to be aaded to, or taken 
from. In this fenfe is included the notion of a 
tefi anient, or of a lafl irrevocable will. Thus 
God laid. Numb. 18, 19. I have ^i\: en thee and thy 
fans, and thy daii^bters ^ith tbeenbD n>nn cz)'?'j; on'? 
N'H a^'j;, ly a ftatute for ever, it is a covenant ef 
fait for ever. This obfervation is of ufe, more 
fully to explain the nature of the covenant of 
grace, which the Apoflie prop>ofes under the fimi- 
liture of a tefiament^ the execution of which de- 

VoL. 1/ D pends 

42 Of THE CO VEN ANTS, Book i. 

pends upon the death of the teilator, Heb. 9. 
15, 165 17. To which notion both the He- 
brew n>n3, and the Greek ^'aS''-^>j may lead us. 2dly, 
A fure and ftabie promife^ though not mutual, 
Exod. 34, 10. nnn n-)i o:iK mn ^^/^i-/.^ / make a 
covenant ; before all thy people I will do marvels. 
If. c^g^ 21. this is my covenant with them ^ my fpirit 
Jhall 710 1 depart fr an them, 3dly, It fignifies alfo a 
precept^ and to cut or make a covenant, is to give 
a precept, Jer, 34. 13, 14. I made a covenant with 

your fathers Sayings at the end of feven years let 

ye go every man his brother. Hence appears in 
what fenfe. the decalogue *s called God's cove- 
nant. But properly ^ it fignifies a mutual agreement 
between parties^ with refpeci to jomething. Such a 
covenant pafifed between A brahani, Mamre, Efcol, 
andAner, who are called, CDinK n>nn >byn confede- 
rate with Abraham^ Gen. 14, 13. Such alfo was 
that between Ifaac and Abimelech, Gen. 26, 28, 
29: between Jonathan and David, i Sam. 18, 4,3. 
And of this kind is likewife that which we arc 
now to treat of between God and Man. 
Th^figni- IV. No lefs equivocal is the ^icc^'Un of the Greeks : 
ficanon-j .^;|-^i^h, both finguiarly and plurally, very often 
*a v)K-n. ^gj^Q|.^3 ^ tedament : as Budceus ^.ews, in his Com- 
ment. Ling.Grcec. from Ifocrates^ CEfchines^ Bemojlhe- 
nes^ and others. In this ienfe, we hinted, it was 
ufedby the Apoftle, Hebr. 9, 15. Sometimes alfo 
it denotes a law^ which is a rule of life. For, 
the Orphici and Pethagoreans denominated the 
rules of living, prefcnbed to their pupils, ^«a9^xai, 
according to Grotitis. It alfo often fignifies an 
engagement or agreement \ wherefore Hefychius ex- 
plains it by (Tvwixoalu, confederacy. There is none of, 
thefe fignifications but will be of future ufe in 
the progrefs of this work. 
To cut 3 V. Making a covenanr, the Hebrews call, rina 
covenant /^j-^D, to Jirike a covenant^ in the fame manner as 
iwmefrom ^^ Greeks and Latins, /mr^, icere^ percutere fcedus. 


Chap. I, IN General.' 43 

Which doiibtlefs took its rife from the ancient cere- difledled 
mony of Haying animals, by which covenants were ^^^"^*^** 
ratified. Of which rite we obferve very ancient 
traces. Gen, 15, 9, lo.This was either rhen firfl 
commanded by God, or borrowed from fomc 
extant cuftom. Emphatical is what Polybius. 
book 4, p. 398, relates of the CynMenfes^ 

Jlaughtered vi5fims they took a folemn oath^ and 
plighted faith to each other : a phrafe plainly fimi- 
lar to what God ufes, Pf. 50, 5. nnj >^y, 'r)>-in >nnD 
thofe that have made a covenant with me by fa-- 
crifice. They alfo ufed to 'pafs in the middle be- 
tween the divided parts of the victim cut afund'er, 
Jer. 34, 18. Whoever v^ants to know more about 
this rite, may confult Grotius on Math. 26, 28. 
and Bochart in his Hierozoicon^ book 2. c. 33. 
p. 325. and Ouwen's Theologum^ book 3. c. i. 
It was likewife a cuftom, that agreements and 
compadls were ratified by folemn feajis. Exam- 
ples of which are obvious in Scripture- Thus 
JfaaCy having made a covenant with AUmelech^ is 
faid to have made a great feaft and have eat 
with them, Gen. 26, 30. In like manner a<5bed 
his fon Jacobs after having made a covenant with 
Laban^ Gen 31, 54. We read of a like federal 
feaft, 2 Sam. 3, 20. Where a relation is given of the 
feaft which David made for Abner and his attend- 
ants, who came to make a covenant with him in 
the name of the people. It was alfo cuftomary 
among the Heather, as the learned Stuckius fhews 
in his Antiquitates convivales^ lib. i . c. 40. ' 

VI. Nor were thefe rights without their fignifi- Thefigni- 
cancy : ne cutting the animals ajunder^ denoted, fication of 
that in the lame manner the perjured and cove- thefentes. 
nant-breakers ftiould be cut afunder, by the ven- 
geance of God. And to this purpofe is what God 
fays, Jer. 34, 18, 19, 20. And I will give the men, 
that have tranjgrejfed my covenant^ which have not 


44 Of THE C O V E N A N T S, Book i; 

perfonned the zvords of the cover ant ^ 'u:hich they had 
made before me^ ivhcn they cut the calf in ra:ain^ and 
paj/rd betzvcen the parts thereof. I will even give 
them into the hands of their enemies^ and their dead 
bodies fhall ' be for meat tmto the fowls of the heaven^ 
and to the beafis of the earth. See i Sam. ii, 7. 
An ancient form of thefe execraiions is extant in 
Livy, book i. ^e Reman people do not among the 
firji break thefe conditions •, but iftheyfhculd, avotvedly 
(ind through treachery^ break them., do thou., yupi'er^ 
on that , day., thus ftrike the Roman pecfde^ as I do 
now this hog \ and be the ftrcke the heavier as thy 
pozver is the greater. By the ceremony of the corife- 
derares pafTmg between the parts cutafiinder, was 
fignified, that'being now united by the ftri6te(l ties 
of religion, and by a folemn oath, they formed 
but one body, as Vatablus has remarked on Gqu. 
15, 10. Thefe federal feafts were tokens of a fm- 
cere and lading friendfhip. 
Applied VII. Bat when God in the folemnities of his 
to the di- covenants with men,thoi-!ght proper toufe thefe, or 
rianls^^^^' ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^> ^^^ fignificancy was ftill more noble 
ani divine. They who made covenant with God 
by facrifice, not only fubmittcd to punifhment, 
if impioully revolting from God, they flighted his 
covenant : bu'c God iikev/ife figniiied to them, that 
all the liability of the covenant of grace was found- 
ed on the facrifice of Chrifl, and that the foul and 
body of Chriil were one day to be violently fepa- 
rated afunder. /Ill the promifes of God in him are 
yea^ and in him amen^ 2 Cor. i, 20. His blood 
is the blood of the NezV'I'eflament., Match, 26, 28. 
in a far more excellent manner, than that wirh 
Vv^hich Mofes fprinkled both the altar and the peo- 
ple entered into covenant, Exod. 24, 8. Thofe 
iacred banquets, to which the covenanted were 
admitted before the Lord, efpecially that inllituted 
by the Lord Jefus, under the NewTeftament, do 
moil effectually leal or ratify that intimate com- 

Chap. I. inGenerai. ." 4^ 

miinion and fellowfhip there is between Chrifland 
beli- vers. 

VIJI. There are learned men, who from this rite 
would explain thatphrafe, w^hich we have. Numb. A cove- 
18, 19. and 2 Chron. 14, 5. Of a covenant ^/^^"^ °/ 
falt^ that is, of a covenant of friendfhip, of ^ ' 
a ftable anci p rpetual nature. Which feems to 
be fo demmcUed^ he-aufe fait was ufually made 
life of in facrifices'y to fgnify that the covenant was 
made fure noon ohjerving the ctiftomary rites^ fays 
Rivet on Gemfts^ Exercit. 136. Unleis we v/ould 
rather fuppofe, a regard to be here had to the 
firmnefs of fait, by which it refills putrefaftion and 
corruption, and therefore prolongs the duration of 
things, and m a manner, renders them everlafring. 
Fo that reafon. Lot's wife is thought to have been 
turned to a piilar of fait : not fo much, as Augufiin 
remarks, to he for a feafoning to us^ as a lading and 
perpetual monument of the divine judgment. For, 
all fait is not flibjedl to melting; Pliny fays, 
that fome Arabs build walls and houfes of blocks 
of fait, and cement them with v/ater, Nat. Hifb. 
L. ? I . c. 7. 

IX. Having promifed thefe things in gene- Definition 
ral about terms of art Let us now enquire of God's 
unto the thing itfelf, viz. the nature of the ^^^/^nant 
covenant of God v/ith man •, which I thus define. ^^^ "^^"' 
A covenant of God with mam is an agre ment between 

God' and man., about the way of obtaining confummate 
happinefs •, including a commination of eternal de^ 
firu^icn^ with which the contemner of the happinefsy 
offered in that way., is to bepi'ifned. 

X. The covenant does, on the part of God, In which 
comprize three things in general, ift. Apromife^l^^ 

of confummate happinefs in eternal life. 2dly. ^oll^f^er-^ 
A dcfignation and prefcripticn of the condition, by gd. 
the performance of which, man acquires a right 
to the promlfe. sdly. A penal fanclion againft 
thofe, who do not come up to the prefcribed condi- 

4S OftheCOVENANTS, Book i. 

tlon. All thefe things regard the whole man, 
or 'oXoyMpo^t in Paul's phrafe, as confiiling of foul 
and body. God's proaiife of happincfs is to each 
part, he requires the fandification of each, and 
threatens each with deflruflion. And fo this cove- 
nant makes God appear glorious in the whole man. 
Suchaco- Xi. To engage in fuch a covenant with the ra- 
^^"^u^, r tional creature, formed after the divine image, is 
Gcd.^ entirely worthy of, and by no means unbecoming 
of God. For it was impofTible, but God (hould pro- 
pcfe himfelf to the rational creature, as a pattern 
of holinefs, in conformity to which he ought 
to frame himfelf and all his atflions, carefully 
keeping, and always exerting the adivity of that 
original righteouinefs, which he was, from his 
very origin, endowed with. God cannot but 
bind man to love, worfiiip and feek him, as the 
chief good : nor is it conceivable, how God Ihould 
require man to love and feek him, and yet refufe 
to be found by man, loving, feeking, andefteem- 
ing him as his chief good, longing, hungering, 
and thiriLing, afcer him alone. Who can conceive 
it to be worthy of God, that he fhould thus fay 
to man, I am willing that thou feekeft me 
only -, but on condition of never finding me : 
to be ardently longed for above every thing elfe, 
with the greateil: hunger and thirft : but yet, ne- 
ver to be fadsBed. And tlie judice of God no 
lefs requires, that man, upon rejeding the hap- 
pinefs, offered on the"Sioft equitable terms, fhould 
be punifned with the privation of it, and like- 
wife incur the fevered indignation of God, whom 
he has defpifed. Whence it appears, that, from 
the very confideration of the divine perfedlions, 
it may be fairly deduced, that he has prefcrib- 
cd a certain law to man, as the condition of 
enjoying happinefs^ which confifts in the frui- 
tion of God j enforced with the threatning of acurfe 
againfl the rebel. In which we have jufl now 


Chap. I. IN General; 47 

faid, that the whole of the covenrjit confided. 
But of each of thefe we fnall have fuller fcope to 
fpeak hereafter. 

XII. Thus far, we have confidered the one Man's 
party of the covenant of God: man becomes ^oi^^^^"^ 
the other, when he confents thereto, embrac- ^^^^"^^X* 
ing the good promifed by God, engaging to 

kn exact obfervance of the condition required •, and 
upon the violation thereof, voluntary owning him- 
feif obnoxious to the threarned -curfe. This tha 
Icripture calls, n^n^ nnnD m'j, to enter into covenant 
"with the LonU Deut. 29, 12. and to enter into a 
curfe and an octh^ Neh. 10, 29. In this curfc 
(Paul calls it, 2 Cor. 9, 13. V^^'^-y-"* profeffed fuhjec- 
tion) confcience prefents itfelf a witnefs, that God's 
ftipulation or covenant, is juft, and that this me- 
thod of coming to the enjoyment of God is highly 
becoming-, and that there is no ether way of ob- 
taining the promife. And hence the evils, which 
God threatens to the tranfgreiTors of the covenant, 
are called, the curfes of the covenant-, Deut, 29, 20. 
which man on confenting to the covenant, volunta- 
rily makes himfelf obnoxious to. The etfect of 
this curie on the man, who Hands not to the cove- 
nant, is called, the vengeance of the covenant. Lev. 
26, 25. The form of a ilipulat'on or acceptance 
we have, Pf 27, 8. IVhen thou fai deft, feek ye my face ^ 
my heart faid unto thee -, thy face. Lord will I feeh < 
Where, the voluntary aftipulation or acceptance, 
anfwers to the ftipulation Qr covenant, made in the 
name of God by confcience his mJnifter, 

XIII. Man, upon the propofal of this covenant. He could 
could not, without guilt, refufe giving this afti- ."°^ ^^}^^^ 
pulatipn or acceptance, i ft. In virtue of the law, \ cHm^^ 
which univerfally binds him, humbly to accept 

every thing, propofed by God: to whom, it is 
the eflentiai duty of every rational creature, 
to be fubjedt in every refpedl. 2dly. On ac- 
coufit '^of the high fovereignty of God, who may 


48 Oe THE CO.VENV ANTS, Book i. 

difpofe of his own benents, and appoint the con- 
dition of enjoying them with a fuprenie authority, 
and without being accountable to any: and at the 
fame time enjoin man, to ftrive for the attain- 
ment of the blellings offered, on the condition 
prefcribed. And hence this covenant, as fub- 
fi'ing between parties infinitely unequal, 
the na'ure of thofe, which the Greeks cal'ed 

trpray/^ola, or o-vvir.Kui. Ik tuv iXiflayixaluy, hljUH^^OnS^ OT 

covenants from commands -, of which Grotius Ipeaks 

Ain his Jus BclL and Pacts lib. 2. c. 15. §. 6. Hence 

z^***^ V*^«^t is, that Paul tranflates the words of Mofes, 

/ ^ ^^ Exod. 24, 8. behold the hlocd of the covenant^ which 

Jm^ ^^ the Lord hath made with you^ thus, Hebr. 9, 20. 

;, . // 1 the blood of the tcflament^ which God hath enjoined 
unto you. It is not left to man, to acceptor rejecl 
at pleafure, God's covenant. Man is commanded 
to accept it,and to prefs after the attainment of the 
promifes in the way, pointed out by the covenant. 
Not to defire the promifes^ is to refufe the good- 
7iefs of God. To rejecSt the precepts^ is to refufe 
the fovereignty and holinefs of God ; and not to fub- 
mit to the fan^ ion, is to deny God's juftice. And 
therefore the Apoftle affirms of the covenant of 
God, that it is ^£vo^oScTr;Tat reduced to the form of a 
law, Pleb. S, 6, by which man is obliged to an 
acceptance. 3dly, It follows from that love, 
which man naturally owes to himfelf, and by which 
he is carried to the chief good ; for enjoying which 
there remains no method befide the condition 
prefcribed by God. 4thlv, Man's very confcience 
diftatcs, that this covenant is in all its parts hlghiV 
equitable. What can be framed even by thought 
itielf more equitable, than thai man, eileeming 
God as his chief good, fhould feek his happmefs 
in him, and rejoice at the offer of that goodnefs? 
Should chearfully receive the law, which is a tran- 
fcript cf the divine holinefs, as the rule of his 


Ghap. i. IN General. 4jJ 

nature and anions ? in fine, fliould fubmlt his 
guilty head to the moft juft vengeance of heaven, 
fhould he happen to make light of this promife, 
and violate the law ? From which it follows, 
that man was not at liberty to rejefl God's co- 

XIV. God, by this covenant, acquires no new right God ac- 
over man ; which, if we duly confider the matter, q^^res no 
neither is, nor can be founded on any benefit of by^j^^g^ ^ 
God, or mifdemeanorof man, as Arminius argues : covenant, 
nor in any thing without God \ the principal^ or but m^n 
alone foundation of it being the fovereign ma- ^^^s. 
jefty of the moil high God. Becaufe God is the 
bleffed, and felf-fufficient being, therefore he is the 
only j)otentate^ thefe two, being joined together by 
Paid^ I Tim. 6, 15. Nor can God's power and 
right over the creatures, be diminifhed or en- 
creafcd by any thing extrinfic to God. A thing 
which ought to be deemed unworthy of his fove- 
reignty and independance: of which we ihall fooh 
treat more fully. Only Godj in this covenant, 
Ihews what right he has over man. But man, up- 
on his accepting the covenant and performing the 
condition, does acquire fome right to demand of 
God the promife. For God has, by his pro- 
mifes, made himfelf a debtor to man. Or, to 
fpeak in a manner more becoming God, he 
was pleafed to make his performing his promifeSj 
a debt due to himfelf, to his goodnefs, juitice and 
veracity. And to man in covenant, and continu- 
ing ftedfaft to it^ he granted the right of exped:^ 
ing and requiring, that God Ihould fatisfy the de- 
mands of his goodnefs, juftice and truth, by the 
performance of the promifes. And thus to man 
as ftipulating, or confenting to the covenant, God 
faySy that be will he his GocU Deut. 26, 17. That 
is, he will give him full liberty to glory in God, 
as his God, and to expcd from him, that he will 
Become to niah, in covenant with him, what he is 

Vot. I. E to 

^io Of the covenants. Book i. 

;to himfelf, even a fountain of confummate hap- 
The CO- XV. In Scripture, we find two covenants of God 
venant is.vvith man : The Covenant of JVorks^ otherwife call- 
twofold, .g^^ ^^^ Covenant of Nature^ or the Legal ; and the 
ancT^of Covenant of Grace, The Apoftle teacheth us this 
frrace, diftlncflion, Rom. 3,27. Where he mentions, z/:?^ 
lazv of works, and the law of faith -, by the lazv of 
ivcrksy underftanding that do6lrine, which points 
out the way, in which, by means of works, falva- 
tion is obtained, and by the law of faith, that 
dodrine, which direds by faith to obtain falva- 
tion. The form of the covenant of works is, the 
man, which doth thofe things^ fhall live by them, 
Rom. 10,5. That of the covenant of grace is, 
•whofoever believeth in him, fhall not be afhamed, ibid, 
verf. II. Thefe covenants agree, ift, That in 
both, the contra5ling parties are the fame, God and 
man. 2dly, In both, the fame promife of eternal 
life, confilting in the immediate fruition of God; 
^dly, "The condition of both is the fame, viz. 
perfect obedience to the law. Nor v/ould it 
have been worthy of God to admit man to a 
blefied communion with him-, but in the way of 
unfpotted holinefs. 4thly, In both, the fame endy 
the glory of the moft unlpotted goodnefs of God. 
But in thefe following particulars, they differ, 
ifl, The charader or relation of God and man, in 
the covenant of works. Is different from what it is 
in the covenant of grace. In the forme> God treats 
as the fupreme law-giver y and the chief good^ re- 
joicing to make his innocent creature a partaker 
of his happinefs. In the latter, as infinitely m^r^ 
cifiil, adjudging life to the eledl finner confiftent 
with his wifdomandjufcice. 2dly, In the covenant 
of works there was ;/.(?■ mediator : In that of grace, 
tliere is the mediator Chrifi Jefus. 3dly, In the co- 
venant of works, the condition of perfe (51 obedience 
was required, to he performed by man himfelf, tvho 


thnp. i. iN General* "" '^i 

had confented to it. In that of gracej the fam^ 
condition is propofed, . as to he^ ov as already per- 
fcrfned^ by a mediator. And in this fubflitution of 
the perfon, conlifls^ the principal and eflential dif- 
ference of the covenants. 4thly, In the covenar^t 
of works, man is confidered as working., and the 
reward to be given as of debt ; and therefore man's 
glorying is not excluded, but he may glory asa :ftlth- 
ful fervant may do upon the fight (|ifcharge of his 
duty, and may claim the reward promifed to his 
working* In the covenant of Grace, mari in him- 
felf ungodly is confidered in the covenant, as be- 
lieving-, and eternal life is confidered as the merit of 
the mediator, and as given to rhan > out of free 
grace^ which excludes all boaftingj befides the 
glorying of the believing fmner in God, as his 
merciful Saviour, gthly, In the covenant of works, 
fomething is required of man, as a conditioiiy 
which performed entitles him to the reward. The 
covenant of grace, with relped to us,confifts of the 
abfolute projnifes of Godf in v;hich the mediator,, 
the life to be obtained by hrm, the faith by which 
v/e may be rnade partakers of him, and of the be- 
nefits purchaifed by him, and the perseverance in 
(hat faith i in a word, the whole of falvation^ 
and all the requifites to it, are abfolutely pro-^ 
mifed. 6thly^ The fpecial ^;//i of the covenant of 
works, was the manifeftation of fbe holinefs^ good- 
ncfs, and jufiice of God, conlpkuous in the mofl 
perfed law-, moft liberal promife^ and ip that re- 
ccmpenfe of reward, to be given to thofe, who feek 
him with their whole heart. The fpecial end of the 
covenant of grace is, the praife of the glory of his 
'grdce^ Eph. i, 6. and the revelation of hi sun fe arch- 
able dnd manifold wifdom : which divine perfedions 
fliine forth v/ith luitre in the gift of a mediator,- 
by whom the finner is admitted to compleat fal- 
vation, without any diH-ionour to the holinefs, 
juflice and truth of God. There is alfo a de- 
• • E-2 monftratiori 

^2 Of THE Contracting Book r, 

monftrationof the all-fufficiency of God, by v;hich 
not only man, but even a finner, which is more 
furprifing, may be reftored to iirllon and commu- 
nion with God. But all this will be more fully 
explained in what follows. 


Of the contraBing Parties in the Covenant 
of Works. 

The CO- ^- '^IIT" ^ begin with the confideration of the 
venant of V V covenant of works^ otherwife called, of 
works de- the law and of nature ; becaufe prefcribed by the 
uibed. 1^^^^ requiring 'works as the condition, and found- 
ed upon, and coeval with nature. This covenant, 
is an agreement between God and Adam^ formed after 
the image of God^ as the head and root^ or reprefent- 
ative of the ivhole human race ; by which God pro- 
mifed eternal life and happinefs to him, if he yielded 
chedience to all his commands \ threatening him with 
death if he failed but in the leofi point : and Adam 
accepted this condition. To this purpofe are thefd 
.two fentences, afterwards inculcated, on the re- 
petition of the law, Lev. i8, 5. and Deut. 
27, 26. 
In which II. The better to underftand this fubjedl, thefe 
4 things {q^y things, are to be explained, i^^^hecon- 
able' ^^' ^^^^^^S parties. 2dly, The condition prefcribed. 

Sdly, The promifes. 4thly, The threatning. 
y^^ _ III. The contracting parties here, are God and 
trailing Adam. God, as fovereign and fupreme Lord, pre- 
parties fcribing with abfolute power^ what he judges equi- 
are God xd^Wt : as goodncfs itfelf, or the chief good, promifing 
^!I^ ^" communion with himfelf, in which man's princi- 
pal happinefs lies, while obeying, und doing what 
is weii-pleafing 10 him : as jujlice itfdf, or fove- 


Ch. 2. PARTIES. Sy 

reig7i}y jujl^ thrcaning death to the rebel., Jd^^m 
Riftain^d a twofold relation. lil, Asman. 2dly, 
As head and root^ or representative of mankind. In 
theforfTiCr relation, he was a rational creature, and 
under the law to God., innocenr, created after 
the divine image, and endued with fufficient powers 
to fulfil ail righteoufnefs. All thcfe things are 
prefuppofed in man, to render him a fit obie6l 
for God to enter into covenant with. 

IV. Man therefore, juft from the hands of his Who was 
maker, had a foul., fhining with rays of a divine ^^^^ "P 
light, and adorned with the bri'ghteft wifdom ; "S^^^* 
whereby he was not only perfedly m after of the 
nature of created things, but was dejighted with the 
contemplation of the fiipreme and increated truth, 
the eyes of his underilanding being conftantly 
fixed on the perfe6lions of his God ; from the con- 
fideration of which he gathered, by the jufteftrea- 
fon'ng, what was equitable andjult, v/hat worthy 
of God and of himfclf. He alfo had the pureft 
holincfs of '^..nll^ acquie cing in G^-Jx as the fupreme 
truth, revering \m 33 the moit dread majefty, 
loving him ^:s tie ch.ef and only good; and, for 
the fake of God, holding dear whatever his mind, 
divinely taught, pointed out as grateful, and like 
to, and expreliive of his perfections ; in fkie, 
whatever contributed to the acquiring an intimate 
and immediate union with him ; delighting in the 
communior of his God j which was now allowed 
him, panting after further communion, raifing 
himfelf thereto by the creatures, as fo many fcales 
or fteps ; and finally fetting forth the praifes of 
his molt unfpotted holinefs as the moft perfect 
pattern, according to which he was to frame both 
himfelf and his a6lions to the utmoft. This is, 
as Elihu fignificanrly exprefTes it. Job, 34, 9. de- 
lighting himfelf ^-d^iih God. This rectitude of the 
foul was accompanied with a moft regular tem- 
perature of the whole body, all whofe members, 
E 3 as 

54 Of the Contracting Book i, 

as inilruments of righteourncfs, prefented them- 
felves ready * and aclive at the firil intimation of 
his holy will. Nor was it becoming God to forni 
£1 rational creature for any other purpofe than his 
pwn glory, which fnch a creature, unlefs wife and 
holy, could neither perceive nor celebrate, as 
fliining forth in the other works of God ; defci- 
tute of this light, and deprived 'of this endii- 
.tnent, v/hat could it prqve but the reproach of 
his creator, and every way unfit to anfwer tl.p 
pnd of his creation. All thefe particulars the 
wifeft of Kings, Ecclef 7, 29. has thrown toge- 
ther with a flriking fimplicity, when he fays ; Lo! 
ibis only have I foundy that God hath m(ide man up* 
, right. 

w^shelg- ^- ^'^'^^^^ I ^^^^ j^ft ^^^^^ o^ ^^^^ wifdoin of the 
norantof fii*ft ipan, ought, I think, to be extended fo far, 
themyilc- as not to fuppofe him, in the Hate of innocence, 
ry of the Jgnorant of the myftery of the 'Trinity. For it is 
jhiT ftate ^^^effary above all things, for the perfection of 
' the human underftanding, to be well acquainted 
with what it ought to know and believe concern- 
ing its God. And it may juftly be doubted, whe- 
ther he does not wprfliip a God entirely unJ<nown,nay 
whether he at all worlhips the true God, who does not 
know and worfhip him, as fubfifting in three per- 
ibns. Whoever reprefents God to himfelf, in any 
other light, reprefents not God, but an empty 
phantom, and an idol of his own brain. Epipha^ 
nius feems to have had this argument in view, 
when inhisP^«^m/j,p.9. he thus writes of Adam: 
He was no idolater., for he knew God the Father^ 
^on^ and Holy Ghofi : and he was a Prophet^ an4 
knewy that the father faid to the fon^ let us make raan. 
Knowing VI. Thefe laft v^ords furnifli a new argument : 
that the f^^ ^\nQt God, in the work of the creation, ma- 
haTfhewn "i^^^c^^ himfelf a Trinity, the father made the worlds 
himrelfto^;' the fon^ Heb. 1, 2. the Holy Ghoft cherifiied the 
be three w:^ters by ferooding upon thcirii and the whole 
..-. ' Trinity: 

Chap. 2. PARTIES. 55 

Trinity addrefied themfelves, by mutual conlul- in the 
tation, to the creation of man, it is nor therefore ^^.° . ^^ 
credible this myftery fhould be entirely unknown 
to the Protoplaft or firft parent •, unlefs v/e can fup- 
pofe Adam ignorant of his Creator, who was like- 
wife the Son and the Holy Gholl. It cannot cer- 
tainly be without defign, that the Scripture, when 
fpeaking of man's Creator, fo often ufes the plural 
number: as If. 54, 5. T^^'^ T'/^^, which literally 
fignifies, thyhnjhands^ thy makers, Pf 149, i.T\ry^' 
n>ii'j^n 'pNi'i:'*, l,et Ifrael rejoice and his makers. Nay, 
requires man to attend to this, and engrave it on 
Jiis mind, Eccl. 12, i. y^^'^y^ riN 'iDr, remember thy 
creators. It is criminal when, man negle6ls it-, and 
fays not Job, 35, 10, ♦li^y m^x n>N, zvhere is God 
my makers? Which phrafes, unlefs referred to a 
Trinity of perfons, mig' t appear to be dangerous.' 
But it is abfurd to fuppofe Adam ignorant, con- 
cerning his Creator, of that which God does not 
fufFer his pofterity to be ignorant of 'at this time ; 
efpecialiy as God created man to be the herald of 
his being and perfedtions in the new world. But 
it certainly tends to difplay the glory of God, 
that he fliould particularly celebrate, not only the 
divine perfections, but iikewife how they fubfifl 
in the djUindl perfons of the Deity, and the man- 
ner and order of their operation. Admirably to this 
purpofe fpeaks Bqfil of Seleucia^ ferm. 2. 'Take par- 
ticular notice of thai expre£lon^ let us make man ; 
again^ this word ufed piurally^ hints at the ferfons of 
the Godhead^ and prefents a trinity to our knowledge. 
This knowledge therefore iscqevai. with 
.THECREATioN. Nor fJ)ould it fecM Jlrangc^ that 
aferivards it fhould be taught : fince it is one of 
thofe things^ of which mention is made in the very 


Vli. I own, Adam could not, from the bare con- He Icam- 
-templation of nature, without revelation, difcover ^ "^^V 
this myftery. But this I am fully purfuaded of, that ^q^^ 

E 4 God 

56 Of THE Contracting Booki. 

which na- God revealed fome things to man, not didated by 
turedid nature. For, whence did he know the command 
yej.^ ■" about the Tree of Knowledge, and whence the 
meaning of the Tree of Life, but by God*s 
declaring it to him ? whence fuch a know- 
ledge of his wife's creation, as to pronounce 
her, flefh of his fleQi, and bone of his bone, but 
from divine revelation? Seeing then God hiid re- 
vealed to man many things, and thofe indeed not 
of fuch moment \ can we believe he would conceal 
from him a thing, the knowledge of which was 
fo highly expedient to the perfeftion of man and 
the glory of God? That learned man therefore, 
was iniftaken, who infilled, that the knowledge 
of the Trinity exceeded the happinefs of Adam^s 
jtatBy which was merely natural: For it was not 
fo merely natural, that Adam only knew what 
the alone confideration of nature could fugged. 
The contrary wehave juftlhewn. And it muft be 
deemed natural to that ftate, that innocent man^ 
who had familiar intercourfe with his God, fhould 
learn from His own mouth what might render 
him fitter to celebrate his praifes. The learned 
Zanchitis obferves in his book de Great. Horn, I. i. 
<:.!.§. 12. that moil of the fathers were of opi- 
nion, that Adam, feeing he was fuch, and fo great 
a friend of God before his fall, had fometimes {t^\x 
God in a bodily appearance, and heard him fpeak : 
and adds ; hut this was always the Son of God. And 
a little after ; Chriji therefore is the Jehova^ who 
brought Adam and flaced him in Paradije^ and fpoke 
with him. Thus the ancients believed, that the Son 
of God did then alfo reveal himfelf to Adam, ancj 
converfed with him. 
Tkeoeco- VIII. And it feems rather too bold to affirm; that 
nomy of the ceconomy fuhfifling between the three perfons^ is fo 
^\\ti:nm- principally taken up in procuring the Salvation of 

ty IS not yj^^Yi\iyi^ fjj^j fj^^ knowledze thereof could not per- 
pcculijir >j J I 

totheHate^^^^^ ^^ the flat e of innocence-, in which there was 

of grace, * . nj). 

Chap. 2. PARTIES. 57 

no place either for fahation or redemption. For, 
Mofes declares the oeconomy of the divine per- 
fons at the very creation. And while the Gofpel 
explains that admirable oeconomy, as taken up 
in procuring the falvation of mankind, it, at the 
fame time, carries our thoughts up to that oecono- 
my, manifefted in the firft creation of the world. 
If now it is fo ufeful and pleafant to think, that 
the Son of God our Saviour, is the beginning of the 
creation of God, Rev. 3, 14. By whom were created 
thrones and dominions, things vifible and invif:ble\ 
that he might have the 'pre-eminence in all things. 
Col. I, 16, 18. both of the works of nature and 
of grace: and that the Holy Spirit, now fitting 
up a new world of grace in our hearts, did at firit 
brood on the waters, and make them pregnant 
with fo many noble creatures ; and thus to afcend 
to the confideration of the fame ceeonomy in the 
works of creation and nature, which is now re- 
vealed to us in the works of falvation and grace. 
Who then can refufe that Adam in innocence had the 
fame knowledge of God in three perfons, tho' igno- 
rant what each perfon, in his order, was to per- 
form in faving finners ? Add to this, that though 
in that Hate of Adam, there was no room for re- 
demption, yet there was for falvation and life eter- 
nal. The fymbol of which was the Tree of Life, 
which even then bore the image of the Son of 
God : fee Rev. 2, 7. For in bird wa3 life, John 
I, 4. which fymbol had been in vain, if the 
meaning thereof had been unknown to Adam. 

IX. In this re6litude of man principally confifts The 
that image of God, which the Scripture fo often imaec of 
recommends; and which Paul exprefly places ^f*^ ^^9"' 
in knowledge. Col. 3, 10. in right eoufnefs and /r/^^ this redi- 
holinejs, Eph. 4, 24. In which places he fodefcribes tude of 
the image of God, which is renewed in us by the n^^n- 
fpirit of grace, as at the fame time to hint, that it 
is the liime v;ith which man was ori ori nail v created: 


§B Of f«E CoflTR ACTING Book I. 

fieithef can there be different image', of God. 
For as God cannot but be wife and holv, and as 
fuch, be a pattern to the rational creature; it 
follows, that a creature wife and holy, is, as 
iuch, thcexpreffion or refemblance of God. And 
it is a thing quite impolTible, but God muft own 
fiis own likenefs to confilt in this re6litude of the 
^^hole rtian ; or that he lliould ever acknowledge 
a foolifh and perverfe creature to be like him : 
which would be an open denial of his perfedions. 
It is finely obferved by a learned man, that o^*^'?^? '^*>* 
axi;6=(a5, //-//^ hoUncfs, is not only oppoied toT'" vTToy.pKrsif 
hypocrrfy or fimulation^ or to^'^ f:^t,v55xaO&foT^1«, typi- 
cal purity, but that it denotes a holy ftiidy of truths 
proceeding from the love of God. For, o^-to?, to 
"^/hich anfwcrs the Hebrew ^'?-n, fignifies in Scrip- 
tuic^ one Jludious in^ and eager after good. This 
oanhii'; n? ^A*)9s(af?» frue hoUficfs^ therefore denotes fueh 
a defire of pleafing God, as is agreeable to the 
truth known of, and in him •, and loved for him. 
X. But I fee not, why the fame learned per- 
Which is fon would have the ^j"<«»o<7-yt>5, righteoufuefs, men- 
fit i Gon- tioned by Paql, Eph. 4, 24. to be a privilege pe- 
th ' '4 ^" ^ui^^^ ^^ ^^^ covenant of grace, which we obtain 
etifnds *fi Chrift, and which Adam was without -, mean- 
mtmow- ing by the word righteoufnefs, a title or right to 
^ ^y eternal life-, which, it is owned, Adam had not, 
t!l as his ftate of probation was not yet at an end. 

In cppofition to this aflertion, I offer thefe follow* 
ing confiderations. lil, There is no necelFity, 
by righteoufnefs to underiland a right to eternal 
life. For> that term often denotes a virtue, a 
conflant refolution of giving every one his due : 
as Eph. 5, 9. Where the Apoftle, treating of 
fanclification, writes •, /(?r the fruit of the fpir it is 
in alt goodnefs., righteousness and truth. The 
learned perfon himfelf was aware of this, who 
elfewhere fpeaks thus, (on Gen. v. § 9.) Righteouf- 
nefs isy flrfij the rectitude of a^fions^ 'whether of the 


Chap. I. PA.R T I E S. 59 

fouly or of the member's •, and their agreement with 
found reafon : namely^ that they^ may eafily avoid 
condemnation or hlame^ and obtain commendation and 
praife. So Tit. 3, 5. Works of righteciifnefs. 
And hence the denomination of jufi (^ righteous ^ de- 
notes a hlamekf^ or a praifavorthy per f on. Since 
thcn^ that word fignifies elfewhere fuch a redi- 
tude, why not here too ? Eipecially as it is 
jndlfputable, that fuch righteoufnefs belonged to 
the image of God in Adam. 2dly, It ought not 
to be urged, that here rightecufnefs is joined with 
holincfs^ and therefore thus to be diftinguiihed 
from it •, as that the latter (hall denote an Inherent 
go.od quality, and the former, a right to lite. 
For, it may be anfwered, firfl^ that it is no un- 
nfual thing with the Holy Spirit, to expreis the 
fame thing by different words. It is to be obfer^-cd^ 
fays Vrftnus^ Slu^efl, 18. Catech, that right eoufnefs 
and hoUnefs were in us the fame thing before the fall \ 
namely^ an inherent conformity to God and the law. 
Nor does the celebrated Cocceius himfelf fpeak 
otherwife on Pf. 15. §. 2. But mJ^» right eoufnefs^ 
if you confider the law of works, fignifies^ in the 
largefi fenfe^ every thing that is hojieji^ every thing 
that is true, every thing that is holy* Secondly, 
Suppole we fiiould diftinguifh righteoufnefs 
from holinefs it follows not, that it is to be dif- 
tinguiihed in this manner; for there are teftimo- 
■nies, in which nq fuch diflindion can take place : 
as Luke i. 74, y^.-^-Serve him in holinefs and 
righteoufnefs bef^^ve him : and i Theflf, 2, 10. Te 
ere witneffes and God alfo, how holily and juftly, 
and unblameably we behaved ourfelves among you, 
fhat believe. And, j Kings, 3, 6. -"—he walked 
lefcrc thee in truth ayid in righteoufnefs, and in up- 
right nefs of heart. Where righteoufnefs, thougli 
•added to holinefs, can fignify nothing but a vir? 
tue of the foul, and the excrcife of it. Thirdly, 
Put if we muft abfolurely diftinguifh thefe two 
{ . Vhingsi 

6o Of THE Contracting Book i. 

things-, it maybe done many ways; ift, So as 
10 refer hoUnefs to God\ righteoufnefs to men. 
1 hus Philo^ concerning Abraham^ fays, holinefs 
is confidercd as towards Gcd\ righteoufnefs as to- 
wards men : and the emperor Antonine, book 7. 
§.66, fays o^ Socrates : In human things ]u% in 
divine^ holy. 2dly, Or fo as to fay, that both 
words denote univerfal virtue •, (for even right- 
eoufnefs is faid of the worfhip of God, Luke 1,75, 
and holinefs referred to men; Maximus Tyrius^ Differ t. 
26, fays of the fame Socrates y pious towards God, 
holy towards men,) but in a different refpe6l : fo 
as hoUneJs fhail denote virtue, as it is the love 
and exprefljon of the divine purity ; as Plato ex- 
plains holinefs by the love of God: righteoufnefs, 
indeed, may fignlfy the fame virtue, as it is a 
conformity to the prefcribed rule, and an obe- 
dience to the commands of God. Whether it 
be ^*Ka.ov, right (righteous to hearken unto Gody 
A<5ts, 4, 19. 3dly, Urfinus quo'fl, 6. Catech, 
Speaks fomewhat differently, faying, that right- 
eoufnefs and holinefs, may in the text cf Paul and 
in the cathechifm^ he taken for one and the fame ^ or he 
difiinguifhed ; for righteoufnefs may he underfiood 
cf thcfe internal and external a5Iions^ which agree 
with the right judgment of mind^ and with the law 
cf God\ holinefs be underfiood of the qualities of 
them. So that there is nothing to conflrain us to 
explain righteoufnefs here of a right to life; but 
there are many things to perfuade us to the con- 
trary. For, ifl, l^hat image of God, which is 
renewed in us by regeneration, confifls in ahfo- 
hie qualities^ inherent in the foul, which are as 
fo many refemblances of the perfedions of God : 
but a right or title to life is a mere relation. 2dly, 
The image of God confifts in fomething, which is 
produced in man hmfelf^ either by the firfl, or the 
new creation: but the right to life refls wholly 
on the righteoufnefs and merits of Chrifl ; things 


Chap, 2. PARTIES. €i 

cnuvtXyvDithout us^ Phil. 3, 9. Not having my own 
righteoufnefs, ^dly, The Apoftle, in the place 
before us, is not treating of juftification, where 
this right fliould have been mentioned •, but of 
fan^ification^ and the rule thereof; where it would 
be improper to fpeak of any fuch thing. 4thly, 
They who adhere to this new explanation of 
righteoufnefs, appear without any jufl: caufe to 
contradi6t the Catechifm, qu^ft. 6. and with xr p ^t^i^ 
lefs force to oppofe the Socinians, who maintain, author is 
that the image of God, after which we are rege- all along 
aerated in Chrlft, is not the fame with that, after ^P^aking 
which, Adam was created. And yet, thefe ^^;^^/£^ 
learned men equally deteft his error with ourfelves. Catechifm 
Thefe confiderations make us judge it fafer, touic^dbythe 
explain righteouJhefs, fo as to make it a part of ^^J^*""?^^^ 
the image of God, after which Adam was abroadr 

XI. But if we take in the whole extent of The 
the image of God, we fay, it is made up image of 
of thefe three parts, ill, Jntecedenlly, that it con- ^°^ ^"^^^ 
fifts in the fpiritual and immortal nature of the "cnt^con" 
foul, and in the faculties of underftanding and tains other 
will. 2dly, Fonnally and principally, in thefe things. 
enduments, or qualities of the foul, viz. right- 
eoufnefs and holinefs. gdly, Confequentiallyy in 
the immortality of the whole man, and his domi- 
nion over the creatures. The firft of thefe was, 
as one elegantly exprefies it, as precious ground 
on which the image of God might be drawn, 
and formed : the fecond, that very image itfelf, 
and refemblance of the divinity : the third, the 
luflre of that image widely fpreading its glory ; 
and as rays, not only adorning the foul, but the 
whole man, even his very body •, and rendering 
him the lord and head of the worlds and at the 
fame time immortal, as being the friend and con- 
federate of the eternal God. 

XII The 

6t d]f THE CO?J TR AC t!NG Book f „; 

Some of ^^^' ^^^ principal (Irokes of this image, Pla* 
which to certainly knew -, who defines happinels to be 
known to o{A.oiu6cai ruGsu^^^je refsmhlauce of God: and this re- 
PUito. femblance he places in piety, juftice, and pru- 
dence ; this lad to temper and regulate the two 
former : his words are excellent, and deferve to 
Idc here tranlcribed : "^''i^ '^^ ciYixni (pva-Wf rovat rov tottov, 

on rJiyjfu (pvyyt ^\ o^i&'crij Oew y.aloi, 1o onxrov 0(/.aici>a-t^ cl o'iy.cino> 

xi,i oaiovixd^ ffov^;(7i4',' ytncr^m, q'}jis mortal fiatuYe^ and this 
place of abode are Tteceffarily encompafjed with evil. 
We are therefore with the utmofi^ e^^peditipn to fly 
from it : this flight is an ajjimilatiofi to God as far 
as may be : and this affimilation. is jufiice and pie ty:^ 
accompanied with prudence.. Vid. Lipfii I4anudn}f: 
adjloicamphilofophiar^ilib. z.DiJfert, i^. r' > 
J, h d XHL God, gave to man the charge of this his 
fafficient Image, as the mofl excellent depofite of heaven, 
l>owerto and, if kept pure and inviolate, the earnell: of al 
preferve greater good ; for that end he endued him with fufr 
Iksiinage ^^j^j-j^ powers from his very formation, fo- as to 
ftand in need of no other habitual grace. It wa$ 
only requifite, that God, l>)' the continual in- 
flux of his providence, fhould preferve thofe 
powers, and excite them to all and each of their 
ads. For, there czn be no ftate conceived, 
in which the creature can ad independently of the 
Creator; not excepting the angels themfelves, 
though now confirmed in holinefs and happi- 
Afi<i was '^ly- And thus, indeed, Ad^m was in cove- 
#onfKler- nant with God, zs^man^ created after the image 
edasthe Qf Qq^^ and furnilhed with fufficient abilities to; 
^^'|^^^''^^^j^^ preferve that image. But there is another reW^ 
fiiinli ("tion, in which he was confidered as the head, and 
hcsd of I reprefentative of mankind^ both federal 2ind natural, 
tamkind^^Q that God faid to Adam, as once to the ffrael- 
I ites, Deut. 29, 14, i.^. neither with you only do / 
*° make this covenant^ and this oath \ but alfo with him' 



Chap. 2. P A R T I E S, gj 

■that is not here with us this day. The whole "hi fto- 
I ry of the firft man proves, that he is not to be 
/ looked upon as an individual perfon, but that th^ 
J whole human nature is confidered as in him. For 
\ \t was not raid to our firft parents only, ^^rr^/?/^ and 
^ mukiply ; by virtue of v/hich word, the propaga^ 
j tion of mankind is ftill continued: nor is it true 
/ of Adam only -, it is not good, that the man fiouU 
) he alone: nor does that conjugal law; therefore 
I /bail a man leave his father and his mother, and \ 
they frjall be one ftefh, concern him alone ; which '* 
Chriil flill urges. Mat. 19, 5: nor did the penalty, [ 
threatened by God upon Adam's finning, thou 
jhall furely i/>,' afFedt him alone ; but, death paffed 
/ Mpon ell m-en, according to the Apoftle*s obfer*- 
vation, Rom. 5, 12. All which loudly prochim, 
that Adam was here confidered as the head pf - 
mankind. ,. ./ 

y- XV. This alio appears from that beautiful op^ ^^g 
f pofition of the firft and fecond Adam, which Paul pearsfro^ 
J:purfues at large, Rom. 5, 15, &c. For, as the t^^f opp^* 
i lecond Adam does, in the Covenant of Grace, re-^^^"°"^^ 
X, prefentall the tt\t&.; in fuch a manner that they J^,^^j-,.^L 
J are accounted to have done, and Offered them- Aclam/ 
*;, fclves, what he did and fuffered, in their name andy 
-ilead'. fo likewife the firft Adam was the repre-' 
^ lentative of all, that were to defcend from 
1^ him. 
■ XVI. And that God was righteous in this con- Whlc^ 
:ftitution, is by no means to be difputed. Nor does was a 
it become us to entertain any doubts about the ^^Z^^^^^ 
right of God, nor enquire too curiouily into itj j^^^^' 
tnuch lefs to meafure it, by the ftandard of any 
■right eftablifhed amongft us defpicable mortals, 
when the matter of fa6l is evident and undifputed. 
We are always to fpeak in vindication of God ; 
that thou might eft he juftified when thou fpeakeft, and 
he clear when iboujudgeft, Pf. 51,4. He muft, 
/fijrejy, tee utterly unaccjuainted with the majcfty of 

64 OftheContracting Book f .- 

the Supreme Being, with his mofl pure and un- 
ipotted holinefs, which in every refpect is mod con- 
iiftent with itfelf, who prefumes to fcan his ac- 
tions, and call his equity to account. A freedom 
this, no earthly father would bear in a fon ; no 
king in a fubjed, nor mailer in a fervant. And 
do we, mean worms of the earth, take upon 
us to ufe fuch freedom with the judge of the whole 
univerfe! As often as our murmuring fiefh dares 
to repine and cry out, tbe zoays of the Lord are not 
equals fo often let us oppofe thereto, are not thy 
ways unequal? Ez. i8, 25. 
The XVII. However, it generally holds, that we 

^^^^^'c^' ^''^ore calmly acquiefce in the determinations of 
demon- ^^ God, when we underftand the reafons of them, 
llrated to X^et US therefore fee, whether here alfb we 
confciencc cannot demonflrate the equity of the divine 
right. For what if we Ihould confider the 
matter thus ? If Adam had, in his own and in our 
name, flood to the conditions of the covenant ^ if, 
after a courfe of probation, he had been confirmed 
in happinefs,and we, his poflerity, in him, if, fully 
fatisfied with the delights of animal life, we had, 
together with him, been tranllated to the joys of 
heaven ; none, certainly, would then repine, that 
he was included in the head of mankind : every 
one would have commended both the wifdom and 
goodnefs of God : not the lead fufpicion of injuft- 
ice would have arifen on account of God's putting 
the firft man into a flate of probation in the room 
of all, and not every individual for himfelf. 
How fhould that, which in this event would have 
been deemed jud, be unjud on a contrary event ? 
For, neither is the juftice nor injudicc of adions 
to be judged of by the event. 

XVIII. Befides, v/hat mortal now can flatter 
himfelf, that, placed in the fame circumdances 
<^vith Adam, he would have better confulted his 
gwn intered ? Adam was neither without wifdom, 


fchap. 3. Covenant of W O R K S. 

nor holinefs, nor a defire after true happinefs, nor 
an averfion to themiferies denounced by God againll 
the finner-, nor in fine, without any of thofe things, 
by which he might expedl to keep upon his guard 
againft all fin : and yet he fuffered himfelf to be 
drawn afide by the craft of a flattering feducer. 
And doft thou, iniquitous cenfurer of the ways of 
the Lord, prefume, thou wouldll: have better ufed 
thy free-will ? Nay, on the contrary, all thy adlions 
cry aloud, that thou approved, that thou art highly 
pleafed with, and always takeft example from that 
deed of thy firfl parent, about which thou fo un- 
juftly complainefl. For, when thou tranfgrefiefb the 
commands of God, when thou fetteft lefs by the 
will of the Supreme Being than by thy lufls, when 
thou prefereft earthly to heavenly things, prefent 
to future, when, by thine own choice, thou feekefl 
after happinefs, but not that which is true ; and, in- 
Itead of taking the right way, goeft into by-paths ; is 
not that the very fame as if thou didft fo often eat of 
the forbidden tree ? Why then doeft thou prelume 
to blame God for taking a compendious way, in- 
cluding all in one ; well knowing, that the cafe of 
each in particular, when put to the tefl, would 
have proved the fame. 


Of the Law^ or Condition^ of the Covenant of 

I. TT ITFIERTO we have treated of the Con-^h^t to 
JL X tracing Parties: let us now take a view of ^^ confi- 
the condition preferibed by this covenant. Where ^x^^^^^^lii 
firft we are to confider the Law of the CovenL^,nt,i{ono{thQ 
then the Ohfervance of that law. The lav/ of the covenant. 
Vol. I. F covenant 

66 The Condition of the Book I. 

covenant is twofold. lit, The law of nature ^ im» 
planted in Adam at his creation. 2dly, The fym- 
holical law^ concerning the tree of knowledge of 
good and evil. 
The law II. The law of nature is the rule of good and evil^ 
of nature, infcribed by God on man's confcience^ even at his creation^ 
and therefore binding upon him by divine authority. 
That fuch a law was connate with, and as it were, 
implanted in the man, appears from the reliques, 
which, like the ruins of fomc noble building, are 
ftill extant in every man \ namely, from thofe com- 
mon notions, by which the Heathens themfelves 
diilingui(l:ed right from wrong, and by which they were 
a laiv to thonfelves^ which jhews the work of the law 
written in their hearts^ their confcience bearing witnefs^ 
Rom. 2. 14, 15. From which we gather, that all 
thefe things were compleat in man, when newly 
formed after the image of God. 

III. Whatever the confcience of man diclates to 
be virtuous, or otherwife, it does fo in the name of 
God, whofe vicegerent it is, in man and the depo- 
fitary of his commands. This, if I miftake not, 
is David's meaning, Pf 27, 8, a^nD^<*^^, to thee, 
that is, for thee, in thy Head, my heart fays^ or my 
confcience. This confcience therefore was alfo called 
a God by the Heathen : as in this. Iambic, Bpror? 
'ccircccrvj 'n avuilricx^ ©£05 ; ifi all men confcience is" a God. Pla- 
to, in Philebus^ calls reafon a God dwelling in us. 
And hence we are not to think that the fupreme 
rule in the law of nature is its agreement or difa- 
greement with the rational nature, but that it is the 
divine wifdom manifefled to, or the notion of good 
and evil engraven by God, on the confcience. 'Tis 
finely faid by the author of the book de Mundo,, 
c. II. God is to us a law^ tending on all fides to a 
jujl equilibrium^ requiring no corre^ion^ admitting no 
variation. With this Cicero agrees, de Lcgibus^ lib. 2, 
The true and leading law, which is proper both to com - 


Chap. 5'. C ovE N A jj t of V/ O R K S. 67 

mand and to forbid^ is the right reafon cf the Supreme 

IV. That author appears not to have exprefPcid The law 
himfelf with accuracy, who faid : JVe here call the law^ not the 
the knowledge cf right and ijorong^ binding to do what ^"°^' 

is rights and to avoid what is wrong. For law proper- j-iggt and 
lyis not any knowledge, but the objed: of knowledge, wrong. 
This law, we fay, , is naturally known to man, but 
it would be abfurd to fay, knowledge is naturally 
known. Knowledge is our act, and is indeed to be 
fquared by the rule of the law. The law is a rule 
prefcribed by God for all our aflions. 

V. That other author is far lefs accurate, whoonenf- 
thus determines : Prior to the fall there was properly firms there 
no law: For^ then the love of Go d^ prevailed which '^y^p''^^^^'' 
requires no law. There (as the fame author efewhere ^l^^'^ ^^^ 
explains himfelf) a flate of frieyidfJoip and love obtained^ 

fuch as is the natural flate of a fon with refpecl to a 
pareyit., and which is what nature affe5ls. But when 
that love is violated., then a precept comes to he fupcr- 
added: and that love., which 'before was voluntary., {as 
hefi agreeing with its 'nature ; for., that can fcarcely be 
called love., unlefs voluntary) falls under a precept., and 
paffes into a law., to be enforced then with ccmmination 
and coercion ; which rigour of coercion., properly con- 
ftitutes a law, 

VI. But this way of reafoning is far from being This opi- 
the effed of thought and attention. For, ift, "|J^" ^°"- 
it is not the rigour of the enforcement properly, 

that conflitutes a law, but the obligatory virtue of 
what is enjomed, proceeding both from the power of 
the lawgiver, and from the equity of the thing com- 
manded, v/hich is here founded on the holinefs of 
the divine nature, fo far as imitable by man. The 
Apoftle James, c. i. v. 25. commends the perfetl 
law of liberty. 2dly, Nor is there any abfurdity to 
affirm, that the natural Hate of a fon with refpcd: to 
a parent, is regulated by laws. 'Tis certain, Plato 
de Lcgih. lib. ;^. fays, thnt the fi-rft mortals praFiifed 

F 2 " the 

. The Condition of the Book i . 

the cuftcms and laws of their fathers^ quoting that fen- 
tence of Homer, H--^^'^'-^-^ °^ ixxr^ Trui^uv every one makes 
laws for his children, gdly. Nor is it repugnant to 
do a thing by ncturey and at the fame time hy a law, 
Philo Judceiisde Mlgratione^ explaining that celebrated 
old faying of the philofophers, fay, that to live agree- 
ably to nature^ is done, when the mind follows God., 
remembering his precepts. Cryfippus in like manner, 
as commended by Laertiuslib. 7. on Z^;^^, fays, that 
perfon lives agreeably to nature, who does nothing 
prohibited by the common law., which is right reafon. 
In a fublimer drain almoft than one could well ex- 
pert from a Heathen, is what Hierocles fays on Py- 
thagoras''s golden verfes : 'To obey right reafon and God 
is one and the fame thing. For the rational nature be- 
ing illuminated., readily embraces what the divine law 
prefcribes. A foul which is conformed to Gody never 
difjents from the will of Gody but being attentive to the 
divinity ajid brightnefs^ with which it is enlightened^ 
does which it does. 4thly, Nor can it be affirmed, 
that after the breach of love, or, which is the fame 
thing, after the entrance of fin, that then it was 
the law vv^as fuperaddcd -, feeing fm itfelf is a^o/^'^ the 
tranfgreffjon of the law. 5thly, Nor is love render- 
ed lefs voluntary by the precept. For, the law en- 
joins love to be every v/ay perfect, and therefore to 
be motl voluntary, not extorted by the fervile fear 
of the threatning, i Joh. 4, 18. Nor does he give 
fatisfaction, when he fays, that what is called love, 
fcarce deferves that name, unlefs voluntary, he 
ought to fay, is by no vr.eans charity, unlefs voluntary. 
For, love is the moft delightful union of our will 
with the thing beloved ; v/hich cannot be fo much 
as conceived, without the plained contradiction, 
any other than voluntary. If therefore, by the fu- 
peraddedlaw, love is rendered involuntary and forced, 
the whole nature of love is dedroyed, and a divine 
law fet up, which ruins love. 6thly, In fine, the law 
^of nature itfelf was not without a threatning, and 


Chap. 3. C o V E N A N T of W O R K S. 60 

that of eternal death. I fnall conclude in the mod 
accurate words of Cryfofiom^ Homil. 12. to the peo- 
ple of Antioch\ when God fcnned man at frft^ he 
gave him a natural law. And what then is this natural 
Utw ? He reulifi^d our confcience^ and made us have the 
knowledge of good and evil^ without any other teaching 
than our own. 

VII. It is, moreover, to be obferved, that this law This Jaw 
of natureis the fame in fubftance v;ith the decalogue ; of nature 
being what the Apoille calls, ^-y/" ^^^"^-nv %v ekJot/ji', a com- J.^ ^°^ ^"J^' 
maitdment^ which was ordained to life^ Rom. 7, 10. ^^^^^^ ^^-^j^ 
that is, that law, by the performance of which, life the deca- 
was formerly obrainible. And indeed, the decalogue logue. 
contains fuch precepts, which if a man do he fl^all live 

in them., Lev. 18, 5. But thofe precepts are undoubt- 
edly "he law propofed to Adam, upon which the 
covenant of works was built. Add to this, what 
the Apoille fays, that that law, which frill continues 
to be the rule of our afllons, and whnfe righteouf- 
nefs ought to be fulfilled in us, was made weak thro* 
the flefo., that is, thro' iin, and that it was become 
impoffible for it to bring us to life, Rom. 8, 3, 4. 
The fame law therefore was in force before the en- 
trance of fin, and, if duly obferved, had the power of 
giving life. Beiides, God in the fecond creation 
infcribes the fame lav/ on the heart, which in the firft 
creation he had engraven on the foul. For, what 
is regeneration, but the reftitution of the fame image 
of God, *in which man was at firft created ? In fine, 
the law of nature could be nothing, but a precept of 
conformity to God, and of perfed love ; which 
is the fam.e in the decalogue. 

VIII. This law is deduced by infallible confequence Andlsde- 
from the Ytrj nature of God and ;;;<^;?,which I thus ^^^^^ 
explain and prove. I prefuppofe, as a fdf-evidcnt ^l^^l ^f 
truth, and clear from the very meaning of the Vv^ords, G*odand 
that the Great God has a fovereign and uncontrol- man. 
able power and dominion over all his creatures. 

This authority is founded primarily and radically, 

F 3 not 

The C N D I T I o N of the Book ;. 

pot on creation, nor on anycontradl, entered into with 
the creature, nor on the fin of the creature, as fome 
lefs folidly ruaintain -, but on the majefty, fuprema- 
cjy, fovereignty and eminence of God, which are his 
efiential attributes, and would have been in God, tho* 
no creature had actually exifced ; tho' we now conceive 
them as having a certain rei]3e6l to creatures that do, 
or at lec:il might exift. From this majefty of the divine 
nature the prophet Jeremiah^ c lo. v. 6, 7. infers 
the duty of the creature. For as much as there is nom 
like unto thee^ Lord^ thou art greats and thy name 
is great in mighty ivho would not fear thee^ O king of 
nations^ for to thee doth it appertain. For if God is 
the prime^ the fupreme,, the fuper eminent \ it neceflTarily 
follows, that all creatures do in every refpe6t; depend 
on that prime, fupreme and fuper eminent God, for ex- 
igence, pov/er and operation. This is of the ef- 
fence of creatures, which if not entirely dependent* 
were not pofTible to be conceived without the moft 
evident contradi6lion. But the more degrees of entity 
there are in any creature, the more degrees alfo of 
dependance on the Supreme Being are to be attri- 
buted to it. In the rational creature, befides a meta- 
fhyfical and phyftcal entity, which it has in common 
with the reft of the creatures, there is a certain more 
perfe6l degree of entity, namely rationality. As, 
therefore, in quality oi a Being it depends on God, as 
the Supreme Being \ fo alfo as rational, on God, as 
the fipreme reafon, v^hich it is bound to exprefs, and 
be conformable to. And as God, as long as he 
wills any creature to exift, neceflarily wills it to be 
dependent on his real providence (otherwife he would 
renounce his own fupremacy by transferring it to 
the creature) -, fo, likewife, if he wills any rational 
creature to exiil, he neceirarily wills it to be de- 
pendent on \\\^ moral 'providence \ otherwife he would 
deny hlmfelf to be the fuprcme reafon, to whofe 
pattern and idea every dependent reafon ought to 
conform. And thus a rational creature would be to 


Chap. 3- Coven ANT of WORKS. y7t 

itfelf the prime reafon, that is, really God j which is 
an evident contradidion. 

IX. 'Tis in vain therefore, that frantic enthufian-s 
infift, that the utmoft pitch of holinefs confifts in To fay 
-being without law ; wrefting the faying of the that the ' 
Apoftle, I Tim. i, 9, the law is not made for ^ "tnioftde- 
righteous man^ hut for the lawlefs and difohedient, Cer- f olinefs is 
tainly that pafiTage does not deftroy our aflertion, by tobewith- 
which we evinced that the human nature cannot be ^^^ law is 
without the divine law, but highly confirms it. ^" f"'J^"' 
For, fmce the ungodly are here defcribed as lawlefs y dream, 
who would fain live as without law ; and difohedient^ 

who will not be in fubjedlion : it follows, that the 
acknov/iedging the divine law, and the fubje6lion 
of the underfbanding and will to it, is the character 
of the righteous and the godly. In the law of God, 
fince the entrance of fin, v/e are to confider two things. 
I ft, The rule and dire6tion to fubmiffion. 2dly, 
The power of bridling and reflraining by terror and 
fear, and laftly, of juiliy condemning. When 
therefore the Apoftle declares, that the law was not 
made for a righteous man, he does not underftand 
it of the primary and principal work of the law, which 
isefi^entialtoit, butof that other accidental work, v;hich 
was added to it on account of, and fince the entrance 
of fin, and from which the righteous are freed by Ch rift. 

X. Nor does it only follow from the nature of God This law 
and of man, that fome law is to be prefcribed by God ^^^^ "°^ 
to man in common, but even fuch a law, as may be not^"|J j?^^ 
only the rule and guide of human adions but of human actionsbut 
nature itfcif, confidered as rational. For, fince God alio the 
liimfelf is in his nature infinitely holy, and maniiefts "^^^f^^'^^^ 
this his holinefs in all his works-, it hence follows, that 

to man, who ought to be conformed to the likenefs 
of the divine holinefs, there fhould be prefcribed a 
law, requiring not only the righteoufnefs of his 
works, but the holinefs of his nature -, fo that the 
righteoufnefs of his works is no other than the ex- 
exprefTion of his inward righteoufnefs. Indeed, 

F 4 the 

y\-JW 1'he C o N D I T I N of the Book x 

the Apoille calls that piety and holinefs, * which 
he recommends, and which undoubtedly the law 
enjoins, the image of God^ Cpl. 3, 10. But the image 
iliouid reiemble its original. Seeing God therefore 
is holy in his nature, on that very account it fol- 
lows, that men fhould be fo too. 
It is falfe ^^^- ■^'^ certain author therefore has advanced with 
to fay that more fubtilty than truth : that the law obliges the per- 
original fin only to a^livc right eoiifnefs^ but not the nature itfilf 
.| righteouf- .^ jntrifific rei^Htude ; and confequently, that original 
right-puf- "i^lghteoufnefs is approved indeed^ but not commanded hy 
jiefs of na- the law : and on the contrary alfi^ that original un- 
tare was righteoufnefs is condemned^ but not forbidden by the law, 
approved p^j. .j^^ j^,^^ approves of nothinor which it did not 

of but not J j^ 1- L-^r • j-j c 1 -J 

comma: d- Command: condemns nothmg which it did not forbid. 

ed by the The law is rxy\rs, the do6lrine of right and v/rong. 

law. What it teaches to be evil, that it forbids: what to 

be good, it commands. And therefore it is de- 

fcrvedly called the law of nature ; not only becaufe 

nature can make it known \ but alfo becaufe it is the 

rule of nature itfelf 

The chief XII. To conclude, we are to obferve of this law 

preceptsof Qf j^ature, that at leafc its principal and moft uni- 

rotVounZ "^^^^^^ precepts are founded not in the mere, arbitra- 

ed on the ^7 good will and pleafure of God, but in his un- 

will but fpotted nature. For, if it is necelTary, that God 

Tre^^ T' ^^'^^'"^ therefore prefcribe a law for man, becaufe 

Qq^^^ himfelf is the original hohnefs ; no lefs neceffary is 

\U he fliould prefcribe a law, which (hall be the copy 

of that original. So that the difference between 

good and evil, ought to be derived not from any 

pofitive law, or arbitrary conftitution of the divine 

will, but from the moft holy nature of God himfelf; 

which I thus prove. 

Gcd with XIII. Let us take the fum.mary of the firft table-, 

hl7nftare ^^^^^^fi^^^^ ^^"'^ ^'^^ ^^^^ ^h ^od with all thy hearty &c. 

could not Should this command be faid to be founded in the 

quire tJie * ^'^'^' I ^L'ppofe thrreishere an error of the prefs ; becaufe it 
love of ^\ ^" Eph.4, 24. that the new man is faid to be after God created in 
'^imk\^ nghtcoufncfs and true holinels. 


Chap.S' Covenant of W O R K S. 73 

arbitrary good pleafure of the divine will, and not in 
the very nature of God ; it may with equal propriety 
be faid, that God might difpenle with the neceflity 
of loving himklf. A thing entirely impofTible, as ap- 
pears hence : it is natural to God to be the chief 
good : it is included in the notion of God, that he 
is the very beH:. Now it is natural to the chief good, 
to be fupremely amiable-, it is natural alfo, to rea- 
fon and will to be unable, without a crime not to 
love, what is propofed as worthy of the higheft affec- 
tion. Whoever therefore Ihall affirm, that the ne- 
celTity pf loving God, flows not from the very nature 
of God, advances the following contradiction : God 
is in his nature the chief good, and yet in his nature 
not fupremely amiable. Or this other ; God is wor- 
thy of the higheft love -, and yet it is pofTible, that 
he who loves him not does nothing unworthy of God.- 

XIV. But to proceed : if the command to love ^ r^i r 
God is founded, not in his nature, but in his arbi- ^an he en- 
trary good pleafure; he might have enjoined the join the 
hatred ofhimfelf For, in things in their own na- hatred of 
turc indifferent, whoever has the right of command- ' 

ing, has alfo that of forbidding, and of requiring the 
contrary. To affert, that God can command the 
hatred of himfelf, not only conveys a found, grat- 
ing on the ear, but labours under a manlfeft contra- 
diction ; as will appear from a proper explication of 
the terms. God, the chief good, fupremely amiable, 
are terms equivalent ; at lead, the laft is an explication 
of the preceeding. To hate, is to ePceem a thing not 
the chief good, nay, not fo much as any good, at all, 
and therefore fo far from loving it, we are averfe 
from it. Would it not therefore be a manifeft con- 
tradiction, fnould any one fuppofe the great and 
good God thus fpeaking to his creature : I am really 
the chief good, but my will is, not to be efteemed, 
a good in any refpe6t: I, indeed, am worthy of tlic 
higheft love, but it is my v/ill, that you deem me 
ivorthy of your hatred. A man muft be blind who 
fees not a contradidion here. 

XV, More- 

j^ The CoNDfTioN of the Book. i. 

Jtislhewti Xv". Morover, I would afk thofe, if any are other- 
from na- ^-^^ minded, whether it is not naturally good, even 
irisVood antecedently to any free determination of the divine 
to obey will, to obey God, when he commands anything. 
,God. If they own this, we have gained our point : if not, 
I afk further, whence then the obligation to obey ? 
They cannot fay, it is from any command. For, 
the queftion is, what binds me to obey that com.- 
mand. Here w^e muft neceffarily come to that fo- 
vereign majefty and fupreme authority of God, to 
whom it is a crime in nature to refule obedience. 
Again, if not to obey God is good in nature, then, it 
follows, God c?n cox.!T.andj that none may obey 
him. A propofition not only inconfiderate, but 
alfo contradi6tory. For, to command, is to bind one 
to obediep.ce. To fay, obey not is to difpenfe with 
the bond of obligation. It is therefore moft contra- 
dictory to fay, I command, but do not obey. 
The love XVI. What we have proved concerning the love 
of^ our of God, the fummary of the Jiffi table of the law ; 
^eighboiT j^amely, that it is good in nature ; might be alfo 
partof tlie pi"oved from the fummary of th^ fee ond table ^ the love 
Jaw of na~ of our neighbour. For, he who loves God, cannot 
ture. \jx\i love his image too, in which he clearly views 
e>:prefs charaBers of the Deity, and not a fmall de- 
gree of the bright nefs of his glory. Again, whoever 
;' loves God, will, by virtue of that love, feriouQy 
]wlfli, defire,{ludy,and as much as in him lies, be care- 
4;^ ful, that his neighbour, as well as himfelf, be under 
"] God, in God and for God, and all he has, be for his 
yiglory. Again, whoever loves God, will make it his 
' buQnefs, that God may appear every way admirable 
and glorious ; and as he appears fuch mott eminently 
; m the fanctification and happlnefs of men, 2 ThelT. 
/ I, TO. he will exert himfelf to the utmoft, that his 
'^\ neighbour make advances to holinefs and happinefs. 
S Finally, whoever fmcerely loves God, will never ^, 
.' think he loves and glorifies him enough ^ fuch ex-r{ 
' cellencies he difcovers in him, fees his name fo 


.€hap. 3. Coven ANT of W O R K S. 7§ 

illuftrious, and fo exalted above all praife, as to 
long, that all mankind, nay all creatures, fhould join 
him in loving and celebrating the infinite perfe6lions 
of God. But this is the moil faithful and pure love 
of our neighbour, to leek, that God maybe glori-/ 
fied in him, and he himfelf be for the glory of God.^ 
Hence it appears, that the love of our neighbour is\ 
infeparahly conneded with that of God. If therefore \ 
it flows from the nature of God, to enjoin us the \ 
love of himfelf, as was juft proved; it muft likewife/ 
fiow from the nature of God to enjoin us the love of 
our neighbour. 

XVIL To conclude, if we conceive all holinefs to ^/j?^^^', 
be founded on the arbitrary will of God, this greatefi: ^ "^ ^ ^' 
of ail abfurdities w:ill follow, that God our law- 
giver can, by commanding the contrary of what he .^T=^ 
had done before, without any regeneration or re- :;2seJL,^ 
novation of the inward man, make of the wicked 
and dilbbedicnt, for whom the law is made to con- 
demnation, perfons holy and righteous : a fhocking 
pofition 1 

XVIII. From what has been faid, it is aftonifhing, v/hether 
that a certain learned perfon fhould approve of the all the 
following afiertion •, namely, that on the will of God Z^^^^^^^ 
not only things them/elves depend^ hut alfo every \q^q^^^ 
mode of a things the truths order ^ law, goodnefs ; nor can on the 
any goodnefs of the ohjeEl either move the divine will^ or will of 
'put a flop to it. It is indeed certain, that no bounds ^°^^ 
or rules can befct to the will of God, by any thing 
put of God himfelf; that being repugnant to his 
fovereign pre emmincnce. Yet fomething may, and 
ought to be conceived, flowing from God himfelf, 
and his intrinfic perfe6lions, which hinders the adt 
of the divine will, and this is not therefore good, 
becaufe God wills it -, but God wills it, becaufe it 
is good; for infliance, the love of God, as the chief 
good. And they do not confider things regularly, 
who make the holinefs of God to confilt only 
Ja the C'Xad conformitv of his anions, witli 
'" ' ' ' his 

>^6 The C o N D i T I o N of flic Book, i . 

his will. Which 'uoilU i"ay they, is the rule of all ho- 
linefs^ and fo of the divine. On the contrary, as the 
. natural holinefs of God, ought to be conceived prior 
to his will, fo it is rather the rule of the v/iil, than 
to be ruled by it. For, this holinefs of God is the 
moil ihining purity of the divine perfedions, accord- 
ing to which, agreeably to the moil perfe6t reafon, 
he always v/ills and ads. By this opinion, which v/e 
are now confuting, every diilindion between what 
are called moral and pofitive precepts is deilroyed, 
and Archelaus' exploded paradox brought up anew ; 

namely, '^^ ^'\.v.a,iQv Uvony y.a,i ra uKrpi^pov » (pvffn, ccKKa, v6fJi,a. ^hjd 

diftinBion of good and evil was not from nature^ hut of 

pofitive inflitutiofi ; adopted by Arijiippus^ and neo- 

dorus^ furnamed the Atheift, 'Than which opinion fays 

Cocceius^ in his Surmna'Theolog. c. 24. §. 6. none can he 

devi fed more pernicious^ and none more effe^tial fcrunder^ 

mining all religion^ firiking at the very root of the divine 

jiiflice and the neceffity of a Saviour^ cutting out the 

'vitals of piety. 

A recrpi- XIX, And thus v/e have proved thefe three things 

tuiaijcr.. concerning the law of nature, on vv^hich the covenant 

of works is founded: namely, iH:, That it flows 

from the nature of God and man, that fome law be 

prefcribed to man. 2dly, Such a law, as to be the rule 

and ftandard, not only of our adjons, but alfo of 

our nature. 3dly, That the moil univerfal precepts 

thereof at leail are founded on the nature of God. 

Let us novv' confider the other, the fymholicaUaw. 

The tree XX, We find this law, Gen. 2. 16,17. And the 

of ioiow- j^^y^ Q^j commafided the ivnn^ faying^ of every tree of 

rrml and ^^^ garden thou mayfl freely eat •, hut of the tree of 

fvil, why kno'w ledge of good and evil thou fhalt not eat of it : for^ 

(o calkc], /;/ the day that thoueateft thereof., thou fhalt furely die. 

Concerning this tree, three things are chiefly to be 

taken notice of. ifl, Thatit is not quite certain, 

whether it was a ilngj? tree; fince a whole fpecies 

of trees might be forbidden to man : we (liall after- 

yv'ards repeat this remark, whea we fpeak of the 


Chap. 3- Covenant of W O R K S. ' 77 

Tree of Life. 2dly, There feems to be a two-fold 
reafon for this appellation, i. In refpe6l to God, who, 
by that tree would try, and know, whether man 
w^ould continue good and happy by perfevering 
in obedience, or fwerve, to evil, by difobe- 
dience. In which fenfe God is faid to have tried 
Hezekiab, 2 Chron. 32, 31. that he might know all 
that was in his heart, 2. In refpedl of man^ becaufe, 
if from love to God he obeyed this law of probation, 
he was to come to the fruition of that beatific good, 
which is never perfecftly known, but by the enjoy- 
ment : on the contrary, if difobedient, he was to 
know by fad experience, into what plunge and abyfs 
of evils he had brought himfelf 

XXI. 3dly, The tendency of fuch a divine pre- Why God 
cept is to be confidered. Man was thereby taught, forbade 

1. That God is lord of all things ; and that it is un- ^p ^^^^^ 
lav/ful for man, even to delire an apple, but with his ^^* 
leave. In all things therefore, from the greateft to 

the leafl, the mouth of the Lord to be confulted, 
as to what he would, or would not have done by us. 

2. That man's true happinefs is placed in God alone, 
and nothing to be defired, but with fubmiiTion to 
God, and in order to employ it for him. So that 
it is HE only, on whofe account all other things 
appear good and defireable to man. 3. Readily to 
be fatisfied without even the moft delightful, and 
defireable things if God fo command : and to 
think, there is much more good in obedience to iw^ 
divine precept, than in the enjoyment of the moil 
delightful thing in the world. 4. That man was 
not yet arrived at the utmoft pitch oi happinefs, but 
to expedl a ilill greater good, after his courfe of 
obedience was over. This was hinted by the pro- 
hibition of the moil delightful tree, whofe fruit was, 
if any other, greatly to be defired, and this argued 
fome degree of imperfedion in that ilate, in which 
man was forbid the enjoyment of io':i\t good. Sec 
what follows, chap. 6. §. 1 9. 

XXII. Thus 

fed obe 

^8 TIi^ Condition of the Book, i; 

The ob- XXII. Thus far of the Laws of the Covenant^ both* 
fervation ^j^^^ of nature, and of this other fymbolical and pro- 
iLvs con- batory one. It now follows, that according to what 
fiftsinthewe propofed, §. I. of this chapter, we confider the 
moft per- oblervation of thofe laws. Accordingly, a mofl: 
perfedl obedience to all the commands of God is re- 
quired ; agreeable to that ftated rule. Lev. 1 8, 5. 
which if a man do^ hejhall live in them. And as life 
was likewife promifed upon obedience to the iymbo'- 
lical law about the Tree of Knowledge, which doubt- 
lefs was a pofitive inftitution ; fo, to obferve by the 
way, it appears, that by this reprefentation, moral 
precepts, as they are called, cannot be fo diilinguifh- 
ed from pofitive, as if to the former alone this fen- 
tence belonged, which if a man do^ he Jhall live iri 
them., and not to the latter. 

XXIII. This obedience does in the firfl place, fup- 
pofe the moft exa6l prcfervation of that original and' 

this obe- 

primative holinefs^ in which man was created. For, 
as we have already faid, God, by his law, does above 
all things require the integrity and re6litude of man's 
nature to be cheriflied and preferved, as his principal 


flowing from, the benefit he has received. In 

is three- 

the fecond place, from that good principle, good works 
ought to be produced : Charity^ out of a 'pure hearty 
and of a good coufcience^ i Tim. 1,5. In the third 
place, there ought to be a certain ready alacrity to' 
perform v/hatever God ihall reveal to man as his 
good pleajure and appointment., that in ail things he 
may be ready to fay, Speak Lord^ for thy fervant 
heareth. , 

/ XXIV. A threefold perfc5iion is required, ift, Ofj 
iParls, both with refpeft to the ful?je^^ as that the 
* whole man, lb all in foul and body, and all the facul- 
]ties of both, employ himfelf in the fervice of God, 
Thelf. 5, 23. (for man is then cdd perfect., when 


he outward man correfponds with the inward, the 
kclions with the thoughts, the tongue and hands with 
the hcarr, Ff. 16. 3, 4. and Pf 37.33, 31.) and v/ith 



Chap. 3. Covenant of VV O R K S. 
rerpe(5l to the obje5f^ as that all and each of the pre- • 
cepts are obferved, without any fin of commiffion ' 
or omifFion, Gal. 3, 10. Jam. 2, 10. 2diy, Of 
Degrees^ which, to make obedience truly valuable, 
. excludes all «^'«i>'-£*^v pardon and connivance, ftridly re- 
J. quiring obedience, to be performed with all the hearty ^ 
\ -with all the fouly vnth all the mind^ Mat. 22,37. With 
all our mighty Deut. 6, 5. nou haft co-mmandcd us to 
keep thy precepts diligently ^ Pf. 119. 4. In the third 
k place, Of Pcrfeverance^ without interruption or period. 
i God infifis upon with this rigor, Ez. 18. 24. pro- 
i .nouncing, that all his right eoufnefs that he had done, 
fijall not he rememhred, when the righteous turneth away 
from his right eoufnefs ^ which was fulfilled in Adam. 
\ This is emphatically exprefled, Deut. 27,26. Curfed 
I be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to da 
^ them, 

"" XXV. Such a perfedl obfervance of the laws of the Peifeft 
covenant, quite to the period, which God had fixed obedience 
for probation, had given man a right to the reward, f/^i^^ ^^ 
Not from any intrinfic proportion of the work to the the re- 
reward, as the grofTer Papifls proudly boaft •, but ward. 
from God's covenant, and engagement, which was 
no ways unbecoming him to enter unto. Nor had 
man, before the confummation of his obedience, 
even in the flate of innocence, a right to life. He 
was only in a flate of acquiring a right •, which would 
at length be aflually acquired, when he could fay, 
I have fulfilled the conditions of the covenant, I 
have conftandy and perfedlly done, what was com- 
manded, now I claim and expe6l, that thou my 

XXYl. How abiurdly again, do the Papifls afiert, no right 
that Adam, as he came from the hands of his Cre- to the'in- 
ator, had a right, as the adopted Son of God, to |?eruance 
fupernatural happinefs, as to his paternal inheritance, ve^ry^crca! 
which, according to Beilarmine, dc Juftificat. l.^, c. 17. tion as the 
is due to the adopted Son of Gody in right of adcpticn^ adopted 
previous to all good wcrks. But this is truly a pre- ^-?", .p^ 

poflerous piiir^i**-' 


^^ ThcCo N D I T ION of the Book i; 

poftcrous way of reafoning. For, the right of adop- 
tion belongs to the covenant of grace in Chrift Jefus : 
the adoption of children is by Jefus Chrijf^ Eph. ;, 5. 
Befides, was this opinion true, good works could 
not be required, as the condition of acquiring a right 
to eternal life -, but could only ferve to prevent the 
forfeiture of the right of a fon : by this means, the 
whole defign of the covenant of works, and all the 
righteoufnefs, which is by the law, are quite de- 
ftroyed. In fine, what can be more abfurd, thaa 
the trifling manner in which thefe fophifters talk of 
the grace of adoption, as giving Adam a right to 
enter upon an heavenly inheritance, in a legal cove- 
nant : when on the other hand, they i'o ftiffly con- 
tend for the merits of works, under a covenant 
of grace* It is only there (to wit, under the covenant 
of grace,) that we are to apply the above fen- 
timent, that the inheritance is due to an adopted 
Son of God, in right of adoption, previous to all 

good works, 




Of the Promifes of the Covena?2t of Works. 

I. Tjr AVING thus confidered the condition of The Soci- 
XT the Covenant of Works -, Let us now en> ^^^""l^^l' 
quire \nio the Promifes of that covenant. And here ^ny pro- 
firft, the Socinians come under our notice, who obfri- mifeswere 
nately deny all promifes. For, thus Volkelius^ de vera ^^^^ .^<^ 
religione^ lib, 2. r. 8. fdys; Scarce-, if at alU ^^-^his^pHmi- 
any general promife made to the men of that age : but tlve ftate. 
Yather threatni7tgs and terrors were then fet before them. 
Nor do we fee God, promifing upon Jdam, abflaining frora 
the fruit of that tree, any reward of obedience ', butoyily^ 
'denouncing defiruBion, if he did not obey. Gen. 2, 17. 
For this he afTigns the following reafon : Moreover, the 
reafon why God at that tinie would be obeyed, without pro^ 
pofing almofi any general reward, feems to be this -, be- 
caufe, at the very beginning of the world, he would 
Jhew to all that he owed nothing to any, but was himfelf 
the mofi abfolute lord of all. 

II. To this I anfwer^as follows: ift, Man's natural Tms is 
cbnfcience teaches him, that God defires not to be contrary 
ferved in vain, nor that obedience to his commands, ^°/^^Jj°j^', 
will go unrewarded and for nought. The very Heathens 
were alfo apprized of this. Avian, in his Differ t. lib, 
I. f. 12. introduces EpiEletus, fpeaking thus : If there 
are 710 Gods, how can it be the end of man to obey the 
Gcds ? But if there are, and they be yet regardlefs cf 
every thing-, how is the matter mended? But if they 
both are, and take care of human affairs \ but men have 
no recompence to expe5f from them, and have as lit tie % 
the cafe is fill worfe. Let us add, Seneca, Epift. 95. 
God docs not want ferv ants. Why fo ? He minifters him- 
felf to mankind \ being every where prefoit a'nd at hand. 
[Vhcever conceives not of God as he ought ^ dealing ell 

Vol. I. G things 

^2 The Promises of the Bookie 

things^ bejlowing his benefits freely^ will never make the 
proper proficiency. Why are the Gods fo heneficient ? 
fit is owing to the'^r nature, ^e firfi article of the 
worjhip of the Gods, is to believe that they are: then 
to render them the honour of their majefty^ and of their 
Xgoodnefs^ without which there is no majefty : to know^ 
'' that they prefide over the worlds govern all things by 
their power ^ take fpecial care of mankind^ without neg- 
le^ing individuals. In like manner, we find it among 
the articles of the Jewilh faith, as a thing naturally 
k/iown, that there are rewards as well as punifhments 
wHth God ; according to that common faying, God 
defrauds no creature of its reward. The worihip of 
God prefuppofes the belief of this : For^ be that com- 
eth to God^ mufi believe that he is^ and that he is a 
rewarder of them^ that diligently feek him. Heb. 
And of III. 2dly, Befides, this faith is not merely a cer- 
Scripture tain perfuafion of the mind, arifing from reafoning, 
and to the ^j^^ ^j^^ confideration of the goodnefs of God : but 
po*thefisof fo render it a genuine faith, it muft reft on the 
2he adver- word and promife of God : faith cometh by hearings 
^ies. and hearing by the word of God^ ', lo^ ly, 3dly, 
This was the intent of the tree of life, which the 
Socinians themfelves, in Compend. Socinian, c, 2. §. 5. 
allow to have been a kind of fyrnboU thd" ohfcure^ of 
eternal life. But that fymbol, propofed to Adam, 
eould have been of no ufe, unlefs he underftood it, 
and confidered it as a fcal of the promife made by 
God. It had been mere farce, to have prohibited 
man from accefs to, and eating of this tree after the 
fall; unlefs thereby, God had given him to under- 
hand, that he would forfeit the thing promifed, and 
Gonlequently become unworthy of the ufe of that 
fymbol and facrament. 4thly, If no promife had 
been made they might have lived without hope. 
For, the hope, which maketh not afhamed, is founded 
on the promifes. But this is the chara6ter of the 
woeful calamity of thofe, who are without God in the 


Chap. 4^' Covenant of W O R K S, ii 

lijorldy that they^ have no hope ^ Eph. 2, 12. Jthly. 
God reprcfents to Cain a thing known long before, 
even by nature, much more by paternal inftrudion : 
If thou do eft well, jhalt thou not be accepted ? Gen. 4,7. 
But did this maxim begin to be true, and to be 
known only after the fall ? 6thly, The very threatning^ 
infers a promife. The language of which at lead is, 
that he was to be deprived of that happinefs, which 
otherwife he would continue to enjoy *, we may there- 
fore, itioft certainly infer, that man had no occafion 
to be afraid of lofing that happinefs, as long as he 
kept himfelf from fin. 7thly, By this afTertion 01 
our adverfaries, according to their own hypothefes, 
all the religion of the firft man is deftroyed. Seeing, 
as our author writes atthebeginningof that chapter^ 
the promife of rewards^ for -well doings is clofely in- 
terwoven with religion, 8thly, The reafon he gives 
for this afTertion, is foolifh and to no purpofe. For, 
do thefe many and liberal promifes of eternal life, 
which God hath given us in Chrift, make it now 
lefs evident, that God is indebted to none, and is 
the mod abfolute lord of all things ? Does the Su- 
preme Being, by his gracious promifes, derogate any 
thing from- his moft abfolute dominion ? Muft it: 
not be known in all ages, that God owes nothing 
to any ? How then comes it, that God did not al- 
ways equally forbear promifing ? 

IV. Let this therefore be a fettled point, that this God Pro^ 
covenant was not eftablifhed without promifes. We ^^^^^ ^' 
now enquire, what fort of promifes God made to j^aTlife. " 
Adam. Accordingly, we believe, God promifed 
Adam life eternal, that is, the moft perfedl fruition 

of himfelf, and that for ever, after finifhing his 
courfe of obedience; our arguments are thefe: 

V. ift. The Apoftle declares that God, by fend- This ap- 
ing his fon in the flefh, did, what the law could P^^''^ ^"^^"^ 
not do, in that it was weak thro'' the fiefh, Rom. 8, %. y^J^j* 
But it is certain, Chrift procured for his own people 

a right to eternal life, to be enjoyed in heaven in 

G 2 its 

$4 'J^^^ Promises of the Book l 

its due time. This the Apoflle declares the law 
could not now do, not of itfelf, or, becaufe it has 
no fuch promifcs, but becaufe it was weak thro^ the 
fiejh. Had It not therefore been for fin, the law had 
brought men to that eternal life, which Chrift pro- 
mifes to, and freely beftows on his oWn- people. 
This appears to me a conclufive argument. 
And from VI. 2dly, 'Tis univcrlally allowed, that Paul in 
hisreafon-his epiflle to the Romans and Galatians, where he 
^"|.?"^ treats on j unification, does, under that nam'e com- 
tion. ' prize the adjudging to eternal life: he in many 
places proves, that a finner cannot be juftified, tha^t 
is, lay claim to eternallife, by the works of the law ; 
but never by this argument, becaufe the law had no 
promifes of eternal life, but becaufe man is by the law 
brought to the acknowledgment of fm, and the 
confeiTion of deferved damnation, Rom 3. 19, 20*. 
He infills on this point with great labour and pains, 
tho' othervvife he might have very eafily cut fhort 
the whole difpute ; by juft faying, that a title to 
eternal life was to be fought for by faith in Chriftj 
that it is in vain to reft upon any law, though kept 
ever fo perfedly, m regard it has no promifes of 
eternal life annexed to it. On the contrary, the 
\ Apoftle teaches, that the commandment^ confidered in 
itfelf, was ordained to life ^ Rom. 7, 10. that is, was 
fuch, as by the obfervance thereof, life might have 
once been obtained ; which if the law could ftill be- 
llow on the finner, verily^ righteoufncfs Jhould have 
been hy the law^ Gal. 3, 21. that is, the right to 
that fame happinefs, which now comes from faith 
on Chrift. For, the difpute was, concerning «^''^^''<»/'«» 
the inheritance of eternal life, which was to be en- 
tered upon; whether nov/y by means of the law, or 
by the promife of the Gofpel, ver. 18. And he owns, 
it would be by the law, could the law t^.^otsroiW* 
make alive. And this could be done by that law, 
which was ordained to life,, Rom. 7, 10. But when? 
In innocence, before it was made weak by thefeftj. 


Chap. 4. Covenant of W O R K S. 65 

If Adam therefore had perfevered in obedience, 
the law would have brought him to that fame inhe- 
ritance, which now in Chrift is allotted not to him 
that worketh, but to him that believeth. And this 
argument, if i miflake not; is plain to any pcrfon 
of thought and attention. 

VII. 3dly, Wc are above all to obferve, how the 
Apoftle diftinguifhes the righteoufnefs, which isof-^^ ^^'^^«- 
the law, from the evangelical. Of the firll he thus J5;f ^^^^^ 
fpeaks, Rom. 10, 5. Mofes defer ibeth the righteouf- ftinaion 
nefs^ which is of the law ; that the man which doth of legal 
thofe things, fhall live hy them : Of the fecond, he ^"^ ^j'^^^^- 
writes as follows; Rom. i. 17. The pift f^^-^^ live by ^^^^^^^^^^ 
faith. On both fides, the promife of life is the fame, nefs. 
and propofed in the very fame words. Nor does the 
Apoftle in the leaft hint, that one kind of life is pro- 
mifed by the law, another by the Gofpel. Which, 
if true, ought for once at leaft to be hinted ; as 
the doing this, would have ended the whole dif- 
pute. For, in vain would any feek for eternal life 
by the law, if never promifed in it. But the Apoftle 
places the whole difference, not in the thing 
promifed, but in the condition of obtaining the 
promife-, while he fays. Gal. 3. 11, 12. But that 
no man is juflified by the law in the fight of God, it is 
evident ; for the juft fhall live by faith. And the law 
is not of faith : but the man that doth them, fJoall live 
in them. That very life therefore is promifed by 
the law to the man that worketh, which he nov/ re- 
ceives through the faith on Chrift. But to what man, 
thus working, were the promifes made ? Was it to 
the finner ? Was it not to man in a ftate of inno- 
cence .^ And was it not then, when it might truly 
be laid •, if thou continueft to do well, thou ftialt be 
heir of that life upon that condition .^ And this could 
be faid to none but to innocent Adam. Was it not 
then, when the promife was adtually made ? For 
after fm, there is not fo much a promife, as a de- 

G 2 nunciatioa 

86 The Promises of the Book i , 

nunciation of wrath, and an intimation of a curfe, 
propofi ng, that as the condition of obtaining life, 
which is now evidently impoffible to be performed. 
I therefore conclude, that to Adam, in the covenant 
' of works, was prouiifed the fame eternal life, to be 
obtained by the righteoufnefs, which is of the law, 
of which believers are made partakers through Chrift. 
"But let none objedt, that all thefe arguments are 
fetched, not from the hiflory of man in innocence, 
but from PauFs reafoning. For, it is no matter, 
whence arguments are taken, if they contain ^ 
demonftration to the confcience, which, I think, 
is here evident. Undoubtedly, Adam knew a great 
deal more than is contained in that very Ihort. ac- 
count of him by Mofes. Nor does it appear to be 
without a myftery, that Mofes is more {paring on 
moft of the particulars of that covenant, and throws 
fo little light as on the ftadow of atranfient image, 
to denote that it was to evanifh. 
Laaiy, VIII. Once more, 4thly, It was entirely agree- 

from the able, that God fhould promifc Adam by covenant, 
nature of fomething greater and better, to be obtained after 
nant, °^ ' finiihing his courfe of obedience, than what he was 
already polfefTed of. What kind of covenant would 
it have been, to have added no reward to his obe- 
dience, and his faithful compliance, with the con- 
ditions of the covenant, but only a continuation of 
thofe blefllngs, which he actually enjoyed already, 
and which it was not becoming God, to refufe to 
man, whom he had created ? Now, Adam enjoyed; 
in Paradife all imaginable natural and animal hap- 
pinefs, as it is called. A greater therefore, and a exalted felicity ftill awaited' hirn •, in the frui- 
tion of which, he would moft plainly fee, that in. 
keeping the divine commands^ there is 3p nn;/ /^to-Sa-sra^^o-val 
'f^tyschrtv great reward. Pf. 19, 11. Let none objcft 
the cafe of the angels, to v/hom, he may pre- 
tend, nothing was promiied by God, but the con- 
tinuance of that happy ftate, in which they were 


Chap. 4. Covenant of W O R K S. S;; 

created. We are here to keep to the Apoftle's ad- 
vice, Col. 2, 1 8. 7iot to intrude into thvfe things we 
have notfeen. Who fhall declare unto us thofe things, 
which are not revealed concerning the angels ? Buc 
if we may form probable conjeflurcs, it appears to 
me very likely, that fome fuperior degree of happi- 
nefs was conferred on the angels, after they were 
actually comfirmed, and fomething more excellent 
than that in which they were at firft created: as the 
joy of the angels received a confiderable addition, 
upon beholding the divine perfections, fo refplendent 
in the illuftrious work of redemption ; and at the 
confummation, of all things, the happinefs of Jl 
the elect, both angels and men, v/ill becompleat; 
when Chri(l*s whole body fhall appear glorious, and 
God be glorified and admired in all his faints. 

IX. It flill remains doubtful, whether the life, Whether 
promifed to Adam upon his perfeverance, was to be this life 
enjoyed mParadife^ or in heaven. The latter appears ^^^^ ^° ^^ 

more probable, ift:, Becaufe, Paradife is in Scrip- r^'''>''^'^'*' 

* r 1 r I 11 . heaven, 

ture reprelented as a type or heaven, and heaven it- 

felf is called Paradife, Luke 23, 43. by that exchange 
of names, which is very common between a facra- 
ment, or fign, and the thing fignified thereby. But 
Is it in the leaft probable, that Paradife fliould be 
made a facrament, after man's ejedment ? 2dly, It 
is fit, that man, v/hen raifed to confummate hap- 
pinefs, fhould refide there, where God does mod 
brightly difplay the rays of his glorious majefty ; 
which doubtlefs he does in heaven, where he has 
fixed his throne, If. 6G. i. 3dly, As the earthly 
Paradife was furnifhed with all the delights and plea- 
fures appertaining to this animal life, of which tli^rc 
is no neceflity in that moft perfect and immediate 
fruition of God, all that external entertainment 
being in the higheft degree excluded thence ; heaven 
ought to be deemed a much more fuitable habita- 
uon for glorified man, than the earthly Paradife. 
G 4 However, 

88 The P R 9 M I s E $ of th^ Book i 

However, we would not deny, that happinefs does 
not depend on place-, and tncre being fcarce any 
thing, to demonflrate this, in Scripture ; therefore 
we ought not to contend flrenuoufly about fuch a 
Whether " X. This therefore is fettled ^ God prornifed to 
this pro- A^^iTi eternal life. But here it may be, and is 
^^1^ "^^ ufually alked, whence this prom ife flows, whether 
God's from the mere good pleafure of the divine will, fo 
mere good thatGod would have afted nowife unworthy of him- 
fromTis°' ^^^^' had he made nofucli promife to man : or, whether 
nature. ^ God's making the covenant with man,inthis manner^ 
was from the divi(ie nature, and from what was 
fuitable to it ? Here indeed, I think we are to be 
modeft I fhall therefore propofe, what I imagine I 
know, or rnay reafonably think or believe, concern- 
iny my God, with fear and trembling. O my God, 
grant that what 1 fhall fpeak on this point may be 
managed with a holy awe, and in a manner becom- 
ing thy majefty ! 
It is fup- XL And firfl, I lay this down as an acknowledged 
pofed.that ^^.^^j^ . ^j^^^ Q^^ Q^y^s nothing to his creature. By 
noihin-t^o ^9 claim, no law is he bound to reward it. For, all 
his crca- that the creature is, it owes entirely to God ; both 
tare. becaufe he created it, and alfo, becaufe he is infi- 
nitely exalted above it. But where there is fo great 
a difparity, there is no coriimon ftandard of right, 
by which the fuperior in dignity, can become under 
an obligation, to give any reward, Rom. ii. 

TliecxcJ XII. I approve on this fubje6l of Z)/^r^;2i^j*s rea- 
lenrrea- foning, which Bellarminc v!2i% uuMc to refute. 
Durln^us ^^^^" ^^ ^^^> ^^^ '^'^^^^ '^^ have^ "-johether good a5ls^ 
or good habits^ or practices ^ are all from the divine 
bounty^ who both gives freely a7id prcferves them. And 
becaufe none^ after having given freely ^ is obliged to give 
more., hut rather the receiver is the more obliged to the 
^iver-, tberefore^fromgoodhabitSy and good a^s orpra5fices^ 


Chap. 4. C o V E N A N f of -W O R K S. ?^ 

given us by Gody God is not hound by any debt cf 
juftice^ to give any thing more ; fo as not giving^ to be- 
come unjuji , hut rather we are bound to God. 

XIII. Whatever then is promifed to the cix?- Whatever 
tnre byGod, ought all to be afcribed to thelmmenfe i^ r^^niii"- 
goodnefs of the Deity. Finely to this purpofe fpeaks ^^ ^" ^^^^ 
Augiifiine^ ferm. 16. on the wprds of the Apollle. toTriJ- 
Qod became our debt or y not hy receiving any things hut tributed 
by promijlng what he pleafed. For^ it was of his own ^" ^,^^ 
bounty y that he vouchfafed to make himfelfa debtor. But q[^°q" j^^ 
as this goodnefs is natural to God, no lefs than holi- 

nefs and juftice-, and equally becoming God to adl, 
agreeably to his goodnefs, with a holy and innocent 
creature i as agreeable to his juflice, with a fmful 
creature j fo, from this confideration of the divine 
goodnefs, I imagine the. fqllowing things may be 
very plainly inferred. ■:-''?'•/ 

XIV. I ft. That it is unbecoming the goodnefs^ I 'Tf sin- 
had almoil ventured to add, and xht jujiice of God, ^^"[^^^nt 

J- 1 . , •',, ' with the 

to adjudge an innocent creature to hell torments, goodnefs 

A paradox, which, not only fome fcholaftic divines, audjuftke 
but which I am very forry to fay, a great divine of ^^ God to 
our own, with a few followers, fcrupled not to main- ^^"'^^^ , 
tain. Be it far from u«, to prefume to circumfcribe cent crea« 
;he extenfive power of God over his creatures, by the ture to e- 
limits of a right prefcribed to us, or by the falla- ^^"^^^ ^^^^ 
cious reafoning of a narrow underftanding. But be it ^^^^^' 
alfo far from us, to afcribe any thing to him, which 
is unbecoming his immenfe goodnefs and unfpotted 
juftice. Eflihuy with great propriety joins thefe toge- 
ther, Job, 37. 22, 23. With God is terrible majejiy, 
Touching the Almighty zve caitnot find him out : he is ex- 
cellent in power and in judgment ^ and in plenty of juftice: 
he will not ajffii5l. For, if God could thus afflidb an 
innocent creature, he would Ihew, he was not 
pleafed with the holinefs of his creature \ fmce he 
would not only deprive him of communion v/itli 
bimfclf, but alfo give him up to the cruel will of his 
'pnemies. When he dellroys the v/icked, he makes 


The Promises of the Book i. 

it plainly appear, he is not delighted with wickednefs, 
nay, in Scripture phrafe, Pf. 5. 5. hates it. Should 
he therefore, in the fame manner, torment the pious, 
he would teftify by this that he did not delight in piety, 
but rather hated it. Which none without blafphemy 
can conceive of God. And what elfe are pains of 
hell ? Are they not a privation of divine love ? A 
fenfe of divine hatred ? The worm of confcience ? 
Defpair of recovering God's favour ? Buthowis it pof- 
fible, without a manifeft contradiction, to conceive, 
this ever to be the cafe of an innocent creature ^ And 
I own, I was flruck with horror, when I obferved the 
mod fubtle Twifs^ in order to defend this paradox, 
choofe rather to maintain, it were better to be eter- 
nally miferable, and endure the torments of hell, 
than not to exiftat all-, and when he objeded to him-* 
felf the authority of our Saviour, plainly affirming 
cf Judas ', it had been good for that man, if he had not 
been horn. Mat. 26, 24. that he did not blufh to an- 
fwer •, that 7nam things are faid in Scripiire in a fi- 
gurative and hyperbolical manner, 7iay, a great deal ac^ 
comrno dated to the fenfe of the vulgar, and even to hu* 
man judgment, tho^ erroneous -, all which he applies 
to this fentence of our faviour, de Ele5l. P. 2. 1. i. 
§. 4. p. 178, 179. To what length is not even the 
moit prudent hurried, when he gives too much way 
to his own fpcculations ? I, for my part, think, So- 
fhocJes formed a founder judgment than the very 
acute Twifs, v/hen he faid-, better not he, than to live 
miferaUe : and CEfchylus, in Txion, I think it had been 
better for that man, who fuffers great pains, never to 
have been horn, than to have exifted, Bernard, fpeaks 
excellently to the famepurpofe, ad Eugcn. de Conjlder. 
lib, 5. // is not to be doubted, hut it will he much worfe 
with thofe, who will be in fuch a ft ate [<?/ mifery] than 
with thofe, who will have no exifience. For, as hq 
fays in his fermon, 35, on Solomon's Song, the foul, 
placed in that flate, lofes its happinefs, without lofing 
■its being: whereby it is always confirained to fuffer 


Chap. 4. CovENANTof W O R K S. 91 

death without dyings failure without failings and an 
end without a period, 

XV. 2diy, Nor can God on account of this his It is wor. 
o:oodncfs, refufe to communicate himfelfto, or give ^^yo^^ocl 
the enjoyment of himfelf, to an innocent, an holy enK)vment 
creature, or to love and favour it, in the moft tender ot himfelf 
manner, while it has a being, and continues pure ac- ^o an holy 
cording to its condition. For, a holy creature is V^^^^l\ 
God's very image. But God loves himfelf in the c^^not^ut 
moft ardent manner, as being the chief good : which lovehiw. 
he would not be, unlefs he loved himfelf above all. 

It therefore follows, he muft alfo love his own image, 
in which he has expreffed, to the life, himfelf, and 
what is moft amiable in him, his own holinefs. 
With what (hew of decency could he command the 
other creatures to love fuch as are holy, did he him- 
felf not judge them amiable ? Or, if he judged them 
fo, how is it pofTible, he Ihould not love them him- 

XVI. Further, God does not love in vain. It is the It is the 
charader of a lover, to wifti well to, and to do all the P|:operty 
good in his power to the objed of his love. But in ['odogood 
the good will of God, confifts both the foul's life to him 
and welfare. And as nothing can hinder his adlual- whom he 
ly doing well by, thofe whom he wifties well to : it ^°^'^^* 
follows, that a holy creature, which he neceflarily 

loves from the goodnefsof his nature, muft alfo enjoy 
the fruits and eifeds of that divine love. 

XVII. Befides, ic is the nature of love, to feek And to 
union and communion with the beloved. He does communi- 
not love in reality, who defires not to communicate ?.l® "^^*" 
himfelf to the objed of his affeclion. But, every one 
communicates himfelf fuch as he is. God, therefore, 

being undoubtedly happy, makes the creature, 
whom he loves, and honours with the communion of 
himfelf, a partaker of his happinefs. I fay, he makes 
the creature happy, in proportion to the ftate, in 
which he would have it to be. Ali thefe things 
follow from tli^at love, which we have flicwn, God 


^Z The Promts e*s of the Book u 

does, in confequence of his infinite goodnefs, ne- 
ceflarily bear to t he creature who is innocent and 
holy. >'^^' 

Neither XVIII. The fame thing may be demonffrated in 
docs he ^mother manner, and if I miflake not, incontellably 
thirft^ as follows : the fum of the divine commands is thus ; 
which he lovc me above all things : that is, look upon me as thy 
will not only chief good : hunger, and third after me : place 
quench, jj^^ whole of thy happinefs in me alone : feek me 
above all: and nothing befides me, but fo far as it 
has a relation to me. But how is it conceivable, that 
God ihbuld thusfpeak to the foul, and the foul ihould 
religioufly attend to, and diligently perform this, 
and yet, never enjoy God ^ Is it becoming the moll 
holy and excellent being, to fay to his pure, unfpot- 
ted creature, (fuch as we now fuppofe it) look upon 
me as thy chief good ; but know, I neither am, nor 
ever ihall be, fuch to thee. Long after me, but on 
condition, never of obtaining thy defire : hunger and 
thirft after me -, but only to be for ever difappointed, 
and never fatisfied : feek me above all things •, but 
, feek me in vain, who am never to be found. He 
does not know God, who can imagine, that fuch things 
are worthy of him. 
Nothine XIX. After all, if it cannot be inferred from the 
wore un. vcry nature of the divine goodnefs, that God gives 
worthy of himfelf to be enjoyed by a holy creature, proportion- 
^°^0^j^" able to its ftate-, it is poffible, notwithftanding the 
tbemoW goodnefs of God, that the more holy a creature is, 
holy a the more miferable. Which I prove thus : the 
creature is more holy any one is, he loves God with the greater 
he IS the intenfenefs of all his powers : the more he loves, 
ierabi^. ' ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ longs, hungers and thirfts, after him : 
the more intenfe the hunger and thirft, the more in- 
tolerable the pain, unlefs he finds wherewith to be 
fatisfied. If therefore, this thirft be great to the 
higheft degree, the want of what is fo ardently de^ 
fired, will caufe an incredible pain. Whence I 
iafcrj that God cannot, confiftent with his goodnefs^ 


Chip. 4. Covenant of W O R K S. $j 

refufe to grant to his holy creature the commiiniori 
of himfelf. Unlefs we yield this, it will follow, that, 
notwithftanding the goodnefs of God, it is pofl.ble 
for the higheft degree of holincfs to become the 
higheft pitch of mifery. 

XX. But let it be again obferved here, (of which 'The pro- 
we gave a hint, § VIII.) that this communion of God, ^\!^^2t^ 
of which we are fpeaking, which the goodnefs of contains 
the Supreme Being requires to be granted to a holy greater 
creature, is not all the promife of the covenant here; ^'ippinefs 
which is at length to be given, upon fulfilling the [„ ^yu^ u 
condition. For it is not to be reckoned among the Adam was 
promifes of the covenant, what God gives his crea- created. 
ture now, before he has performed the conditions 

of the covenant. Another and a far greater thing 
is promifed, after the conftancy of his obedience 
is tried, to which the creature acquires fome right, 
not fimply becaufe it is holy, (for fuch it came out 
of the hands of its Creator) but becaufe it has now 
added conftancy to holinefs, being fufficiently tried 
to the fatisfadtion of its Lord. The promifes there- 
fore of the covenant contains greater things than 
this communion and fruition of God, of whatfoever 
kind it be, v/hich Adam already enjoyed whiift ftili 
in the ilate of trial. A farther degree ofhappinefs, 
confifting in the full and immediate enjoyment of 
God, and in a more fpiritual ftate, to laft for ever, 
was propofed to him, which the Scripture ufually 
fets forth under the title of eternal life. 

XXI. And this is the proper queftion ; whether It is not 
the promife of eternal life, to be entered upon by ^^^X^/*^^^ 
all after a compleat courfe of obedience, flows from ^J^eVo- 
the natural goodnefs of God^ or, whether it is ofmifeofe* 
free and liberal good pleafure ^ Indeed, I know not, tcrnal life 
whether the fafefl courfe be not to fufpend the de- ^^^^sfrom 
cifion of this, till coming to fee God face to face, (u^al good 
we {hall attain to a fuller knowledge all his perfec- nefs, or 
tions, and more clearly difcern what is worthy of ^'^'^^'^^ the 
them. For, on the one hand, it appears to me hard ^'j-]^'|^"[^g. 

^ rality. 

The Promises of ttie Book i2 

to affirm, and fomewhat too bold, for any one ob- 
ftinately Lo infill, that it wo\ild have been unbecom- 
ing God and his perfections, to enter into covenant 
with man in this manner: namely^ if thou keepeftmy 
commands, thou (halt certainly have my favour and 
mod endearing love, I will not only fave thee from 
all uneafmefs, but alfo load thee with every benefit, 
and even blefs thee with the communion of my- 
feif ; till, having performed thy part, and being 
amply enough rewarded, I fhall at length fay ; now 
return to that nothing, out of which thou waft creat- 
ed, and my will is, that this my lad command be no 
Jefs chearfully obeyed than the others, leaft thou 
Ihouldft forfeit by this laft a6l of difobedience, all 
the praife of thy former obedience. Has the crea- 
ture any caufe to complain of fuch a ftipulation ? 
Nay, rather, may it not give him joy, fmce it is 
far better to have exifted for a few ages, in a ftate of 
hoiinefs and happinefs, than never to have exiiled 
at all. 

XXII. On the other hand, I can fcarce fatisfy my- 
fclf in my attempts to remove fome difficulties. 
For, fince (as we before proved) God does, by vir- 
tue of his natural goodnefs, moft ardently love a 
holy creature, as the lively image of himfelf, how 
can this his goodnefs dellroy that image and undo 
his own work ? Is it good unto thee, that thou jhouldfi 
tiefpife the work of thim hands F Without deferving 
fuch treatment. Job, lo, 3. If it was good, and for 
the glory of God, to have made a creature to glorify 
himfelf: will it be good, and for the glory of God 
to annihilate that creature, who thus glorifies him ? 
And thus in fad to fay, thou fhalc not glorify me 
for ever? Befidcs, as God himfelf has created the 
moft intenfc defire of eternity in the foul, and at the 
fame time, has com.manded it to be carried out to- 
waids himfelf, as its eternal good : is it becoming God 
to fruftrate fuch a defire, commanded and excited 
by himfelf ? Further, we have faid, it was a con- 

Chap.4. CovENANTof W O R K S. 9- 

tradi6lion, to fuppofe God, addrefTing himfelf to a 
holy foul in the manner following : hunger afrer me, 
but thou fhalt not enjoy me. Yet, in the moment 
we conceive the holy creature jufl finking into an- 
nihilation, it would, in confequence of chat divine 
command, hunger and third after God, without any 
hope of ever enjoying him again. l;nlefs we would 
choofe to affirm, that God at length fliould fiy to that 
foul, ceafe longing for me any more, acquiefce in this 
inllance of my fupreme dominion, by which I order 
thee to return to nothing. But I own it IbrpafTes my 
comprehenfion, how it is pofiible, a holy creature 
fhould not be bound toconfider God, as its fupreme 
good, and conlequently pant after the enjoyment of 

XXIII. O lord Jehovah, how little do we poor Ar. ad- 
miferable mortals, know of thy Supreme Deity, and ^^^^' to 
incomprehenfible perfedions ! how far fhort do our ^°^' 
thoughts come about thee, who art infinite or im- 
menfe in thy being, thy attributes, thy fovereignty 
over the creatures ! what mortal can take upon him, 
to fet bounds to this thy fovereignty, where thou 
doft not lead the way ! Lord, we know, that thou 
art indebted to none, and that there is none, who 
can fay to thee, what doft thou, or why doft thou 
fo ? That thou art alfo holy, and infinitely good, 
and therefore a lover and rewarder of holinefs. May 
the confcioufnefs of our isnorance in other thin»!> 
kindle in our hearts an inefl^able defircofthat bea- 
tific vifion, by which, knowing as we are known, we 
may in the abyfs of thy infinity, behold thofe things, 
which no thought of ours, at prefenr, can reach. 


( 9^ ) 


Of the Penal SanBio7i. 

Tjiefum j^ Y T remains that we confider ths Penal SaJiBion; 

^alVanc-^* A exprefTcd by God ir\ thefe terms. Gen. 2, 17. 

tion. for in the day that thou eat eft thereof (the tree of know- 
ledge of good and evil) thou fhalt fur ely die. 

Thismore jj^ Several things are here to be diliindly noted: 

plained!^' I ft. That all, that God here threatens, is the confe- 
quence andpunifhmentof fin, to be only inflifted ori 
the rebellious and difobedient : and therefore Socimd 
and his followers muft abfurdly make the death men- 
tioned in the threatning, a confequence not fo much 
of fin, as of nature ; but God's words are plain to any 
man's confcience, that death flows from eating oi 
the forbidden tree. 2dly, That the fin, here ex- 
prefied, is a violation not of the natural, but of the 
fymbolical law, given to man for the trial of his 
moil perfect obedience. But even from this, he 
might eafily gather, that if the tranfgreflTio'n of a pre- 
cept, whofe univerfal goodnefs depends only on the 
good pleafure of God, is thus to be punilhed, the 
\ tranfgrefilon of that law, which is the tranfcript of 
the mod holy nature of God, defe'rves much greater. 
3dly, That it is altogether agreeable to God's autho- 
rity and mod righteous will, that there be a cer- 
tain connexion between the fin and the punifhmcnt, 
denounced by thefe words. This alfo is indicated 
by the ingemination in the original, dying thou fhalt 
die^ that is, thou fhalt mod certainly die. So that, 
it is not pofiible, for the finner to efcape death, un- 
lels perhaps a proper fponfor (of which this is not 
the place) fhould undergo it, in his dead. 4thly, 
That the words of the threatning are general, and 
therefore, by the term, deaths we ought here ro un- 


Chap. 5. SANCTION. 97 

derftand, whatever the Scriprure any where fignlfies by 
tha: p.?Ai.ic. For, '>vhowi]i prefume kg have a righc 
of limiting the extent of the divine threatning ? Nay, 
- the Vv'ords are not only general, but ingeminated too^ 
plainly teaching us, that they are to be taken in 
their fu'l emphafis, or fignification. fthly, Tiiat they 
are fpoken to Adam, in fuch a manner, as alio to re- 
late to his poilerity : a certain evidence, that Adam 
was the reprefentative of all. 6thly. That, on the 
very day, the fin fhould be committed, punifh- 
m^nt fhould be inflicted on man •, juftice required 
this, and it has been verified by the event. For, 
in the very moment when man fmned, he became 
obnoxious to death, and immediately, upon finifhing 
his fin, felt she beginnings both of corporal and fpi- 
ritual death. Thefe things are here exprefi^ed with 
far greater fimplicity than in the fidlionsof the Jewifli 
do(5lors, according to Ben Jacchi^ on Dan. 7. 25. 
Where he fpeaks thus: A thoufand years are as one 
time, and one day, in the fight of the holy and hlejfed 
God, according to Pf. 90. 4. For, a thoufand years in 
thy fight are hut as yefterday, and our doctors of hleffed 
memory faid, thatGtn. 2. ij, for in the day that thou 
eat efi thereof, thou fh alt fur ely die, is to he underfloodof 
the day of the holy and hleffed, that therefore the firfi 
man did not compleat his day •, {not arrive at his thoU' 
fandth year,) that of that day he wanted feventy years i, 
But this is far fetched, and favours of rabbinical 

III. It will be far more ufeful, a little more ac- By death 
curately, to examine, what is here meant by the |f ^"^^V'a. 
word death. AndFirll, it is moft obvious, that by the death 
that term is denoted that bad difpofition of the body, of the bo- 
now unfit for the foul's conftant refidence, and by ^y« 
which the foul is conilrained to a feparation from it. 
By this feparation the good things of the body, 
which are unhappily doated on, the fruits of fin, and 
the finner's ill-grounded hope, are fnatched away 
at once. God intimates this. Gen. 3. 10. till thou 

Vol. I. ri return 

c.^ Of the Penal Book i. 

return unto the ground -, for out of it wafi thou taken : 
for, duft thou art^ and unto dufiJJjalt thou return. That 
is, thy body, which v/as formed our of the earth, fhall 
return to its principles, and be reduced to earth 
ao-ain, unto which, by its nature it is refolvable, as 
being taken out of it. And the reafon, why it is 
adually to be refolved unto earth, is^ becaufe it 
really is what God faid, thou artduft^ now corrupted 
with earthly defires, a flave to a body, prone to fin, 
and taken from duft. In this fenfe Abraham con- 
fefies himfelf to he dufi and afhes^ Gen. i8. 27. that 
is a mortal fmner. And David fays, Pf 103. 14. 
he knoweth ^^'^'^' cur frame (called Gen. 8. 21. V"in ^T 
an evil frame, which paflage Kimchi dire6ls to be com- 
pared with this,) he remember eth that we aredujl^ at- 
tached to the ground, and vicioufly inclined to the 
good things of the earth. From this confideration, 
the prophet amplifies the mercy of God, in exer- 
cifing it towards fmners, in whom he finds nothing 
to deferve his love. And by dufi is clearly fignified. 
If. 6^, 25. the finful body. Where it is faid of the 
ferpent, the devil, now overcome by the kingdom of 
the Meffiah, duft flj all he his focd^ he fliall only have 
the pleafure to deftroy the body, and men of carnal 
difpofitions. Whereas then, after Adam finned, God 
condemned him to the death of the body for his fin, 
it is not to be doubted, but he alfo comprized this 
death in the comminatlon. Unlefs we will venture 
to aflirm, that God has infiided greater punifhmenc 
on the finner, than he threatned before the commif- 
iion of fin. 
A furnrif- ^^^ ' There is nothing fo furprifing but what may 
ing turn ^^ devifed by a luxuriant fancy. There is a ccr- 
given to tain learned man, who, in the words of IMofes 
the fen- ^bove explained, can find an extraordinary pro- 
coiukm- ^^^i^^' ^'"^"^ ^^^" clearer, and more pregnant with 
i;anon, confoLition, than the, prophcfy concerning the 
making it {^^^ of the wotnan. He thinks here is pointed out 
conta^i a ^j,^ period and boundary of tails ^ that the meaning 

promife. ' 

Chap. 5. S A N C T I O N. $9 

Is, till thou floalt return to this land, Paradife, the (late 
of happy fouls, from wliich nnp^, thou ijooft carried 
captive. For, tlius Solomon rii^^"? xz^m^h, captivated 
to deaths and Jeremiah mp^, thy children carried unto 
captivity. And he thinks, that the opinion of the 
Jews concerning the gathering the fouls of the pious 
intoParadife, has no other paflage, or foundation, to 
fupport it. But this is nothing but the fally of a 
wanton imagination. Whereas for our part, we 
take pleafure oiily in what is found and fober, and 
yields fatisfadion to the confcience. But to return 
to our fubjedr. 

V. It is no ways ftrange, that the Socinians, whofe "^^^^ ^^^ 
praftice it is to wreft the Scriptures, fhould con- ^^o^^eny 
tradid this truth, and deny, that the death of the that thJ 
body is the punifliment of fin. Their other perverfe c^eath of 
hvpothefes make this neceffary. For, by denying ?^" ^°^>' , 
this, they imagme, they can more eanly aniwer our j^ ^^h 
argum.ents, for original fin taken from the death of threatn- 
infants, and for the fatisfadion of the Lord Chrift, i^ig. 
from his death. And as they impioufly deny the 
true godhead of Chriil, they alledge as the moft 
excellent fign of his fictitious divinity, that he was 
the firfl preacher, author, and beilower of immorta- 
lity ; but their blafphemies have been largely and 
folidly refuted by others. But I am forry, that any 
learned perfon of our own, fl:ould deny, that by the 
death denounced. Gen. 2. 17. the death of the bo- 
dy ought to be underftood : and who thinks, he 
grants a great deal, when he writes as follows : 
From which place ^ if any injtft^ they can prove a manifold 
kind of deaths eternal^ fpiritual^ and corporal^ and 
ether affiiBions^ I can eajily bear their fighting with 
thefe vjeapons againfi the enemies^ fo they can extort 
from t' em what they want. Thefe are none of the 
beiu expreffions. Why, without necelTity, grant (o 
much to our adverfaries? Is it at all commendable 
for us, to weaken thofe arguments v/hich have been 
happily made ufe of in defence of the truth? This 

H 2 learned 

100 Of the P E N A L Book i. 

learned perfon owns, that death is the punifhment 
of fin, and that it may be evidently proved from the 
fentence pronounced upon Adam, Gen. 3.19. What 
reafon is there then not to believe, that the fame 
death was propofed to man in the preceeding threatn- 
ing ? Are not the words general, and ingeminated 
to give them the greater emphafis ? Is not the death 
of the body exprefsly fet forth by the very fame 
phrafe ? i Kings, 2. 37. Where Solomon tells Shimei 
mon niD, thou jhalt die the death. Is not the very 
found of the words fuch, as a man cannot but have 
this death of the body come into his mind •, unlefs a 
prejudiced perfon fhould refufe to underftand here 
by death, what every one clfe does, when death is 
fpoke of ? Is it not alfo highly becoming the divine 
goodnefs and iufrice, to inflifl nothing by a con- 
demnatory fentence on man, which was not pre- 
vioufly threatned againft fin •, lead happily man 
Ihould plead in excufe, he did not know, that God 
would fo highly refent, and fo feverely punifh fin ? 
And feeing this learned perfon would have death 
eternal here meant, does not that include the death 
of the body ? Is the former ever inflidted on man, 
but after the latter, by raifmg him from that death, 
that the whole man, foul and body, may be eternal- 
ly miferable ? Why are thus fufpicions entertained , 
of which, alas! we have but too many ? I could wifh 
we all fpoke with caution, ivith fear and trembling ! 
This learned perfon will, it is hoped, not take amifs, 
if I here fugged to him the very prudent advice of 
Cocceius, which in a like cafe he inculcates on Gen. 3. 
§. 190. Thofe of our party, fays he, want wejhould 
employ Jlronger arguments againji the Jews. And cer- 
tainly, that admonition is good % namely, when we have 
to do with infidels we are to make ufe of cogent argu- 
ments ; leafl we become the derifion of infidels, and con* 
firm them in error. But as to the inculcating that rule^ 
it is neither fafe nor prudent, readily and frtqiiently to 
cppofe it to the arguments of Ecclejiaflics, For, if 


Chap. 5. SANCTION. roi 

thereby we refute them ^ N. B we then go over to the 
'party of the adverfaries^ and we arm them^ ar,d teach 
them to cavil. But if we don^t refute them., hut only 
inculcate that admonition ; an injury is certainly done 
loth to the difputant and the hearer., andwefeem to give 
our own opinion., as an argument. Let every one therefore 
argue with the utmoft folidity : and if any manifeflly 
ahujes Scripture., let him be corre5led in a brotherly man- 
ner., upon pointing out his fault. As for the reft., let 
the argwments of believers be thoroughly tried., and not 
hiffedoff the ft age. 

VI. Secondly, by death is here underftood,all that Death 
lading and hard labour, that great forrow, all the likwife 
tedious miferies of this life, by which life ceafes to denotes 
be life, and which are the fad harbingers of certain • "^f^- 
death. To thefe things man is condemned. Gen. 3. life. * 

16, 17, 18, 19. The whole of that fentence is 
founded on the antecedent threatning ; fuch miferies 
Pharaoh himfelf, called by the name. Deaths Ex. 10. 

17. And David., Pf 116. 3. calls his pain and 
anguifh, niQ^^nn, the bands (forrows) of death \ by 
thefe, death binds and faftens men, that he may 
thruft them into, and confine them in his dungeon. 
Thus alfo, Paul, 2 Cor. it. 23. In deaths often^) 
and 2 Cor. 4. 11. are always delivered unto death, 
ibid. V. 12. Death worketh in lis. As life is not bare- 
ly to live, but to be happy ; fo death is not to de- / 
part this life in a moment, but rather to languifli in 

a long expectation, dread and forefight, of certain 
death, without knowing the time, which God has 
foreordained. Finely to this purnofe, fays Picus 
Mirandula^ in his treatife de Eute & uno. For., we 
begin., fhculd you haply not know it., to die then., when we 
begin firft to live: and death runs parallel with life \ 
and we then firft ceafe to die., when fet free from this mor- 
tal body., by the death of theflefh. 

VII. Thirdly, death lignifies^/nVW death, or the But prln- 
feparation of the foul from God. Elegantly has cipallythe 
Jfidorus Pelufiota ^, 232. defined it: ^edeath of the^^^^^f^^^ 
H 3 immortal Iq:,^goI 


Of the Penal Book 

immortal foul is the. departure of the holy fpirit from it* 
This is what the Apoftlecalls, Eph. 4. i8. being alie- 
nated^ from the Ife of God^ which illuminates, fanc- 
tifies, and exhilirates the foul. For, the life of thq 
foul confifts in wifdom, in pure love and to have the 
rejoicing of a good confcience. The death of the 
foul confiits in folly, and, thro' concupifcence, in -s, 
feparation from God, and the tormenting rackings 
of an evil confcience. Hence the Apoftle fays, 
Eph. 2.1. We are dead in trefpajjes andfins. 
Splntual VIII. But I would more fully explain the nature of 
^e^^^^ this death, not indeed, in my own, but in the words 
jiiore fully ^ another, becaufe, I defpaired to find any more 
' emphatical Both livmg and dead bodies have mo- 

/tion. But a living body moves by vegetation, 
I while it is nourilhed, has the ufe of its fenfes, is de- 
lighted and aifls with pleafure. Whereas, the dead 
body moves by putrefaction to a Hate of dilTolution 
' and to the prodqclion of loathfome animals. And 'io, 
in the foul, fpiritually alive, there is motion, while 
it is i^^^ repafled and fattened with divine delights, 
while it takes pleafure in God and true wifdom, 
while, by the ftrength of its love, it is carried to, and 
fixed on that which can fullain the foul, and give it 
a fweet repofe. But a dead foul has no feelings 
that is, it neither underftands truth, nor loves right- 
eoufnefs, wallows, and is fpent and tired out, in the 
'^:Sri,-fink of concupifcence, breeds and brings forth the 
'"'•worms of impure and abominable thoughts, reafon- 
incTS and affections. Men therefore alienated from 
that fpiritual life, which confifts in the light of wif- 
dom, and the activity of love, who dehght in their 
own prefent happinefs, are no better than living car- 
*: cafes, I Tim. 5. 6. Bead vjhilft living: and hence 
.p y lin Scripture, are laid to be fpiritually dead. 
fion oTthe'^ IX. The word, ^nj, %c.v, which the Scripture ap- 
word S-i3. plies to fuch, is both emphatical and of a very fer- 
tile fignification. For, it denotes, ift. A fool, cor- 
rupt in all the faculties of the foul, void of tha; 


Chap. 5. SANCTION. 103 

fpiritual wifdom, the beginning of which is the fear 
of the Lord. Nahal is his mme^ a7id folly is zvith him^ 
is AhigaVs character of her hufhand, i Sam. 25. 25. 
This ^:3J is oppofed to cddh, wife^ Dcut. 32. 6. 
O foolijh people and tinwife. 2dly, It alfo denotes a 
wicked perf on ^ Pf. 74: i8. the foolijh people have hiaf- 
phemed thy name, gdly, and laftly, It fignifies one 
in a dead and withered Jiate -, the root ^^^ denoting 
to wither and die away^ If. 40. 7. the flower fadeth : 
n^na is a dead body ^ If 26. 19. thy dead men Jhall live. 
All yvhich conjointly denote a man devoid of the 
wifdom of God, overwhelmed with fin, and deftirute 
of the life of God •, in a word, faded and breeding 
worms, like a dead body. In all which fpiri:ual 
death confiils. 

X. This fpiritual deaths is both fin, and the na- Spiritual 
tural confequence of the firft fin, being at the fame ^^^^^^ 
time threatened as the punifhment of fin. For, asandpu- 
it renders man vile, and entirely incapable to per- niihment. 
form thofe works, which alone are worthy of him, 
as it makes hirn like the brute creatures, nay, and 
even like the devil himfelf, and unlike God, the only 
hlejjed being, and confequently renders him highly 
miferable, fo it mud be an exceeding great punifh- 
ment of fin. 

XL Fourthly and laftly. Eternal death is alio Eternal 
here intended. The preludes of which, in this life, ^-^^'^ ^"5* 
are the terrors and anguifh of an evil confcience, the ^^^^^ '^^^^* 
abandoning of the foul, deprived of all divine con- 
folation, and the fenfe of the divine wrath, under 
which it is miferably prefTed down. There will en- 
fue upon this the translation of the foul to a place of 
torments, Luke, 16. ;Z3 — 25. Where fliallbe the 
hiding of God's face, the want of his glorious pre- 
fence,and a mod intenfe feeling of the wrath of God, 
for ever and ever, together with horrible defpair, 
Rev. 14. II. At laft will fucceed, after the end 
of the world, the refurredion gf the body to eternal 
punifliment. Adsj 24. 15, 

H4 XII. And 

104 ^^ ^'^^ Penal Book i, 

Theopi- XII. And here again, the Socinian divinity, adopt- 
rion of g,jj i^y ^l^g remonilrants, thwarts the truth : main^ 
JiJ-^JJ^j^^^'taining, Ap. p. 57, that by thefe words, i:hou (liak 
furely die, or by any others elfewhere^ Adam was not 
threatened with eternal death, in the jenje of the Evan- 
gelifis {or Protefiants ♦,) fo as to comprize the eternal 
death of body and Jcul, tozether with the ;punijhment of 
* p^j} : but direUly corporal death only, or a feparalion 

of f'-'^'i-- '^""'^'d body •, which, all the evils diffoftng to death, 
do precede-, and upon which, at length, the eternal pii- 
nifhrnent of lofs., that is, the privation of the vifion of 
God, or of grace and glory ^ will enfue. Another of 
that clafs, who examined in French the do<l>rliie of 
Amiraldus and 'Teftard, violently contends, that in the 
law there is no mention of the fenfe of infernal pains,' 
but that it is peculiar to the Gofpel, and threatned 
at lall, againfl the profane defpiiers thereof, p. 59 
and 114. Tho' elfewhere he adds, thofe who Jiifle 
the light of reafon, or hold the truth in unrighteoufnefs, 
the more freely to fulfil the lufts of the fleflj. As to 
others, he thinks, a middle flat e is to be affigned them^ 
into which they may be received, different from the king- 
dom of heaven, a-nd the damnation of hell fire : ftuh as 
perhaps, that they are for ever to remain in the dufi, 
to which they are to be reduced, and from thence never 
to arife, Curcellceus differ t, de neceff, Cognit. Chriftian. 

The pu- Xni. But this is the rankeft poifon. For, either 
niihment they would infinuate, that the foul of a finner is to 
oflofsm i^g cutoff, deftroyed and annihilated-, like fome of 
irigfouY^* the Jews, and Mainionidts himfelf, as quoted by 
cannotbut Abarbanel, on Mai. 4. who place eternal death in 
be accom- this, that the foul fij all be cut off, fioall perifh, and not 
^^"r\ furvive -, from which leaven of the Epicureans and 
puiiifh- Sadducees the Socinians profefs themfelves not averfe : 
jneiiL of or elfe they afiert what is the moil abfurd, repugnant, 
(enfe. 2ind. tends to weaken the authority and meaning of 
the whole Scripture. F'or, it is impofllble to con- 
ceive the foul of man, in a Hate of exigence, ex- 

Chap. 5. SANCTION. 1 05 

eluded from the beatific vifion of God, deprived of 
the fenfe of his grace and glory, and not be moft 
grievoufly tortured with the lofs of this chief good •, 
efpecially as confcience (hall incelTantly upbraid the 
foul, who, thro' its own folly, was the caufe of all 
this mifery, and torment it with the moft dire def- 
pair of ever obtaining any happinefs. And feeing 
God does not exclude man from the vifion of his 
face, where is fulnefs of joy, without the jufteftdif- 
pleafure, a holy indignation, and an ardent zeal 
againft fin and the finner; the privation of this fu- 
preme happinefs arifing from the wrath of God, can- 
not but be joined with a fenfe of the divine difplea- 
fure and malediction. Thefe things flow from the 
very nature of the foul, and deferve a fuller illuftration. 

XIV. The foul of man was formed for the con- Becaufe It 
templation of God, as the fupreme truth, /r^/i? //- is fad and 
felf^ and to feek after him, with all the affection of '^^^^^^^^^'^ 
his foul as the fupreme good, goodnefs itfelf^ and it ^ver ex- 
may be faid truly to live, when it delights in the eluded 
contemplation of that truth, and in the fruition of ^"^o"^ "^^^ 
that goodnefs. But when, by the juft fentence of a ^J-''^^]^^^"^ 
defpifed Deity, it is excluded that moft pleafant con - areateft 
templation of truth, and moft delightful fruition of happinefs. 
goodnefs •, then it muft certainly own itfelf to be 
dead. And as it is fo delightful to enjoy a good, 
moft defireable and defired \ fo it muft be afBicting 
and painful, to be difappointed of it. Butfincethe 
foul, which is a fpiritual fnbftancc, endued with 
underftanding and will, cannot be without the aftive 
exercife of thefe faculries, efpecially when let loofe 
from the fetters of the body •, it muft neceffarily per- 
ceive itfelf miferable, by being deprived of the chief 
good ; and being confcious of its mifery, moft bit- 
terly lament the want of that good, which it was 
formed to feek after. To fuppofe afoul, that has 
neither underftanding nor will, is to fuppofe it not 
to be a foul. Juft as if one fuppofed a body without 
quantity and extenfion: again, to fuppofe afoul fenfi- 
ble of its mifery, and not grieved becaufe of it, is con- 

10(5 Of the Penal Book i. 

trary to the nature, both of the foul, andof mifery. It is 
certainly therefore, an abfurd and contradidory hc- 
tion, to fuppofe the human foul to be under the pu- 
nifnment of lofs, without the punilhment of fenfe at 
the fame time. 
Ao this XV. Further, as the foul cannot be ignorant, that 
proceeds God is infinitely good, and that it is the nature of 
from goodnefs to be communicative ; it thence certainly 
^^^^^^^^^'^' gathers, thatfomethingexceedingiy contrary to God, 
Ldwmh, muft be found in itfelf, which he has the mod per- 
theremuil fed deteftation of, and on account of which he, who 
be afenie jj, jpji^f^jj-^ly gQQ(j^ Can have no communion with his 
*^^^^* creature: and that therefore that non-communion 
is the mod evident fign and fad effedt of the divine 
difpleafure, depriving the man of the fruition of that 
good, by which alone he could be happy. And 
thus, in this punifhment of lofs there is an exquiiite 
fenfe of the wrath of God : with which no torments 
of the body by material fire can be compared. 
Ther3 are XVI. Befides, the foul being confcious to itfelf 
likewjie of having by its fins been the caufe of this mifery, 
mlniin becomes enraged againil itfelf, accufes, abhors, 
Slenges tears itfelf, ac^ts the tormentor againft itfelf, and un- 
ct conici-der this lafh more feverely fmarts, than any criminal 
^^'^--- under the hands of the mod unrelenting executioner. 
Add, that all hope of a happy reftitution faihng, be- 
ing racked with horrid defpair ; it is appointed to 
eternal mifery. All thefe things are fo clofely con- 
netled, as to make themfelves manifeft to every con^ 
fcience, upon the leaft attention. 
TheScrir-^ XVII. The fame things the Scripture exprefsly 
ture;, men- teach, whei) they fpeak of eternal punifiment^ Mat, 
tion eter-2;;, 46. and torments, Luke, 16. 23, 28. oi the 
v-\^^' ''-^^orm that dieth not^ and the fire that is not autnched^ 
Mark, 9. 44. and the like; expreflions too flro ng, 
to be underftood of the punilhment of lofs only, 
without that of fenfe. 
%V]nc1i all XVIII. And it is abfurd to fay, that this punifh- 
impcni- rpent is threatned only againft the contemners of the 


Chap. 5: SANCTION. 107 

Gofpel, feeing Paul teftifies, that Chrift is to comcjn fent fin- 
flamingfire taking vengeance^ not only, on them that "^J^^ "^^^^ 
aheynot the Gofpd^ but on them that know not God.^^^ "'^" • 
2 ThefT. I. 8- compare i ThefT. 4. 5. /^^ Gentiles 
which know not God. Such namely, who would not 
know God even from the works of creation, and 
did not like to retain God in their knowledge^ Rom. i. 
28. The very power of truth obliged Curcellcvus to 
fay, ia the place alove cited^ thefe are altogether inex- 
cufahle before God^ and therefore it is not to he wondered^ 
if^ hereafter^ they he configned to the punifhment of eter- 
nal fire. And our adverfaries will not fay, that the 
Gofpel was preached to thofe of ^odom and Gomorrha, 
and the neighbouring cities. And yet, concernino- 
them Jude writes, v. 7. that they are fet forth for an 
example^ fuffering the ^-engeance of eternal fire. Words 
not to be reflric^ed to that fire, wherewith thofe cities 
were burnt, but to be extended to the flames of 
hell, with which the lewd inhabitants of thofe cities 
are, at this very day, tormented. Thefe things are 
to be diftinguiihed, v/hjch the nature of the things 
teaches to be diftinft. Thus, we are to underftand, 
giving themfelves over to fornication^ and going after 
ftrange flefh^ of the inhabitants ajid not of the towns. 
But it is true of both, that they were burnt with 
fire: which with refpecfl to the towns ^ may in fome 
r^ieafure be faid to be eternal^ they being fo confumed, 
as that they never fhall or can be reflored. But it 
is truly eternal mih refpe6l to the inhabitants, who, by 
that vengeance of God, were not annihilated j but 
at the time, when the Apoftle was writing, having 
been caft head-long into everlafting pain and tor- 
ment, they fuffered the punifhment of that fire, of 
which, whoremongers fhall have their part in the lake^ 
which bur neth with fire and brimftone^ Rev. 21. 8. 
So thefe cities are an emblem or type of eternal fire, 
but their wicked inhabitants fufii'er the vengeance of 
sternal fire ^ and fo both are for an example f Peter fays, 

2 Pet, 

io8 Of the P E N A L Book t. 

2 Pet. 2. 6. an example J by which we are reminded^ 

what whore-mongers are toexpe61:. 

To which XIX. Chrifl alfo exprefsly declares to the fame 

they fhali purpofe, Mat. 25. 41, that all, who flialj be placed 

demnedin^^ his left hand, and not declared heirs of eternal 

the laft' life, fhall, by a righteous fentence, be condemned to 

judgment-, evertafitng fire^ which is prepared for the devil a?td his 

which IS (i^iggis^ v^hich fire, v. 46, is explained to be x'^^«<^»»' 

' ctiunoveverlajlingpumjhmejit. We cannot approve what 

CurcelUus^ in the faid differtation, §. 6. has written j 

that in Matthew is not defer ihed a judgnieyit in every 

refpe^ univerfal^ of all who ever had exifled^ hut only 

of thofe^ who made a profeffion of the Chriflian religio7> ; 

fome of whom behaved heccming the GcfpeU others not. 

Thefe are expreflions not of the bed flamp. For, 

Ihall not that judgment be univerfal, which our Lord 

extends to all nations^ Mat'. 25. 32 } To all the tribes 

of tke earthy Mat. 24. 30 } In which every eye fhall fee 

Chrill: the judge. Rev. i. 7 ? In which, according 

to Paul, A 61s, 17. 0^1, he will fudge the world ? In 

which both/^^, and deaths and hell will deliver up their 

dead to be judged, Rev. 20. 13? In which fhall be 

accomplifiied the prediction, which God folemnly 

confirmed by oath, faying, every knee fhall bow to 

me^ and every tongue fhall confefs to God^ Rom. 14. 11? 

In which even the men of Niniveh and the queen of the 

Souths fhall rife to condemn the wicked Jews, Mat. 

12. 41, 42 ? And their portion of torment be af- 

figned to thofe of 'Tyre^ and Sidon and Sodom, Mat. 

II, 22, 24.'' In which fhall be inBidled on thaty^r- 

vant^ who knew not his mafiers will^ and did commit 

things worthy of ftripes, his due mcafure of ftripes, 

Luke 12. 48 } In which, in fine, they who have finned 

without law ^ fhall per ifh without law, Rom. 2. 12? 

To reftridl all thi^ to thofe, to whom the Gofpel has 

been preached, is'to make fport with Scripture, but 

God will not be fported with. 

Tho'C(jr- XX. But fhould C«rf^//,^//j perhaps reply, that he 

r^//^:// de- (Jenies not an univerfal judgment to come, but that 
nies this. • ^ 

Chap. 5. SANCTION. 109 

it is not dcfcribed either in Mat. 25, or in thofe paf- 
figes, in which the men to be judged, are divided 
iiuo two clafTes : as John f^, 28,^29. 2 ThefT. i. 
6, &:c. I anivver: id, That the Scripture makes 
mention but of one judgment, to be held on the latl 
day, and no where teacheth us, that a different tri- 
bunal is to be ere6ted for thofe, to whom the Gof- 
pel was not preached, and for thofe to whom it was. 
Paul was preaching, Adls, 24. 25. of the judgment to 
come^ in the Angular number •, in like mianner, 
Heb. 6. 2. oi eternal judgment, 2 dly. The parages 
alledged, have the marks of univerfality, affixed to 
them. For, John 5. 28. it is faid. All that are in 
the graves jh all hear the voice of the [on of man ^ and 
V. 29. this univerfality is not to be divided into thofe, 
who either by faith received the Gofpel preached to 
them, or preverfely rejedted it \ but into thofe, who 
have done good or evil^ without mentioning the Gof- 
pel in the lead. And 2 ThefT. i. ,6, &c. the pu- 
nilhment of eternal deflrudion will be infli6ted, by 
the fentence of the judge, not only on thofe, who 
were difohedtent to the Gofpel^ but alfo on thofe, who 
knew not God, viz. God the Creator^ to the knowledge 
and worfhip of whom nature alone might have lead men^ 
unlefs they had extinguifhed its light thro* their wicked- 
nefs^ as CurcelUus himfelf explains it. 3dly, Nor is 
it any thing fingular, to diilribute the perfons to be 
judged into two claffes, but common in every judg- 
ment concerning all mankind : of which there are 
but two difTimular bodies, either of thofe to be ac- 
quitted, or thofe to be condemned. An interme- 
Tdiate date the Scripture knows nothing of 

XXI. The only thing fpecious adduced by Cur- .^h^^ ^^ 
celUus^ is this, that Chrid cannot upbraid thofe, who chriftl^"* 
knew nothing of his will ; with thefe words, /'Jx;^^ ^ords are 
an hungary^ dec. But we anfweriy id. That Chrid, to no pur- 
in what he here fpeaks, takes not in the whole pro- po^^* 
ccfs of the judgment, but only mentions this by 


Of the Pe N A t fiook t; 

way of example. For, who can doubt, that more 
things are to be confidcred in this judgment, even 
with refpe6l to xhofe, to whom the Gofpel was 
preached, than barely thofe effe^ls of charity to- 
wards the godly, when afHided ? 2, The Scripture 
declares, that all the atlions of all perfons fhall be 
tried in this judgment, Eccl. 12. 14. 2 Cor. 5. 10. 
Rom. 2. 5, 6, &c. YNtnwords^ Mat. 12, 37. both 
theidle^ and hard^ Jude, v. 15, nay, even the fecrets 
of the hearty Rom. 2. 15, 16, i Cor. 4. 5. 3, It is 
not our bufmefs to determine with what the judge 
may juftly upbraid the damned. It is plain, he 
will upbraid them with thofe things at leaft, which 
they (hall hear with the mofl dreadful amaze- 
ment. And feeing all the damned have difcovered 
many evidences of an unrelenting, unmerciful, and 
unbenificent difpofition ; who of us fhall dare to 
cenfure Chrift, for interpreting this tlieir condu6l, 
as if they would have fliewn himfelf no kind of com- 
panion, had he come among them in perfon ^ 4. and 
lailly. Granting that Chrift may not upbraid all the 
wicked with this, yet it does not follow, that they 
are not to come to judgment-, becaufe there are 
many other things, that fliall be tried in this judg- 
ment, and for which they fhall be condemned, 
which the Scripture elfewhere declares, tho', in this 
furamary, Chrift makes no mention of them. There 
is nothing to conftraio us to believe, that every 
thing, relative to this judgment, is to be learned from 
this pafTage alone : other teftimonies of Scripture are 
to be confulted, which treat on the fame fubjecl. 

XXII. It remains, that we enquire, whence this 
PenalSan^lion istobe derived-, whether from the mere 
good pleafureof the divine will only, or rather from 
the natural and immutable juftice of God, to which 
it would be unbeeoming to have ordered otherv/ife. 
God, and I f]-ja]l not now repeat, what the antagonifts of the 
tura/"^"^-' ^ocimam^ have fully and happily iliuilrated, con- 
fe^uoru' cerning vindidive juftice, as an elTcntial property of 


Chap. 5. S A N C T I O N. iir 

God, and the necefTity of Its exercife, In cafe of fin. 
Firft, I fliall only propofe fome arguments, by which 
this general propofition may, I think, be moll evi- 
dently demonflrated, that it is agreeable to God*s 
very nature and immutable right, not to let fm go 
unpunifhed -, and then more eipecially inquire into 
the eternity of punifliment. 

XXIII. And firft, let us duly confider the infinite P°^''J^^- 
majefty of God, and his fupreme authority over all f^ch that 
things ; Vv^hich is fo illufl:rious, that it obliges rational he cannot 
creatures, capable of knowing it, to obey and ferve ^^^"^^ if ^o 
him, as we proved, chap. 11. §. VIII. As often thenf^^^^^ 
as they, in the lead, deprive him of this obedience, infliaing 
they direclly incur the guilt of high treafon againd punifh- 
the divine majefty, and confequently, are bound over "^^"^• 

to a puniihment adequate to this crime, for negleft 
of obedience. For, the finner^ as Thomas [Aquinas'] 
juftly laid, as much as in him lies^ deftroys God and his 

attributes^ llighting that majefty of God, to which 

it is necefiTary, that all things be lubjedl from the con- 
fideration both of God and the creatures. But it is ^^-««i 

altogether impoifible, that God Iliould not love, in 
the tendered manner, both himfelf, his majefty and 
his glory. Now, he cannot but refent an injury 
done to what he thus loves. And therefore, he calls 
himfelf, i^^P ^^ a jealous God^ and declares that this 
is his name, Ex. 34, 14. But n^^p denotes rf/^/2/;;?f«/ 
for the dear eft thing : and htncejealou/y and great fury 
are joined together, Zach. 8. 2. But above all things, 
he is jealous for his name, that is, that it be made 
known to men as it is, Ez. 39. ir^. and will he jea- 
lous for my holy name. In which name even this is 
contained, and will by no means clear the guilty, Ex. 

34 7- 

XXIV. We may likewife argue from, the majefty Much lefs 
of God in this manner. It is altogether /;;?^^>^^^f, can he de- 
^^^2itQiQ^i fjjould deyiy himfelf: 2 Tim. 2. 13. Thatis, "X/^' 
that he fliould conceal his own perfections, or do ^^0^;"^ 
any thing to m.ake him appear to be, what he is not, feemtodo 


112 Of the Penal Book i. 

if he fuf- or that he is not pofifefled of properties, truly divine : 
fercdany ^^^ ^^^^ becaufe he is himfelf the archetype, and 
d"on7to exemplar of the intelligent creature •, to whom he is 
go un- to difcover in his works, his nature, dignity, prero- 
punilhed. gative and excellence. He would therefore deny 
himfelf, did he conceal his majeily, much more, did 
he fuffer man to flight it, which is done by every fin. 
For, the finner behaves fo in his prefence, as if there 
was no God, to whom he owed obedience : nay, as 
if himfelf was God, who had a right to difpofe of him- 
felf, his faculties and other things with which he fins, 
at his own pleafure, and without any controul, faying, 
who is lord over me? Pf 12. 5. This is indeed to 
ufurp the majeily of the Supreme Being. But, how- 
can God fuffer this to go unpunifhed.^ Unlefs we 
can fuppofe, he can bear any to be equal to him, 
which would have been an open denial of his fupre- 
macy, majefty and excellency. But he then appears 
glorious in the eyes of finners, when he infli6ls pu- 
nifhment on thofe who throw contempt upon his ma- 
jefty. Thus, Numb. 14. 20. he fwears, that ^// /i?<? 
earth Jh all he filled with the glory of God ; namely by 
deftroying in the wildernefs ; thofe who did not be- 
lieve, though they had feen the glory of God and his 
figns. Tht glory of God, in this paffage, fignifies the 
manifeftation of his jealoufy againft thole who def- 
pifed him, for he will not fuffer himfelf to he mocked* 
And therefore, as hs^cannot but feek his own glory, 
fo he cannot fuffer any to profane his majefty and 
go unpunifhed. 
Theholi- XXV. Secondly, there are alfo feveral ways, by 
nefs of which this may, as evidently, be made appear from 
God re- the holinefs of God. 

quires XXVI. I. God's holincfs is fuch, that he Cannot 

For* he admit a finner to union and communion with himfelf 
cannot without fatisfadion firfl rnade to his juftice. For, 
i^^^d com- ^i^yocpi^iToxn what fellowfh'ip (participation) ^^/^ rigbt- 
with the ^^^y^cA ''^^^^^ unrighteoufnefs ? 2 Cor, 6. 14. Who- 
finner. ever touches what is unclean, can have no commu- 

Chap. 5. SANCTION. ji 

riion with God, verfe 17. Every one whom God 
unites to himfelf, he caufeth to cleave to himfelf as a 
girdle^ that he may be unto him for a name and for 
a praife and for a glory ^ Jer. 13. 11. But was he 
thus to unite the finner to himfelf, without a pre- 
vious fatisfa-'iion made, for removing the guilt of 
firi, holinefs itfelf would, in that cafe, be united to, 
cloathed and attended with fin ; which is a plain con- 
tradidtion. It is, indeed true, that God had fet all 
thefe things before Cinful Ifrael -^ but that was done 
by virtue of the covenant of grace, which fuppofes 
a dae fatisfa6lion. Nor are we to imagine, that this 
union, which God defcribes in fuch magnificent lan- 
guage, was the lot of any others, in its full emphafis 
and fpiritual import, but of thofe who were inter- 
nally in cov^enant. Compare Deut. i^. 19. Should 
any object, that though it is really unbecoming the 
holinefs of God to favour the iinner with a comniu- 
ilion of friendlhip, while he continues fuch 5 yet he 
may certainly, out of his goodnefs^ take away fin, 
and fo admit to his fellowfhip him, who was before a 
finner. 1 anfwer, that without a fatisfacl'ion, it is not 
confiftent with the holinefs of God, even to fandtify the 
fmner, and thereby prcver/c him^ with that grcateit 
^ffe6t of his love. For, if the beginning of fuch a 
communion of God with the finner y be not unbe- 
coming his holinefsj why do all allow It 3,s to the 
progrefs thereof? It is plain, it is not fuitable to the 
holinefs of God to cultivate a friendfliip with the 
fmner,. fo long as he continues fuch. But before 
fancflification, he is nothing but a finner, nay, he is 
fin itfelf. Nor can a greater inflance of friendfhip 
be given to man- than that, by which he isfanflified. 
And theriefore it is not confiftent v/ith the holinefs 
of God, without^ any fati^faftion, to grant fo great 
a favour to the finner, who. is moft wortiiy of his 
wrath, ff it' be ftill urged, that tho' God cannot, 
confiftent with his holinefs, love the finner with a 
love of complacency, yet nothing hinders him from 
Vol. I. ■ I lovinff; 

Of the Penal Book i. 

loving him with a love of benevolence^ which may 
fo transform him, as to render him a fit ohjedl of the 
love of complacency. I anfwer, that this is fpoken 
at random : For, thofe efFedls of the love of benevo- 
lence, by which we are regenerated, are propofed 
to us in Scripture, as confequences of the engage- 
ment and fatisfaftion of Chrift, and of our recon- 
ciliation with God, Tit. 3. 4, 5. i Cor. 6. 11. 

1 Pec. I. 3. Faith, without which it is impofiible to 
pleafe God, is freely bellowed on the elcdl, thro^ 
the righteoitfnefs of Gcd, and our Saviour Jeftis Chrifty 

2 Pet. I. I. Whatfoeverway you interpret this, it 
at lead appears, that the gift of faith is founded pn 
Chrid and his fatisfaftion. If therefore, the fatif^ 
fadion of Chrifl was previcufly.requifite, tothefm- 
ner's being bleflcd with thofe effeds of the love of 
benevolence; 'tis rafhly afierted, that it was be- 
coming the holinefs of God to bellow them on the 
(inner without fatisfa6lion. Befides, God mufl needs 
punifli thofejto whom he cannot grant union with him- 
felf, for thegreatefl punilhment confifts in the want 
of this union. This is that death, with which the 
law threatens the finner, as we have already made 

XXVII. 2c The holinefs of God Is fo unfpotted^ 
that he cannot behold cvil^ and look on iniquity^ Hab. 
I. 13. that is, bear it in his fight. He cannot there- 
fore, lift up the light of his countenance uponhim^ Pf. 4,7. 
in which the falvation of men confifts: but the pri- 
vation of this is the highefl punifliment. As long as 
David refufed to admit his fon Ahfdom into his pre- 
fence, tho' almoft reconciled to him, this appeared 
to yf/^y^/^;;2 more intolerable than any death, 2 Sam. 
14, 32. So that in a nature, confcious of its unhap- 
pineis, a punifhmentof fenfe cannot but accompany 
a punifhment of lofs. 
Hccannot XXVUL 3. From the holinefs of God flows a 
but hate jyiortal and implacable hatred of fin. 'Tis as much 
^^"^* the nature of holinefs to hate iniquity^ as to love righte- 
oiifnefs^ Pf. 45. 8. Sin is an ahomivation to his foul^ 


Chap, 5. SANCTION. it^ 

Prov. 6. 16. that is, to his very efTence, nnd eflen* 
tiai holinels : and neither JIfj only, but alio iht Jin- 
72er is the objedt of his hatred. For, all that do fiuh 
things, mid all that do unrighteoujly, are an ahomina- 
twn to the Lord thy Gcd^ Dut. 25. 16. He therefore 
feparates from himfelf, and from his chofen people, 
all whom he cannot make partakers of his favour ; 
and fo he cannot but inflift upon them that punifhment, 
which is the effed of his hatred. According to So- 
lomon's reafoning, Prov. 16. 5. Every one that is 
proud in heart, is an abomination to the Lord. And the 
confequences is, Hejhall not be unpunijhed. In the 
fame manner David reafons, Pf. 5. 4, 5, 6, Thou art 
not a God, that hafi pleafure in ivickednefs. Thou 
hatefl fin, and the finner too, becaufe of it: ^ou 
hatejl all the workers of iniquity. And furely the fruit 
of this muft: be exceeding bitter : ^ou /halt dejlroy 
them that /peak leafing. And thus, from the holinefs 
of God arifes a hatred of fin and the finner 5 from 
hatred, punilhment. 

XXIX. 4. It is doubtlefs diametrically oppofite Much lefs 
to the holinefs of God, that he fhould become like f.^" ^^^^ 
unto the finner. For, as his image confifts in a ho- 
linels every way perfed, 'tis a contradidion, that it 
fhould confift in fin, but if God was unwilling to pu- 
nifti fin, he would then become like unto the finner. 
This is what we may learn from himfelf, Pf. 50. 21. 
When he would tell the finner, thou thoughreft, that 
I would not punifh thy fin, he thus exprefiTes it ; thou 
thought eft that I was altogether fuch a one as thyfelf. Bur, 
fays he, I will fliew the contrary. And how? I will 
reprove thee, or punifli thee. And by that I will, in 
effedl, fiiew, that I am not like unto thee. 
Whence I conclude, that not to punifli fin would 
very much refemble the finner •, on the contrary, to 
punifli fin, in its proper time, is to fliew himfelf 
moft: unlike to the finner. Unlefs then God reproves 
the finner, he will be like unto him, and deny him- 
felf. For, fince God is a patern to man, and man 
was made in order that God may be glorified in him ; 

I 2 and 

like hiin# 

1 16 Of the P E N A L Book r." 

and every thing, that God hath made, has a ten- 
dency to this, namely, that man may from them 
know, what a God he is: if God, fhould by no me- 
thod, fhew, that, fin deprives man of communion 
with him and of his kingdom-, nay, fhould he make 
the finner eternally happy, while it is the higheil 
degree of punilhment to be accounted unworthy of 
it, God would certainly, in that cafe, teflify him- 
felf not worthy to be loved, defired and glorified, 
and that fin is not an objecl unworthy of man's de- 
light. As it is then impoflible, that God fhould be 
altogether like unto the finner, it is likewife fo, that 
he fhould let fin go unpunifhed. 
God is XXX. 5. Hence God fays, he is fandified, v/hen 
Tanaified i^g punifhes, Lev. I o. 3. On which place, Crf//w^ 
^J^^^3p^>imlelf, dc Vera Relig/lib. i. f, 28, makes this an- 
Hifhment. notation : which jme learned men explain (and himfelf 
agrees with them J I Jhall appear holy^ that is, Jkall 
infliB pmifoment on them. The fame thing he owns 
in the fame chapter, that neither the holinefs^ nor the 
majefty of Qod can in any refpe^i hear^ t9 have his com- 
mands violated with impunity. Such is the power of 
truth, that even the moil obflinate are conftrained 
to confefs it ! And the fenfe of this word is very evi- 
dent. Ezek. 38. 16: where the punifhment of G^^ 
is foretold in thefe words : 5^-^^/ the Heathen may 
know me^whenljhallbefan^fifiedin thee^ viz. by thy 
punifhment, before their eyes: more clearly ftill, 
IL S' ^^* ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^bt fi^^^ he fan^ified in righte- 
oufnefs^ by inflicting on finners, the punifhmenrs 
threatened in the foregoing verfes, and by not par- 
doning the ele6l, but only on account of the righte- 
oufnefs of Chrift, in whofc fufFe rings and death, he 
difplayed his mofl unfpotted holinels, and his hatred 
of fin, before the whole world, nay, even before hell 
itfelf 'Tis therefore as neceffary, that God fliould 
punifh fin, as that he fhould be holy, leafl he fhould 
feem to give up with his holinefs. I (hall conclude 
■ in the words of Jojbua^ 24. i-:;. for be is an holy God. 


C/iap. 5. SANCTION. 117 

What then ? He is a jealous God. And what does he 
infer hence ? He will not forgive your tranfgrefjcns^ 
nor your fins. And thus from his holincfs flows his 
jealoufy, from his jealoufy his vengeance. 

XXXI. Thirdly, This may alio be inferred from God's 
that attribute of God, which is ufually called, vin- yindidlve 
di^ive jujiice. That it is the property of this, }^^}^^ re- 
to punifh fin, the Scriptures tell us in a thoufand niflJmeut" 
places ; and Hereticks impudently cavil, when they 

aflert it to be the work, not fo much of divine juftice, 
as of wrath and pafiion. They unadvifedly disjoin, 
v/hat the Apoftle has conjoined, who fpeaks of 
the day of wrath^ and of the righteous judgment of God^ 
Rom. 2. 5. And is God's wrath any other, than that 
ready difpofition of the divine mind to do that, which 
his hatred of fin, juftice towards the finner, and his 
chara6ler as the fupreme judge do require ? I omit a 
thoufand other confiderations, which occur every 
wheie. I fhall rather Ihow, where the ftrefs of the 
whole lies. Firft, that this perfection is as natural to 
God, as infinity, holinefs, omnipotence. Secondly, 
That in virtue of it, God cannot fufFer fin to go un- 

XXXII. The former of thefe, I thus prov€. This 'is 
That perfedlion muft belong to the nature and natural to 
efiTence of God, and cannot be referred to the ^°^* 
good pleafure of his will, if what is oppofite to it 
cannot be conceived without a contradi61:ion. But 

it is contradiftory to conceive of God under any 
char^dter oppofite to that jufi:, or, as unjufi. Job, 
34. 10. But it is not contradiflory, if 1 conceive 
of God even contrary to thofe things, which de- 
pend on the mere good pleafure of his will : for in- 
stance, it was from the free will and pleafure of God, 
that he chofe Ifraelfor his peculiar psople : if there- 
fore, I conceive of God, as having never been the 
(lod of Ifrael^ I fhall doubtlefs have formed a falfe 
conception, but nothing that, by an evident con- 

I 2 • tradition, 

1 18 Of the P E N A L Book rV 

tradi6lion, dedroys the nature of God. For, he 
might have been God, and yet not the God of 
Ifrael \ but if he had To pleafed, the God of the 
Egyptians or Chaldeans. But whoever fays, that Go4 
is, and afferts that he is unjuft, fpeaks contradi6lory 
things. For, the firft conception of the Deity is to 
be perfeflly and infinitely good. But juftice, in giv- 
ing to every one his due, by a fuitable compenlation 
belongs to this goodnefs : efpecially when we con- 
fider, that as he is the Lord of rational creatures, lb 
he cannot but be their judge. Whoever •-^■efore 
fays, that any is unjuft, or not juft, denies lurh to 
be God, of whom he thus fpeaks. 
And im- XXXIII. The latter I make out thus : the 
receffit j^^i^^ ^^ ^^^ requires, that whatever is his rights 
pf punifh- eous judgment be done, for, it is necefTary, that 
mentin God do himfelf juftice; who, properly fpeak- 
c^feoffin. jng, owes nothing to any one, but to himfelf. 
As that is t]oe judgment (righteoufnefs) of the laWy 
Rom. 8. 4. whch the law demands, and which, 
-without injuftlce cannot be denied the law : what 
God requires is, the judgment of God, and cannot 
be denied him, unlefs he would be unjuft to himfelf. 
But it is the (judgment) of God^ that they which do 
evil, are worthy of deathy Rom. 1.32. And therefore 
there is a connexion between fm, and worthy of 
death, not only in virtue of the will, but of the 
juftice of God. Moreover, as the judgment of God 
is always according to truth, Rom. 2 2. He muft 
pronounce the perfon unworthy of life, and worthy 
of death, who b worthy of it, confcquently con- 
demn him, unlefs a fatisfa6lion intervene. To zd: 
oth«rwife, would be unworthy the juft God. The 
Apoftle intimates this, Rom. 3. 25, 26. declaring, 
that God fet forth Chriji to be a propitiation thro' faith 
in his blood, to declare his righteoufnefs, that he might 
hejuji, and thcjuftifier of him, which believeth in Jefus, 
By which words he fhews, if God fhould juftify 
the wicked, and admij: -thcin 10 happlnefs without 


Chap. 5. SANCTION. 119 

the atonement of the blood of Chrifl, he would not 
be jull:, at kail his jufticewould not be difpiayed. 

XXXIV. Jeremiah has a mod memorable pafiage, f^^nce 
in which God fays, chap. 9. 29. Sball I Jtot vifit for God'sfoul 
ihefe things^ faith the Lord^ and floall \not my foul he is faid to 
avew^fd on fiuh a nation as this? The meaning i?, ^^^^ ^'^"' 
fhalll be Jehovah, nay, Ihall I not deny my felf, if I bear S""*^^- 
with thofe things in my people.^ It is impoQibiel 
ihould do this, and that in virtue ot my foul ^ that is, 

of my very eflential holinefs andDeity. Should I have 
a diviney2?a/, that is, a divine nature^ and jult, and, not 
be avenged of fin ? For, the foul of GoJ denotes /.^^ 
mojl holy nature of God, or, which is the fame, the ef- holinefs of God. As appears from comparing 
Amos, 4. 2. with Amos, 6. 8. In the former it is 
faid, the Lord hath fworn by his holinefs: In the lat- 

■ ter, the Lord hath fworn Vvi^Dnn^jy (his foul) himfelf. \^ ^j^^t 

XXXV. Crellius therefore trifles, de Vera Relig. fenfeit is 
lib. I. c, 28. when ,he ridiculoufly faid, that to pu- God's 
nirti is God's foreign and ftrange work ; as if to ^^^^ 
fhew mercy was God's proper work, but to punifh, 

his ftrange work. To that end wrefting. If. 28. 21. 
that he may do his work^ which he thus tranflates his 
ftrange works ; that he may work his work^ foreign 
(or firange) is his work to him. We freely own,that by 
that foreign and ftrange work, we ought to under- 
ftand his vengeance againft the rebellious Jews. 
But it is faid to be ftrange and foreign, in a quite 
different fenfe from what this perverter of Scripture 
would have it. It was firange and foreign^ becaufe 
altogether uncommon and extraordinary. For, it 
was a great tribulation^ fuch as was 7wt fmce the be- 
ginning of the world to that time ^ Mat. 24. 21. Like- 
wife, becaufe any would think it ftrange, that God 
ftiould deal thus with his own covenant-people, on 
whom he had multiplied fo many favours, and make 
examples of them, in a manner he had not done 
to his enemies, who were ftrangers to his covenant. 
What Ihe had done in mount Perazim againft tiie 
I 4 Philiftines, 

t^5 Of the Penal Book i. 

Philiftines, 2 Sam. 5. 21. and in the valley of Gibeon, 
could fcarcely be compared to this. Jt is Jikewife 
fo called, becaufe fuch an extraordinary punifhment 
from God (as ftrange and unufual things very com- 
monly do) would fill any v/ith llich aftoniihment as 
they would be obliged to take notice of the hand of 
God in it Thus the mlferies of the Jews flruck 
'Titus himfelf with horror , and, on viewing the walls 
and lo^zx^oi J erujalem^ confefled, that without God, 
fuch a city tould never be taken. "^Tis very remark- 
able what Philoftrattis relates in the life of Apollonius, 
^'TyaH^uSy lib, 5. c, 14. When the neighbouring na- 
, -tions came, according to cuftom, to adorn 'Titus With, 
crowns, for his conquefl of the Jews : he faid, that he. 
. defsrve no fuch honour ♦, that he did not. atchieve thpfe 
-things^ hut only ^ was the instrument of God, 


manner dfo^ becaufe it was flrange and foreign to 
the Israelites \ who that the Romans might not come 
and deitroy their city, brought upon themfelves the 
guilt of that wickednefs againft the Lord Jefus, 
v/hich was the caufe of fo great a deftrudion. It 
was therefore ilrange and foreign, not to God (for 
the text fays no llich thing) but in itfelf and to men. 
Or if we would fay, that it was altogether ftrange 
and foreign to God ; it mull be meant, becaufe 
God dehghts not either in deftructlon, or in the def- 
tru(ftion of his creatures, as fuch, but, (to fpeak after 
the manner of men) is rather inclined to ads of good- 
nefs an,d mercy. But this is fo far from being of 
ferviceto the Heretick, that, on the contrary, it fur- 
nishes U5 v/ith a new and foHd argument. Thus, 
How he " XXXVi. Fourthly, It is certain, that penal evil,, as 
hasratlf- fuch, is noc jn itfclf defireable, even to God, becaufe 
fadion . it is conncfted with the deftruclion of his own work, 
from the j^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ thoujhouldjl opprefs -, that thou 
\^^^^o^ Jhoiildft defpife the' work of thine hands? Job, 10. 3. 
the wick- Nay,. God confirms by an inviolable oath, that he 
t ^ . bar no 'pkafure in the death of the wicked, £zek, ;3 3* < 1 1 • 

: i It 

Chap. 5. SANCTION. 

Itmuft then be fomething elfe, which renders it de- 
fireablc, that God declares, that he exults in it, 
and derives great consolation from It, as being that 
alone, which can as it were, be fufficient to mitigate 
his grief and appeafe his indignation, occafioned by 
fin. Nothing can be imagined Wronger than the 
Scripture phrafes on this fubje(5l, fome of which 1 
fhall exibit, Hof 10. 10. // is in my desire, that 
JJhould chaftife them. Amos, 5. 9. nat refreshes 
HIMSELF by defolation^ (ftrengtheneththe fpoiled) againft 
the ftrong. Deut. 28. 36. ^he Lord will rejoice over 
you to deftroy you. If. i. 24. / will ta[e me of my ad- 
verfaries^ and avenge me of my enemies, God, you fee, 
jdefires to punifh finhers. Whenever he pours out 
defolation upon them, he refrefhes (Jirengtheneth) 
himfelf : nor (lightly only, but he both rejoices and 
exults : and that with fuch a joy, as may be capable 
of mitigating the pain, caufed by fin, and confe- 
quently, of yielding confolation to God. What can 
it be^ which makes that evil of the creature fo defire- 
able to the Creator ? What other, but that by in- 
Aiding punifhmenti he prefer ves inviolable the glory 
of his fupremacy^ holinefs and juftice, which fin 
would wholly obfcure ^ For, all the ufefulnefs of pu- 
nifhment (as Crellius himfelf fpeaks,) muft needs regard 
God, But we can conceive here no advantage, re- 
dounding to God, unlefs his rejoicing in the decla* 
ration of his glory, fhining forth in that judgment, 
the juftice of which the holy angels acknowledge with 
appiaufc. Rev, ir. 17. and Rev. 16. 5, 6. and even 
•the damned themfelves, tho' unwilling and gnaihing 
their teeth, are conftrained to confefs. It is indeed, 
impoflible, that God Ihould fet light by this his 
rnoft excellent glory, of which he is fo jealous. As 
it is then neceflary, that God fhould prefer the de- 
ftrudion of his wicked creature to that of his own 
glory, fo it is neceflary, that he Ihould punifh the 
. wicked. God indeed loves his creatures, but he does 
as he ought much more himfelf. He would ad in- 
con fiftent 

122 Of the P E N A L Book f. 

confident with that love, was he not to recover his 
glory, which his fmful creature has, by horrible fa- 
crilege, robbed him of, by inflicting puniihment 
upon it. 
The very XXXVII. Fifthly andJaftly, We fhall ufe argu- 
adverfa- ments ad homimm, Socinus owns^ de Servato^ P. i.e. i. 
^f7 h^t't ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ pardon the impenitent is certainly right and 
is agree- agreeable to THE DIVINE NATURE, and conjequently to 
able tothe re^itude and equity, Loreliius^ in like manner, deVera 
divine na- Relig. Uh. I. c.2'^. fays, that it is unworthy of God to 
nifh^the^"-^^-^^^ /^^ crimes of the ohftinate to efcape unpunijhed, 
obiUnate. ^^^ "^ here a little examine thefe conceflions. They 
fay, it is unworthy of God^ not to punifh the ohftinate: 
nay, it is due to the nature of Gody not to pardon them. 
Why pray ? Is it becaufe they are flubborn and ob- 
ftinate? But obftinacy is not punilhed on its own ac- 
count, becaufe there is a good and laudable obfti- 
nacy, or conflancy. It is therefore only punilhed, 
becaufe of the evil that is in it; it is then neceflary, 
that fm be punifhed on its own account, and obfti- 
nacy, only becaufe of the finfulnefs of it. And if it 
be necelfary to punifn fm on its own account, there- 
fore, wherever it is to be met with, it muft neceftari- 
ly be punifhed. Befides, all men after having once 
fmned, obftinattly perfevere in fm, unlefs they are 
brought to repentance, by the preventing grace of 
God. But how can they obtain this without a pre- 
vious fatisfadion, if it be a debt which the divine 
nature owes to itfelf, not to grant them pardon. 
And add XXXVIII. We likewife readily admit what Cr^/- 
that by Uus advances in the very fame chapter : by the fame 

t\t That ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ '^^ ^'^^ obedience to .God, by the 
obedience /^^^ ^^ 1^^ become liable to punifhment for negleEi of 
is due to obedience and fervice: for^ punifhment fucceedsy as it 
God, pu- were, in the place of the duty omitted, and ifpoffibky 
is^'uTfor ^^''^^^^ ^^ atone for it. But doubtlefs, by a claim of na- 
thJneg- fural right, obedience is due to God; and it would 
led ofit. be repugnant to the divine perfections, not to re- 
quire it of a rational nature. I fpeak without 


Chap. 5. SANCTION. X23 

referve, he i<? not God who cannot demand obedience 
from his raronal creature. And the very fame thing, 
accon'ing loCrelJiu:'^ very jult hypothefis, is to be 
affirmed of pnnifhmenr. 1 am well aware, that 
Crdlius ^buPvIs bo- h claims, as well to obedience as 
topimifhr.^n:, on the dominion of God, as Lord ; 
tho' this ought rather to be founded on the eflen- 
tiai majedy and fupremacy of God, which is the 
foundation of his Ibvereign dominion. But he is 
forced to confefs that this fovereign dominion is fo 
natural to God, that he cannot renounce it; nay in- 
deed, that without it^ it is fcarce intelligible^ how he 
can be God ; Jince it ts on account of that very authority^ 
and the power from which it flows y he isfaid to be God, 
it therefore ftands firm, that the penal fandion of 
the covenant is founded in the fupereminent, mod 
holy and jnft nature of God, and not in the mere 
good plealureof the divine will only, 

XXXIX. We might, here, further enquire, whe- Whether 
ther the eternity of punifhment is to be derived from ^^^ ^^^'■- 
this natural right of God -, or, which is the fame ^'^^J^^ 
thing, whether a punifhment, juftly equivalent to menWws 
each fin, ought necelTarily to be eternal, according from 
to God's natural right ; fo that, to maintain the con- ^°^'^ "^- 
trary, would be unworthy of God, and confequently, ^"^^^"S^^" 
impolTible. A difficult queftion this, becaufe to de- 
termine concerning this abfolute right of God, in 
fpecial cafes, feems to be above human reach. God 
is greater than man^ he giveth not an account of his 
matters^ Job, 33. 12, 13. Let us, however, try, 
whether from the confideration of the divine perfec- 
tions, we may not gather, what may in this cafe be 
worthy of God. 

XL. I now prefuppofe, there is in fin committed Slnhaving 
againfl: the infinite majelly of God, a malignity in ? ^^P^ °^ 
its meafure infinke, and therefore a dement of P^^- maUgnity 
niihment in its meafure infinite alfo. I fay, there is defervcs 
in fin a malignity only, in its meafure infinite. For, punilh- 
>t cannot be called infinite in an abfolute fcnfe : if pent m 

Its own 

^^ meafure 


Of the P E.N A L Book i; 

we c'Onfider the entity of the adt in itfelf, an acl in* 
finitely intenie cannot be produced by a finite crea- 
ture: if the irregularity, and the privation of moral 
good, adhering to the ad, it is a privation of a finite 
i'cclif ude, which is all that can be found in a crea- 
ture : if in fine, we confider the whole complex, 
naniely fin, in the concrete, as they fpeak -, neither 
in that cafe will^ its malignity be abfolutely infinite. 
For, neither are all a6ls of fin equally vicious, there 
being a great difference among them, which could 
not be, if they were infinite. However, the malig- 
nity of fin is in its nieafure infinite: ift, Ohje^ively^ 
becaufe committed againft an infinite good. 2dly, 
Extenftvety^ in refped of duration, becaufe the bloc 
or flam of fin endures for ever, unlefs purged away 
by the blood of Chrifi:. There is not therefore in fin 
a defert of pupilhment abfolutely infinite, as to in- 
tenfenefs of torments, i. Becaufe fuch a punifhment 
is abfolutely impolFible ; for, a finite creature is not 
capable of infinite torments. 2. Becaufe it would fol- 
low, that God could never fatisfy his juOiice, by 
inflicting condign punifhment on the wicked, bc^ 
caufe they are incapable of this punifhrr.ent. It is 
then abfurd to fay, that any punilhment is of right 
due to fin, which God could never inflid. 3. Be- 
caufe it would follow, an equal punifhment was due 
to all fins, or, that all in fad were to be puniftied 
alike: which is an abfurdity, and againft Mat. 11. 
22, 24. The reafon of this confequence is, becaufe 
there neither is, nor can be any difparity between infi- 
nites. Neverthelefs, there is in fin a defert of pu- 
niiliment, in its meafiire infinite; namely in the fame 
manner, that the malignity of it is infinite. That is, 
i^. Ohje^ively, fo as to deprive man of the enjoy- 
ment of the infinite good, which is God. adly, Ex^ 
ienfively^ fo that, the punifiiment fiiail laft: for ever. 
And thus I confider this defert of eternal punilhmenf 
k) far only as to conclude, that God does nothing 
contrary to equity and juftice, when he punifhes ti^p 


Chap. 5: SANCTION. 125 

fins of men with eternal torments both of foul and 
body. Whicli the event fhews, as I have made 
appear, §. XVII. 

XLI. But I know nor, if It can be determined, It cannot 
whether this eternity ought neceOarily to confift in certainly 
the puniihmcnt of fenfe, or, whether the jiiftiee of ^^^^^"J^^"' 
God may be fatisfied by the eternal punifhmen.t ^^'th^^ juftke 
lofsy in the annihilation of the finful creature. This of God 
I apprehend mav be faid with lumcient Drobability "ccefTarily 
and fobriety: If God Ihall be pleafed to continue, [f^^X;,! 
for ever, in exiltcnce, the fmner, it is necexTary, punifh- 
(without a fatisfadion) that he for ever infiicl punifh- ^^nc of 
tnent on him, not only the punifhment of lots, but ^^^^^* 
Jikewife that of fenfe. The reafon is, becaufe not 
only the guilt of fm always remains ; but alfo tha 
ftain with which fm, once committed, infers the 
foul, and which can never be purged out, but by 
the blood of Chrift. But it is impofilble, as we prov- 
ed §. 22, 25, 24, that God fhould admit man flalned 
with fin, to communion with himfelf : and it cannot 
be, that a rational creature, excluded the enjoy-, 
ment of the divine favour, fhould nor feel this indig- 
nation of God with the deepefl anguiui. Confcience 
mofl feverely lafhes the wretches for having deprived 
themfelves of the chief good. Which with nofmall 
care we have alfo fhewn, §, 13, and the following 

XLII. But whether it be neceffary, that Godorpaybe 
fhould continue for ever the finful creature in a flate ^^?^f^^f 
of exiflence, I own I am ignorant. May it not, in annihih! 
its meafure, be reckoned an infinite punifliment, tionofthe 
fhould God pleafc to doom man, who was by nature Tinner. 
a canditate for eternity, to total annihilation, from 
whence he fhould never be fuffered to return to life ? 
I know, God has now determined otherv^iJe, and that 
with the higheft juftice. But it is queried, whether, 
agreeably to his juflice, he might not have fettled it 
m this manner: if thou, O man, finnefl, I will 

fru Urate' 

The Sacr AMENTS of the Book i/ 

fruftrate thy defire of eternal happinefs, and of a 
bleffed eternity, and on the contrary, give thee up 
to eternal annihilation. Here at leail let us hefitatc, 
and fufpend our judgment. 

CHAP. VI. ' 

Of the Sacraments of the Covenant of Works. 

I. T T hath pleafed the blefied and Almighty God, 
J[ in every oeconomy of his covenants, to con- 
firm, by fome facred fymbols, the certainty of his 
promifes, and, at the fame time, to remind man, in 
covenant with him, of his doty : to thefe lymbolsec- 
clefiaftical pra6lice has long fince given the name of 
Sacraments', this was certainly appointed with an ex- 
cellent defign, by the all-wife God. For, ift. What 
God has made known concerning his covenant, Is, by 
this means, propofed to man's more accurate confi- 
deration : fmce he is not only once and again inftrufl- 
ed in the will of God by a heavenly oracle, but fre- 
quently and almoft daily, beholds with his eyes thofe 
things, which, by heaven, are granted him as 
pledges of the greateft bleifings: what believers fee 
with their eyes, ufually fink deeper into the foul, and 
leave deeper imprefiions of themfelves,than thofe only 
which they hear v/ith their ears. Elegantly to this 
purpofe fays Herodotus : men ufually give lefs credit to 
the ears than to the eyes. 2dly, Thefe fymbols alfo 
tend to confirm our faith. For, tho' nothing can be 
thought of, that deferves more credit than the word 
of God; yet, where God adds figns and feals to his 
infallible promifes, he gives a twofold foundation to 
our faith. Thus, he wore abundantly Jhews unto the 
heirs of promife the immut ability of his counfel: that 
by two immutable things ^ in ivhich it was impojfible for 


Chap. 6. Co V E N A N T of W O R K S. 127 

God to lie^ we might have aftrong conjolation, Heb. 6* 
17, 18. 3dly, By means of this inftiiution, a holy 
roan does, by the figln, touch and taite of the facred 
fymbols, attain tolbmefenfe of eternal blciTlngs, and 
accuftoms himfelf, under the fymbols, to a contempla- 
tion and foretafle of thefe things, to the plenary and 
immediate fruition of which he will, one time or 
other, be admitted without any outward figns. 
4thly andlaflly, The man has in thefe fomething con- 
tinually to remind him of his duty : and as, from 
time to time, they prefent to his thoughts, and give 
him a foretafle to his Creator, fo at the fame 
time they put him in mind of thofe very llrong ob- 
ligations, by which he is bound to his Covenant-God. 
And. thus, they are both a bridle to reftrain him 
from fin, and a fpur to quicken him chearfully to 
run that holy race, which he has happily entered 

II. God alfo granted to man fuch fymbols under There 
the covenant of works ; concerning which, we are ^^^^"^ ^our 
now to fpeak, that nothinj^ may be wantino: in this ^^^^^^\ 

•r J -r T -/I 1 r ^ ' „ under the 

treatile, and ir I mittake not, were four in all, covenant 
which I reckon up in this order, i. Paradise, of works 
2. The Tree of Life. 3. The Tree of Know- 
ledge OF Good and Evil. 4. The Sabbath. 
In fpeaking of each of thefe, I fhall diflindly fhew, 
Firft, What good they fignified and fealed to man, 
with refpe6t to God. Secondly, What duty and ob- 
ligation they reminded him of. 

Iir. But I mud previoufly obferve ; that it is alto- which are 
gether foreign to this treatife, and out of its place, to be ex- 
to propofe fuch fignifications either of Paradife, or P^^*"^^ ^^ 

3s not to 

of the Tree of Life, or of the Sabbath, as relate to 1,^ ^on- 
the Gofpel, the grace of Chrift, and to glory as freely founded 
given to the eled by the Mediator and fpirit of with thofe 
grace. For here I obferve, that men of learning in ^"ve^nant^ 
other refpeds have Humbled •, who, when explaining of grace, 
the nature of thofe Sacraments, too uncautioufly 
blend things belonging to a quite different covenant. 


j28 The Sacr AMJNTSof the feook ti 

Nothing is here to be brought in, which does not be- 
long to the covenant of works, the promifes of that 
covenant, and the duties of man under the fame : 
all which are moil di(lin6l from the covenant of 
grace. Here we are to fay nothing of Chrift, no- 
thing of juftifying faith in him, nothing of our ceaf- 
ing from our own works as impure, nor any thing 
of that reft^ after the miferks of this life. All thefe 
belong tp another covenant. I do not however refufe, 
that the unfearchable wifdom of God, did ap- 
point and order thefe fymbols in fuch a manner, that 
the remembrance of them after the fall, might be 
arble to inftru6t man in many things, relating to the 
covenant of grace, and its Mediator, As that ac- 
cording to Paul, the firfl: Adam himfelf Was type of 
the fecond : Eve^ curioufly formed out of Adam^s 
rib while afleep, w^s a type of the church as it were, 
. taken from Chrift in virtue of his death, and that the 
firft marriage reprcfented that great myftery, which 
regards Chrift and the Church. Thefe things, how- 
ever, were neither known, nor thought of in the 
Hate of nature •, nor to be mentioned in a difcourfe 
on the Sacraments of the covenant of works. Having 
premifed thefe things, let U5 now enquire into each 
particular with ail the care pofTible, beginning with 
Farad ife. 
Afhon IV. It is far from our defign, elaborately to en- 
jdefcripti- quire into the fituarion and topography of Paradife, 
^V?^ ^^' ^^^ ^^ fuffice to obferve, that it was a garden, and ^ 
^^ ^ ^* moft agreeable enclofure, planted by God hifnfelf, 
toward the eaft, in Eden^ a moft fertile region, and 
abounding in all kinds of delights, as very learned 
men think, near Haran^ the mart of AraUd^ 2it the 
conflux of the Euphrates and Tigris^ not far from 
Mefopotamia, Which was watered with four rivers, 
waQiing, by many windings and meanders the moft 
fertile orchard. When man was formed from the 
earth without Paradife, he was introduced by God 
as a new gueft, totill the ground^ andgivean account 


Chap. 6. Covenant of W O R K S. |2^ 

of his flewardfhip and care. Here was every thing, 
that could contribute to the proper pleafures of this 
Jife, God frequently revealing himfelf to man, and 
familiarly admitting him to the fwceteft fellowfhip 
with himfelf. Mofes alfo mentions the gpld and thp 
precious ftones pf that country, as ,of the beft kind, 
and in the greateft plenty. And what now was the 
meaning, or myllif^l fignificatipn pf a}} thefp 

V. Firft, In general^ the plenfaptnefs of this place, The de* 
which every moment fet before ipan the moft pro- J-^shtf""! 
fufe bounty of the Deity, exhibiting the fame \o thenefsofP^. 
enjoyment of all hjs fenfes, alTured him, th^t he radife fig- 
was to e)^pe6t another refidence far more noble and ^^^^^ ^^*^ 
grand-, where he (hould npt, as now, enjoy his JP^^^^^J'^^^' 
God thro' and in the creatures, but immediately de- joys of 
light in his Creator, to his being fully fatisfied with h^avei^ 
Jiis likenefs. For, if God now conferred qpon him, : 
fuch things while here, before phe pQijrfe of his ap- 
pointed trial was finifned: wl)at might he r^ot, nay, 
what ought he not, to prorpifehmifelf from that im- 
menfe munificence, after he had a<fted his p^'rc 
well, wl^en he hac} acquired ^ right to come with 
boldnefs to his rewarder, and afk for his ipoft ample 
fecompence ? Was not the Lord, amidft this abund- 
ance, tl)at la^K^d nothing pertaining to this animal 
Jife, [as it yvere] frequently addieiTing him, Plow 
fnaU I one day place thpe among my ions, if thou 
i:onftanrly continued obedient to my voice ? If 
jthere is fo much fweetncfs ip thefe created rivulets of 
piy goodnefs, in which now thou fwimmell v/ith fo 
muchpleafure ; \yhat will there not be in myfelf, the 
upexhaufted fountain^ and the moft plentiful fpring? 
Afcend, O man, by the Icaje of the creatures, to me 
the Creator, and, from a foretafte of thefe fjrft fruits, 
conclude, what I have prepared for thee againfb thac 
pme, when I rnyfclf fliall be thy exceeding great re- 
ward. And certainly, unlefs we fuppqfe Adam to 

Vol* I. '' K have 

1 3^0 The Sacraments of the Book i . 

have been (lupid, and devoid of all divine light, 

fuch thoughts muft needs have arifen in his mind. 

Hence ^ VI. The Scriptures declare, that by Paradife h 

^Xh"p" ^'g"i^^^ ^ P^^^^ of perfedl blifs, when thy call heaven, 

radifc. ^" ^^^ habitation of the blefTed, by the name of Para- 

' difey Ltike, 23. 43. 2 Cor. 12. 4. A manner of ex- 

prefTion commonly ufed by the Holy Ghoft, by 

which the names of the fign, and the thing fignified, 

.. of the type and antitype, are mutually exchanged. 

The Jews themfelves faw this, with whom it is ufual 

. to call the place of abfolutely perfedt happinefs, p^ 

• and ny X^ Eden and the garden of Eden \ and no wifh was 

more frequent among them, than this, let his reft^ that 

is, the place of his reft, be Eden, There is alfo a moft 

fuitable analogy between Paradife and heaven, which 

we arc now more exprcfsly and particularly to 

fheW. ... V?^::/t>-v^r-rfi>V 

' VII. I ft, Paradife was a garden planted by God 
himfclf, to be the refidencecf man, formed after the 
divine image. Heaven is a place made and pre- 
pared by God for the eternal abode of man, aftpr 
he has added conftancy to his other virtues, and 
fo has in himfelf the full image of God, where 
his holinefs (hall be unchangeable. As therefore 
it was incumbent on him to acknowledge the hand 
and moft munificent bounty of his God in this ter- 
reftrial habitation •, fo he was ftill far more evidently 
to experience the fame in the celcftial abode of his 
heavenly father. 2dly, Paradife exceedingly fur- 
paffedall theother parts of the earth, in refpeft to the 
pleafantnefs of it ; for it was planted in Eden^ a place 
of all kinds of delight. Whence the moft pleafant 
countries in the world are faid to be as the garden of 

"God, Gen. 13. 10. And Ezekiel, 36. ^^. prophe- 
fying of the future, extraordinary plenty of the 
earth, fays, that the earth, which before that was 
lying wafte, Ihould be as the garden of Eden. And 
what is grander than that promifc of Ifaiah, 51. 3. 

* For the Lord Jhall comfort Zion ; he will tomfort all 


Chap. 6. Covenant of WORKS. 

her wafte places^ and he will make her wildernefs like- 
Eden^ and ber defcrt like the garden of the Lord \ jcy 
and gladnefs Jhall be found therein^ tlankfgiving and the 
voice of melody. From which words it is clear, that 
nothing was wanting in Paradife, in its primitive 
Hate, to give the conDpleatelt pleafure to man. But 
much lefs will any thing be wanting in heaven to the 
mod abfoUitcly perfect happinefs. The pleafures of 
which will far more exceed thofe of this tcrreflrial 
garden, than heaven itfelf exceeds the earth in its 
height. For, Paradife had thofe things, which dif- 
covered its imperfeflion, fiich as thole things that 
belonged to this arjmai life, all which will be alto- 
gether excluded heaven, where is fulnefs of joys ^ 
ninDU^;;;iur Pf. i6. ii. 3dly, In Paradife flowed 
the moft limpid ftreams, watering and fertilizing the 
garden, wherever it was neceffary. In heaven there 
is a pure river of water of life, clear as cryftfil^ fro^ 
ceeding out of the throne of Qod^ Rev. 22. i. By 
which circumlocution are fignified the gifts of thp 
holy fpirit, a few drops of which are indeed granted 
here, but with which the blefTed will be intoxicated 
to a perfect joy. 4thly, Mofes alfo mentions gold, 
bdellium, and the onyx-ftone, which were found in 
that region, Gen. 2 11, 12. In heaven there will 
be fpiritual treafures, with which no gold, no topaz, 
nor any of the precious ftones of the whole earth, can 
any ways be compared. 5thly, In Paradife there were 
trees, both beautiful and ufeful. In heaven there 
are precious things, both pleafani to the fight, and 
excellent for ufe. Above all, there were the two 
trees, of knowledge and of life. But in the heavenly 
kingdom, there is true and perfecl: knowledge, and 
that life, which is really and emphatically fo. 6thly, 
Man being firft created in the earth, was tranflated in- 
to Paradife, as the better refidcnce. For, if I mif- 
take not, the words of Mofes intimate this, Gen. 2. 
S. And there he put the man, that he had formed. 
Compare .Gen, 3, 23, where after his fin, he is faid 

K 2 /♦ 

' fi3 2 The Sack a me n t $ of the Book t , 

to he fent forth from the garden of Eden^ to til! the 
ground^ from whence he was taken. In like maniier 
^•^alf6,'"*mari was in due time to-be trariQated from that 
•'t^atiiral and animal ftate, in which he v/as created, 
-'to another altogether fupernatural and heavenly : of 
*^wiicft this defireable tranflation from earth to Para- 
Hi f^' reminded him, v/hich Zanchius alfd obferved on 
Gen. 2. 15, as alfo Mtifculits, ythly. Had not man 
* been innocent, he would have had no place in 
Paradife. This garden did not fufFer him when, 
once tainted with (in. So, nothing that defileth can 
•^ehter into heaven Rev. 21, 27. That ht'ing the ha* 
' 'Mta't'ion of God'sholinefs and glory ^ If. 64. 15. 8thly» 
In Paradife man enjoyed the familiar feliowflbip of 
his God : and in this fenfe Paradife might alfo be 
fliled the garden of God^ as God dwelt there, <Je- 
lighting himfelf in the work of his hands, andefpe- 
"•'tially in man himfelf. As it was a pleafure to man, 
vto be thus near and familiar with his maker, fo it 
;%as rr delight to God. But in heaven, the habita- 
^Vion of his majefty, God will be always prefent with 
man, and give himfelf, in the mofl familiar mann<:r 
poHlble, to be feen and enjoyed by him. 
The im- ^^^^- ^^ Paradife might fet forth all thefc things 
perfec- ' to man, fo in like manner, the ufe of this pledge 
tionsof -reminded him of feveral duties. And firfl., he 
V^^^^^^^ might hence learn j that he ought not to feek for his 
man to a- §^^^ ^"^ felicity in any thing upon earth, which, 
fpire after when appearing even moft perfect, difcovers its own 
Jij^re per- imperfections *, thus, this animal life in Paradife, was 
'to be recruited continually with meat, drink, and a 
fucceffion of fleeping and waking. By which means 
-he was taught to alpire after a greater happinei's, 
namely the immediate fruition of his God ; in the 
feeking after this happinefs, the principal holinefs 
of a traveller confills. For, you love God above all 
things, if you ardently pant after an intimate union 
with him. 

IX, Seconly, 



Chap. (>. CbvENA vTof W-O'^R K S. 133 

, IX. Secondly, As this Paradife was given man to Thekeep- 
be cultivated and kept-, the Lord thereby reminded J.yfj.^"e ^^ 
him, that he took no pieafure in a lazy idlenels, but it, forbade 
in an adive induftry. His will was, that man fnould idlenefs. 
employ his labour and care upon the garden, that he 
might have fomething to do, in which he might 
continually experience the goodnefs and providence 
of his Creator. He did not choofe, that angels them- 
felves (hould be idle, whom he made miniftring fpi- 
rits. And fo he afTigned man the care of cultivat- 
ing and keeping Paradife, that he might have fome- 
thing to employ himfelf in the works of God ; jufl 
as a king's fon has fome office affignedhim, leaft he 
fhould become indolent by an excefs of pleafures, 
Jionour and riches. Thus it became him to be con- 
formed to his God * by a moft holy diligence^ and be 
employed about the very work of God's hands, till -T 

he fhould come to enjoy an eternal fabbath with him- ^-^ 


X. Thirdly, This alfo had a further refpe6l to Ithadalfo 
himfelf. For^ i. As Paradife was the pledge ofy^y^"^^^ 
heaven, fo the careful keeping of it reminded him to l^^^^ ^^' 
have heaven continually in his thoughts. 2. The 
labour and culture of Paradife taught him, that only 
he that labours^ and does that which is acceptable to 
God, can get to the heavenly habitation. gdly. 
He v/as alfo inflrucSled to keep his foul for God, 
as a moft pleafant garden, cultivated like the 
Paradife of God, and fhew forth thofe trees of virtues, 
which God planted as producing the moft excellent. 
fruits, that is, works proceeding from good habits f^ 
that fo the Lord might come into this his garden,- 
and eat his plenfant fruits^ Canticles y 4. 16. 4. It 
pointed out to him, that he (liould, above all things, 
iblicitoufly keep his foul, that garden of God, leaft 

* There Teems to be here fomething obfcure, perhaps occa- 
fidned by a typographical error, a6iiii inltcad of aSlu, I have 
f hereforp expreiled, what I apprehend ; to be the leuic of th^ 

K 3 any 

1^4 "^^^ Sacraments of the Book i. 

any wild beads of depraved paffions (hould break in, 
to lay every thing wade. And v/hen God faid to 
him, keep this my garden, may he not at the fame 
time be fuppofed to fay, keep thy heart with all dili- 
gence, or above all keeping, Prov. 4. 23. 5. The 
keeping of Paradife, virtually enjoined him, of all 
things to be anxiouQy concerned, not to do any thing 
againlt God, leall, as a bad gardener he fhould be 
thrug out of the garden, and in that difcern a melan- 
choly fymbol of his own exclufion from heaven,, 
We then conclude, that when man was, with joy 
and exultation, admitted into Paradife, he was 
bound, and was willing to be bound, to perform all 
thefe things to God, and fo upon entering into Pa- 
radife, he bound himfelf, as by a facrament, to thefe 
The tree XI. We now proceed to confider thervLEZ o? life; 
h th -f^"^ whether a ftngle trce^ or an entire fpecies of trees^ 
was one ^^ ^ queftion ^mong the learned. Some think that 
tree or an the former, whicA is indeed, the common opinion, 
entire fpc- is founded on no probable reafon : and fuppofe it- 
^^^* more fuitable to the goodhcfs of God, that fuch a 
beautiful, ufeful tree, fhould be in the view of his 
favourite, in as many parts of the enclofure as poflTi* 
ble. They alfb alledge the divine benedi6^ion, G^n. 
I. II, 12, by which God conferr^ on all trees the 
virtue of multiplying themfelves. But they chiefly 
ihfift on Rev. 22. 2. where John pitches the Tree 
of Life on each fide of the river, which they com- 
pare with Ezek. 47. 12. Others, on the contrary, do 
pot think it probable that it was an entire fpecies : 
Firft, becaufe the univerfal particle, "^^ alh is not 
added as before, when Mofes would exprefs many 
things of the fame fpecies, or many fpecies them- 
felves. Next, becaufe it is faid to have been placed 
in the middle of the garden, fo as to have the other 
trees furrounding it in order. To the paflages al- 
ledged from the Revelations and Ezekiel, they anfwer; 
that John fpeaks only in the fmgular ^nvmiber, both 


Chap. 6. CovENANTof W Q R K S. 135 

in that place, and Rev. 2. 7, and that one tree, could 
properly be faid to (land in the midft of the Jlreet^ and 
on both fides of the river, becaufe the river run 
through the midft of the flreet, and becaufe thac 
fingle tree extended its roots and branches to each 
fide, fo that there was no defe6t on either fide. 
They likewife conclude from its being a type, that 
it mud be a fingle one ; becaufe Chrift is one. But 
Ezekiel faw many on the bank of the river reprefent- 
ing the church Militant ; becaufe, tho* one Chrift 
quickens the church, yet *tis by feveral means he now 
communicates life to the eledb. Thefe are the ar- 
guments on both fides: if any ftiould defire our 
judgment, we are of opinion, that the arguments of 
neither fide have the force of a demonftration : but 
from the confideration of its being a type, we rather 
incline to the more common opinion. 

XII. Whether this tree was endowed with a ^m- Whether \ 
gular virtue aJDOve others, fo as perfedly to cure the "^a^^n*- 
diforders of the body, who, with certainty, can either Jug^bl-^' 
affirm or deny? To afcribe to it a medicinal virtue yond o- 
againft difeafes, does not appear fuitable to the (late thcr trcw. 
of innocent man. For, difeafes, and fuch like in- 
firmines, are only the effedls of fin. But nothing 
fure IS more ridiculous, than the paradoxical and al- " 
together untheological aflertion of Socinus^ that 
Adam, by the benefit of that food, would have pro- 
longed his life to a much longer time, than God 
chofe he fliould, had he not been deprived of the 
opportunity of reaching forth his hand to that tree. 
As if God, when he expelled man out of Paradife, 
and faid, leaji he put forth his handy and take alfo of 
the tree of life^ and live for ever^ Gen. 3. 22, was 
apprehenfive, that man, upon taft:ing again of that 
tree, fiiould live for ever, notwithftanding his will, 
and threatning, which is down right blafphemy. 
For, by thefe words, God only intended to reitrain 
the vain thoughts of man, now become fuch 2^ fool, 
as to imagine that, by the ufe of that tree, he could 

K 4 repair 

1 3^ The ^ A c R A M B !^ T s of the Sook i- 

repair the lofs he had fuftained by JSn ; or, as if the 
bare ufe of the facrament, or the opus opcratum^ as it 
is called, could be of any advantage, without the 
fhing fignified. And by driving marl from that 
butward fign of immortality, he cut him off from all 
hopes of falvatiori by that cdVenaht, of Which that 
tree was a fymbdl. However, there rhuft be fome 
great r^afori, why that tree obtained this defignation^ 
SVhich we'll now enquire into; 
tt figniii. XIII. The tree of life, fignified the Sort of God, 
cd the ^Q^ indeed, as he is Chrift arid Mediator, (that confi- 
God^as deration being peculiar to dndther covenant) but in 
the foun- as tiiuch as he is the life of man in every condition, 
tain of and the fountain of all happlnefs. Arid, how well 
true hk. ^^^^ j^ fpoken by one, whb faid, that it became God 
from thd firft to reprefent, by an outward fign, that 
perfoxi whom he loves, and for whole glory he has 
made and does make all things • nay, to whom he 
Jheweth dl things^ that he doth ^ thdt loe may alfo dd 
iike-wije^ John, 5. 19, as the author of life to man; 
that man even then, might acknowledge him as 
fuch ; and afterwards, when he was to be mariifefted 
as his faviour and phyfician, Adam arid his pofterity^ 
might bring him to remembrance, as exhibited by a 
fymbol at the very begining. As in fadl it has hap^ 
Opened, that they, who believe Mofes^ the Prophets ) 
I jiand the Gofpel, avow, that in the beginning there I 
'was no life but In him, for whofe glory to be dilplayy 
Vd in the work of falvatioh ; the earth was alfo made^V 
wVherefore, Chrift is called, the 'Tree of ^ Life^ ReVij 
22. 2. What indeed, he now is by his merit and 
efficacy, as Mediator, he would have always been^ 
as the Son of God, of the fame fubftance with his 
Father., For, as by him man was created, and ob* 
binedan animal life, fo, in like manner, he would have 
been transformed by him, and blelfed with a heaven- 
ly life. Nor could he have been the life of the fin- 
ner, as Mediator, unlefs he had likewife been the 


thap.^. Covenant of WO R K S. J37 

life of man in his holy (late, as God -, having life in 
himfelf and being life itfelf. 

XIV. The fruit of this tree, charming all the The fruit 
fenfes with its iinparalklled beauty, fignified the %"ificd 
f leafures of divine love, with which happy man fjg of di^" 
v/as one day to be fully regaled, and which never vine love. 
cloy, but, with their fweet variety, do always quicken 

the appetite. In this fenfe, wifdom is faid to be 
a Tree of Life to t hem ^ that lay hold of her ^ Prov. 3. 18. 
Becaufe the iludy and practice of true wifdom, fill 
the Ibul with an ineftable pleafure. 

XV. Moreover^ it was man's duty, ift, Atten- The du^ 
tively to confider this tree, as' pkafant to the ^^j^ ties of 
Gen. 3. 6. and to contemplate therein, the perfec- "^^^ ^^"^ 
tions of the Sonof God, whofe brightell vifion was [^fg^^^ce! 
one day to compleat his happinefs. adly, By the 

ufe and enjoyment of this tree^ to teflify his com- 
munion with the Son of God, and acknowledge him, 
as the author of the life he longed for ; which, tho' 
innocent, he was to feek after, notan himfelf, but in 
God, as a liberal rewarder^ ^dly^ He himfelf, in 
imitation of the Son of God, and as in communioa 
"With him, ought to be as a tree of life to his wife and 
pofterity, by giving them holy advice and example, 
^s a plant of the garden of God, a partaker of the 
divine life, and as miniftring to the life of his neigh- 
bour. The fruit of the righteous is a tree oflife^ Prov* 

XVI. Befides the tree of life, M?y^j fpeaks of ano- The tree 
ther tree, derivino; its name from the knowledge ?^M°^" 

^ • 1 r 1 ledeewhe- 

.OF good and evil^ concerning whole name andtheraSa* 

ufe we began to fpeak, chap. 3.. §. 20, 21. That it crament. 

was defigiied for man's probation is undoubted : but 

whether it was alfo a fymbolof the covenant, isdif- 

puted. I freely own, I fee no reafon, why this 

(hould be denied. For, all the requifites to confli- 

tute afymbol of a covenant here concur. We have 

an external and vinble fign, inftitutcd by God : "v^'e 


jS The Sacraments of the Book r, 

have the thing (Ignified, togetherwirha beautiful ana- 
logy : we have, in fine, a memorial of man's duty : 
all which fully conftitute the nature of a facred fym- 
bol, or facrament. 
The out- XVII. The external fign was a certain tree, in the 
ward fign midft of the garden^ good for food^ pkafant to the eyes^ 
and its ^^J f^ ^^ dejired to make one wife. Gen. 3. 3, 6. The 
ufe of this fign was twofold, ifl. That it might 
be attentively viewed and confidered, by man, while 
he carefully meditates on the myftical fignification of 
this tree. For that end it was fo beautiful and fo 
defireable to the view, and placed in the midfl of the 
garden, where man moft frequently refortcd. 2dly, 
That from a religious obedience, he fhould abflain 
from eating of it, and thereby acknowledge God's 
abiblute dominion over him, and his expectation of 
another world, in which he (hould be forbid nothing 
truly defireable. 
The thing XVIII. The thing fignified, was in like manner 
fi^ficd. twofold, the fealing both of the promife and the 
threatning of the covenant. For, its being called^ 
the tree of knowledge of good, intimated, that man, 
if, from a principle of love he obeyed this probationary 
precept, fhould come to the knowledge, fenfe and 
fruition of that good, which is truly and excellently 
fo, and the full knowledge of which, is only obtain- 
able by fenfe and enjoyment. On the other hand, 
when called, the tree of the knowledge of evil, thereby 
is fignified, that man, if found difobedient, (hould 
be doomed to the greateft calamity, the exceeding 
evil and wretchednefs of which, he ihould at laft 
know by experience. And even they, who. In other , 
refpeds, would not have this tree called, a fymboi of 
the divine covenant, do confefs this. 
Itputman XIX. There was here, a very plain memorial of - 
b mind of duty. For, this tree taught, 1 (I, That man was fm- 
his duty. ^^^tX^ to contemplate and defire the chief good \ but 
not to endeavour after it, but only in the manner and 
way prefcribed by heaven j nor here, to give-in to 


Chap. 6. Covenant of W O R K S. X39 

his own reafonings, how plaufible foever they might 
appear. 2dly, That man's happinefs was not to be 
placed in things, pleafing^ to the fenfes of the body. 
There is another and a quite different beatifying 
good, which fatiates the foul, and of itfelf fuffices 
to theconfummation of happinefs. 3dly» That God 
was the mod abfohite lord of man, whole fole will^ 
expreflfed by his law, fhould be the f^jpreme rule and 
directory of all the appetites of the foul, and of all 
the motions of the body. 4thly, That there is no at- 
taining to a life of happinefs, but by perfeft obe- 
dience. 5thly, That, even man in innocence, wa> 
to behave with a certain religious awe, when con- 
verfing with hi^ God, leaft he fhould fall into fin. 
To thefe add, what we have already obferved, chap. 3. 
ka, 21. 

XX. That very accurate and great divine Hiero- ^^« ^pi^ 
nimus Zanchius^ after giving a hiilory of thefe trees, 2anchiu.s 
cxprefles their myftical fignification in thefe words ; cxamintj. 
de creat, Horn. lib. i. c. i. §. 8. Moreover^ thefe twcr 
trees J in the midft of Paradife^ and near each other ^ 
were very evident types of the law and Gofpely or of 
Chrift. T'he law declares what is good, and what is 
evil : Chrift is the true and eternal life. Both were in 
the midft of Parcdife, becaufe the law and Chrift^ in the 
midft of the church., are always to be propofed to the 
pofterity of Adam. One near the other., becaufe the law 
leads to Chrift. I cannot fully exprefs, what regard 
I pay to this great divine, whofe commentaries I 
exceedingly prefer to the new-fangled comments,, 
with which the minds of ftudents are at this day 
diftraaed and led aftray. Ncverthclefs,- thefe cx- 
prefTions feem to be more ingenious, than folid and 
judicious. For, under the covenant of works, Adam 
neither had, nor was it ncceflary he fhould have, 
any facraments, which refpedted Chrift, the Gofpel 
and grace. This however, may be faid in excufe of 
thefe and the like things^ whichoften occur even in 



The Sack a m e n t s of the Book t * 


a facra 

the moft learned authors, that tho* thefe 
were not propofed at firfl to man in innocence, in 
order to reprefent to him the grace of Chrift, yet 
they were fo wifely ordered by God, that man, by 
refleding upon them, -could, after the fall, difcover 
in them fome dark refemblance of thofe things, 
which Gdd-afterwardSj by a new promife, was plealed 
toreveal. *'' ■ m ■;' 

XXI. Other learned men have not thought proper 
ftients^T ^^ reckon the tree of knowledge among the fymbols 
thofe who and feals of the covenant of works •, for thefe follow- 
deny, that jng reafons. I ft, Becaufe all facraments are given 
knoT'^^^^^'^ ufe; but man was forbid the ufe of this tree. 
ledgewas sdly, Becaufe facraments are figns of a blefling, 

whigh they feal to thofe, who ufe them in a proper 
way ; but this tree fealed no blefllng, to any who 
fhdtild ufe it> but rather a curfe. Thefe confidera- 
tions, however are not of that weight, that we fhould 
therefore depart from the more received opinion. 
And it is eafy to anfwer both thefe arguments, not 
only from the truth of the thing itfelf, but alfo from, 
the very hypothefes of thefe learned men. 

XXII. It is, indeed, true, that all facraments were 
given for ufe 5 but it is alfo certain, that the external 
life of all facraments is not after one and the fame 
manner : all are not granted to the mouth and palate. 
Ther^ are facraments, whofe ufe confifts in the con* 
templation of the fign, and meditation on the thing 
fi^nified. Some learned writers maintain, that the 
rambow was not a fymbol only of the oecumenical 
dr general covenant, with the whole earth, but alfo 
of the covenant of grace in Chrift, and they think 
that the colours of the rainbow, the red, the fiery, 
and the green^ denote, that by blood, holinefs and 
mercy are united. But we can conceive no other 
facramental ufe of the rainbow, befides the contem- 
plation of it. In like manner, they place the brazen 
ferpent arrjong thie facraments of the Old Teftament, 
whofe uie confifted only in the beholding of it. Nay, 


The ufe 
of fome 
con filled 
in con- 

chap. 6. Cov E N A N T of W O R K S. 141 

^hcy are of opinion concerning the tree-of life itfelf, 
that it was not promifcuoufly to be ufed by man, fince, 
to htm alone that overcometh^ it is given to eat of the ' 

tree of life^ Rev. 2. 7. Whence^ fay they, it does not ^ 
appear that Adam touched it before the fall: nay, the con* 
trary is rather evident. And yet they fay, that it was 
the firft and moft ancient reprefentationof the Son of 
God, and of the life to be pofTefied through him. 
"Why then, may not the tree of knowledge alfo be 
called a fymbol of the covenant, though propofed, 

, only to be looked at by man, though he was never 
to eat of it ? 

XXIII. I go a ftep. farther, and fay, that there is no It is not 
abfurdity,fnouldfucha facramentbe appointed, whofe ^bfurd, to 

/-life Ihould confift in a religious abftinence. Nor, fhould [acmment 
thofe learned men, if confident with themfelves, be a- mav be 

vverfe to this opinion. The deluge, fay they, from y/hich "fed a.^d 

. Noah was preferved, muft needs be reckoned among the ^^X ^°^y 
types. But the ufe of the waters, in refpocl to Noah^ ^r^tnc^ 
confiRed in this, that they were neither to touch him '*, 
and his, to their hurt; nor force themfelves into the 
ark, in which he was (hut up : the waters of the 
Redrfeay likewife fignified the fame thing,; in the 
fame manner, to JfracU , Nay, what may feem 
ftrange, thefe learned men fay, that the firft facra- 
ment of the covenant of grace was the eje^ment of 
Adam out of Faradife, and the barring up his aocefs^ to 
the tree of life: or, as one is pleafed to exprefs him- 
felf; the firft. facrament was the tree of lifcywhick^ 
thd' at firft it regarded the covenant of works^ and the 
exclufion from it was the punifhment of fallen man : ne- 
verthelefs, that very excUifion was, at the fame timcy 
afign of the grace and goodnefs of God, I would beg 
of thofe very learned men, to explain, in what thq 
(acramental ufe of the tree of life was to have con- 
filled under the covenant of grace, after man was 
expelled Paradife, and that tree was no longer to be 
in hisview. Inhere is here no other ufe but a myftical 


142 The Sacraments of the Book i. 

abftinence and deprivation. And thus, we imagine, 
we have fully anfwered the firft argument. 
'Til not XXIV. Let us now confider the fecond : and We 
contrary fj^y^ j^jg ^q^ inconfiftentwith the nature of facraments, 
ture of"^' to feal death and condemnation, to thofe who un- 
facra- duly and irregularly ufe them : for, the covenant of 
ments to God with man is ratified, not only by the promifes, 
feal death ^^^ ^j^q \^y certain threatnings belonging to it -, but 
who do facraments are the fealsofthe whole covenant, not 
not pro- excepting the threatnings to the profane abufers 
perly ufe of them. Wticti a man partakes of the facraments, 
^^^* he comes under an oath and curfe, and makes him- 
felf liable to punifhment, if he deals treacheroufly. 
To fay nothing of the facraments of the covenant 
of works, the very facraments of the covenant of 
grace, are the favour of death unto death to hypocrites, 
and profane perfons, who, in the bread and wine of the 
Eucharift, eat and drink damnation to themfclveSy i Cor. 
II. 27,29, But it is not true, that the tree of know- 
ledge fealcd only death ; for it alfo feaied life and 
happincfs. It was the tree of knowledge, not only 
of evily but of good. As thefe learned men them- 
felves acknowledge, while they write: that^ had 
Adam obeyed^ he wouldy upon his trials have come to 
the knowledge and fenfe of his goody to which he was 
calledy and had a natural dejire after •, even eternal life 
and confummate hafpinefs. Whence we conclude, 
that, notwithftanding thefe reafonings, we mayjuftly 
reckon the tree of knowledge anv^ng the facraments 
of the covenant of works. 


C M3 ) 

CM A P. vir. 

. Of the firjl Sabbath. 

1. \T[ r E ^aid, that the firft Sabbath was the fourth Thchiao- 

W lacrament of the covenant of works. In ry of the 
order to treat fomewhat more fully on this, it will ?^^/^^" i 
not be improper to make it the fubjecl of a whole ^^ 'j^ 
chapter, Mofes gives i3s the hiftory of it. Gen. 2. ofthisdi(^ 

2, 3, in thefe words: And on the feventb day G^^ ^ertation. 
ended his worky which he had made j and he rejled on 

the feventh day froth all his worky which he had made : 
and God hlejjed the feventh day^ and fan5fijied it^ hecaufe 
that in it he had rejled from all his work, which God 

' created and made. The more fully to uhderftand thefe 
words, and from them to anfwer our defign, we 
ihall diftindtly difcufs thefe thfec things, ift. En- 
quire, whether, what is here fald about fanSlifying 
and blejfing the feventh day^ ought to be applied to 
that firfl day, which immediately followed upon the 
fix days of the creation, and which was the firft that 
flione on the works of God when com pleated ; or, 
whether it be neceflary to have recourfe to a pro- 
lepjisy or anticipation^ by which we may look upon 
thofe things as fpoken of the day, on which, many 

Adges after, the manna was given in the wildernefs. 

■'2<ily, ,We fhall explain the nature of that firft Sab- 

'^t)am.f 3dly, and laftly, Point out in what refped it 
was a Sacrament. 

II. There is no occafion to mention, that the firft g ^ 
of thefe points has been matter of great difpute per expH- 
among divines, without coming to any determi- cation oi 
nation to this day ; nor da I choofe to repeat, what 1 "^^^'' 
they have faid. I (hall only obferve, that perhaps fanfiffy. 

^ the parties might eafily agree, did we know, what ing the 
we arc to underftand by fanlfifyinz and hlefftng the Seventh 

feventh ^^^^^^ 

144 Of the First SABBATH; Book iv 

contto- feventh day, mentioned by Mofes: and which we 
verfy re- ^^|| pj-efently confidcr. But if we fuppofe in gene* 
antTcfpl* J*a^9 thacGod rejied on the feventh day from his work, 
tion may that is, not only defifted from creating new fpecies of 
beadjuft- creatures, but acquiefced 2Lnd took cemplacency in the 
^^* work which he had now finifhed, efpecially in man, 

who was formed after his image, and furnifhed with 
thofe faculties, by which he was enabled to acknow- 
ledge, and celebrate the perfedions of God, Ihining 
forth in his works •, and that he fet this his rejiing 
before man as a pattern, by which he fhould be 
taught to acquiefce in nothing but in God, for whom 
he was created •, pleafe himfelf in nothing, but in 
glorifying God, which is the f nd of his creation : 
moreover, that he fanSlified this day, of which we 
are fpeaking, by commanding it to be employed by 
man for that facred work, adding a promife^ thi^t 
all that time, thus employed by man, ihould be high- 
. ly blejjed to him : if I fay, we thus in general fup» 
pofe^ as all thefe things are evidently trqfh, there is 
' good hope, that all equitable judges will allow, thaf 
we adhere to the fimplicity of the letter, and inter- 
pret this hiftory of iVf^/^i, as the narrative pf a thing 
done at that time, which tjie holy Pjrophpt w^^ then 
. defcribing. 
The opi^ ,v III. 1 am glad to find the celebrated Cocceius af. 
nio'n of f^^nts to this. His words are thefe on Gen, 2, §/6. 
ai^dTuT So"^^ imagine, that thisverfe (namely 3.) is put by 
manug ^-^^JV of anticipation. — But it is not prol^ahley that Mofes 
concern- in recording this bkffing and fan^ification^ didy by na 
ing anti- ^g^^fis fpeak concerning the original fabbath^ but only 
cipa ion. concerning the Jewifh fabbath. This is plainly doing 
violence to the text^ if one day be undcrjiood', which 
God hleffed and fan^ified., and anoth^r^ on which he 
r eft ed from bis work, Ar}d the very eloquent Burman^ 
tho' inclining to an anticipation, yet owns; that /^^ 
words of Mofes may be undcrftcod of that perpetual 
fabbath^ the feventh d^y after fke creation^ which firfi 
Javi^ the works of God pcrfe^ed, ahd moft aufpicioufly 


Chap. 7 Of the First's ABB ATH. 145 

jhone on the world j whence it is faid to he peculiarly 
hlejfed by God^ and afterwards to he celebrated and fane- 
tified by many for all ages to come^ Cynops Theol. lib. 2. 
c. 5. §. II. See the iame author; de ceconomiafoederum 
Dciy §.208,209. We fliall fay no more on this, 
as we could rather wifli to lee the orthodox agreeing 
among thcmfeives, than contending with one ano- 
ther. And indeed, this mufl be acknowledged, if 
we would properly explain, in what manner this fab- 
bath was a facrament of the covenant of works. 

IV. The bed Hebrew authors, on whofe autho- The moft 
rity thofe of the oppofite opinion are wont to build eminent 
upon, agree with us in this difpute. For, in the J^^^^^r 
Talmud they enquire, why man was created on the againft 
evening of the fabbath^ and of the three reafons they this anti- 
give, this is the lafl ; that he might immediately enter ^^'9^^^^^* 
en performing the command. The ^zmou^ Ludovici s 
de Dieu^ mentioning thefe words, on Gen. i. 27, 
adds, by way of explicaLion •, for^ ftnce the fabbath 
immediately fucceeded the creation of man^ he immediately 
entered on the command of fanElifying the fabbath, Baal 
Hatturim^ after various interpretations of this palTagCj 
alfo fubjoins this other •, in the hour^ that he created 
the worlds he bleffcd the fabbath and the world. Jarchi 
alfo mentions this opinion, tho' himfelf was other- 
wife minded; what would the world have been without 
rejl'y on the coming of the fabbath catne reft^ and thus 
at length the work was fintfhed and compleated. By 
which he intimates, that the inftitution of the fab- 
bath was joined to the compleating of the works of 
God. There are alfo feme Jews^ who will have 
Pf 92, whofe title is, a Pfalm^ or Song ^ for the fab- 
bath-day^ to have been compofed by Adam. For, 
thus the Chaldee paraph rafes ; a hymn and fong., which 
the firji man faid of the fabbath. And, jR. Levi in 
Berefchit Rabba^ fe£l^ 22, at the end: the firft man 
Ipoke, this Pfalm^ and from his time it was buried in 
oblivion^ hut Mofes came and renewed it. Now, I 
bring thefe teftimonies to (hew, that they fpeak too 

Vol. I T confidently, 

146 Cfthc First SABBATH. Book i. 

confidently, who afierr, that It is running counter to 

the unanimous opinion of the 7j';x;j, for any to infill, 

that the precept of the fabbath, was enjoined on the 

firft man. Whoever wants more to this purpofe, 

may confult Selden de jure nature^ &c. lib. 3. c, 13. 

The ex- y^ Thefe things fuppofed, we are further to en- 

onhe mi- q^""^^^' '^"^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ nature of the firft fabbath did 

tureofthe confift. Here again, the learned run into very dif- 

firft fab- ferent opinions. I now take it to be my province, 

bath. X.0 lay down fuch propofitions to v/hich it is to be 

hoped, that the orthodox, who are lovers of truth, 

will without difficulty give their afifent. 

The dif- ^^' ^^ ^^^ ^^ diftinguifii firft, between the reft of 

tinaion God, and the reft of man, which God enjoined upon 

between him, and recommended by his own example : in 

God's reft ^j-^jg Planner alfo, Paul diftinguilhes, Heb, 4. 10, 

' he alfo hath ceafed from his own works ^ as God did from 


God's reft ^11- The reft of God confifted not only in his 

wherein it ceafing from the work of any nev/ creation, but alfo, 

coniifts. in that fweet fatisfaEUon, and delight he had in the 

demonftration of his own attributes and perfedions, 

which were glorioully difplayed in the work, he had 

' now finiftied, efpecially after he had added a luftre to 

this inferior world, by beftowing upon it, a moft ex- 

. cellent inhabitant, who was to be a careful fpedbator, 

and the herald and proclaimer of the perfedions of 

his Creator, and in whom God himfelf beheld 

«//.»x|; ov Ty,cr^&|r,^ gcv^h wrrxvyacy^ no fmall cffiilgence of his own 

. glory. Wherefore it is faid, Exod. 31. 17, and on the 

fcventh day he refted, andwas refrefl:ed\ not as if he was 

fatigued, but as rejoicing in his work, fo happily 

com pleated, and in which he beheld what was vi^orthy 

'^of his labour. 

Godfatic- VIII. God having refted on the feventh day, fane- 

tif.fd the //^f^^ it, as well by example, 2ls by precept. By example^ 

daT^both^^ as much as he brought man, whom he had newly 

Ly'exam- formed, to the contemplation of his works, and 

pie and revealed to liim, both himfelf and his perfections, 

precept. ^^^^ 

Chap. 7- Of the First SABBATH. 147 

that he might love, thank, praife, and glorify him. 
And indeed, bccaufe God refted on the feventh day 
from all other works, and was only intent upon this, 
we may conclude, that he fanftified it in an extraor- 
dinary manner. He likewife fandified it by precept^ 
enjoining man to employ it in glorifying his Creator. 
'To favMify^ (as Martyr^ whom feveral commend, 
fais well,) is to fet apart fomtthing for the worjhip cf 
Gcd^ cs it is aljo taken here. And it was very jullly 
obferved by Calvin, that it was the will of God, his 
own example fjjould he aper'petnal rule to us. Rabhenu 
Nijfim, quoted by Aharbanel, on the explication of the 
law, fol. 21. col. 3, is of the fame opinion : and this 
is the fanBification of the fahhath, that, on that day, the 
foul of man he employed on nothing profane, hut wholly 
on things f acred. 

IX. God's hleffing the feventh day, may be alio ^od blef- 
taken in a twofold fenfe : Firfl, io^ his declaring \x. to [^^ ^^^ 
be hleffed and happy, as that in which he had peculiar t^ways, 
plealure to enjoy, by obferving all his works in fuch both in 
order as to be not only to himfelf, but to angels as reiped of 
well as men, a moil beautiful fcene, difplaying the^^^^^^. 
glory of his perfeflions. This is what David fays-, man. 
Pf 104. 13; the glory of the Lord fh all endure for ever, 
the Lord fhall rejoice in his works. Thus, God himfelf 
rejoiced on that day, and confequently blelfed it. 
For, as to curfea day, is to abhor anddeteft it, as un- 
fortunate and unhappy, as afBi(5live and miferable. 
Job. 2. 14. Jer. lo. 14: fo, by the rule of contraries, 
to hlefs a day, is to rejoice in it, as delightful and 
profperous. And indeed, what day more joyful, 
more happy than that, v/hich faw the works of God 
perfeded, and yet, not Rained by any fm either of 
angels, or probably of men ? There has been none 
like it fince that time, certainly not fmce the entrance 
of fm. Secondly, It was alfo a p:^.rt of the hlcjfing of 
this day, that God adjudged toman, if he religioufly 
imitated the pattern of his own reft, the moft ample 

L 2 bkiTings, 

J45 Of the First SABBATH. Book i. 

blefTings, and likewife, in that very reft, the carneft 
of a moft happy reft in heaven •, of which more fully 
prefenrly. Elegantly faid the ancient Hebrew doc- 
tors -, that the blejfing and fanElifying the fahbath re- 
dound to the obfervers thereof^ that they may be blejfed and 
holy themfdves. 
The reft X. The reft^ here enjoined and recommended to man^ 
enjoined comprizes chiefly thefe things : in general^ that he 
to man ^^\ abftain from every fin, thro* th/e whole courfe of 
iTabftr ^*^^ ^^^*^' ^^^^ giving nothing but uneafmefs, both to 
nence himfelf and his God. As the Lord complains, If. 43. 
from eve- 2 2. thou haft been weary of me^ O i/r^^/, and verfe 24. 
ry fin; and ^^^^ ^^ wearied me with thine iniquities. By fmning, 
efcTn^ce ]n ^^^ dreadfully rranfgrefs againft the reft of God, who 
God a- cannot delight in a fmner, of whom and his work he 
lone, fays, If. I. 1 4. they are a burthen to me* I am weary to 
hear them. But more efpecially., it is likewife, man's 
duty, that as he is the concluding part of the works 
of God, and the laft of ail the creatures, that came 
out of the hands of his Creator, not fo to harrafs and 
fatigue himfelf about the creatures, as to feek his 
happinefs and good in them •, but rather, by a holy 
elevation of mind, afcend to the Creator himfelf, and 
acquiefce in nothing fhort of the enjoyment of his 
unbounded goodnefs, of the imitation of the pureft 
holinefs, and of the expedation of the fulleft reft, 
and intimate union with his God. This indeed is the 
true and fpiritual reft, always to be meditated upon, 
fought after, and to be obferved by man. 
3 A ceaf- XI. Moreover, as man, even in the ftate of inno- 
ing from cence, was to perform folemn ads of piety, together 
*^very ^j^l^ j^|g confort and children, and to be their mouth 
^^ghthinJn prayer, thankfgiving, and praifes ; it was ne- 


r the 

* N. B. This h not to be underftood, as if the bleffed God 
could be wearied, but only, that if fuch a tbingwas poflibie, iin 
i-sof fuch a malignant nature, that it would doit. 


Chap.;. Of t/ie First SABBATH. 149 

ceflary, at that time, that laying afide all other oc- perform- 
cupations, and all cares about what related to the^"^^°^ . 
fupport of natural life, and, ordering thofe about ^^\l^^ ^l^l 
him to reft, he might, without any hindrance from ties, at the 
the body, religiouriy apply himfelf to this one thing: timewhen 
which I hope none of my brethcrn will refufe. At j|^y^'"^^o 
leaft the celebrated Coccems readily allows it. Whofe jy <rone"" 
words are thefe, SMm.Theol. c. 21. §. 10. It is r/^Z?/ about. 
in iifelf^ and a part of the image of God^ that man 
fhould^ as often as pofjihle^ employ himfelf in the wor- 
Jhip of God {that is, laying afide the things, pertaining 
to the body and its conveniencics, be vjholly taken up in 
thofe duties which become afoul, delighting in God, gloria 
fying him and celebrating his praife) and that too in 
the public affcmbly, for the common joy and edification 
of all. 

XII. After man had fmned, the remembrance of l"t follows 
God's refting, and fanflifying the feventh day, ^"^^^^ ^^"" 
ought to roufe him from his flownefs and dulnels, recolLa 
in the worfliip of God, in order to fpend every fe- himfelf, 
venth day therein, laying afide, for a while, all other ^^^t he 
employment. But it will be better to explain this in J".^.^ ^^^^ 
Calvin! % words: God therefore firft rejled, and then he ^Y^^y^Q^^ 
bleffed that refi, that it anight be ever afterwards holy ftiip of 
among men: or he fet a part each feventh day for refi, God every 
that his own example might be a ftanding rule. Martyr ^^^'^'"^" 
fpeaks to the fame purpofe : Hence men are put in mind 
that, if the church enjoins them to fet apart a certain day 
in the week for the worfhip of God, this is not altogether 
a human device, nor belongs only to the law of Mofes, 
but likewife, had its rife from hence, and is an imitation 
of God, All this is alfo .approved of by Cocceius^ 
whofe excellent words we will fubjoin from the place 
juft quoted, §. 12. The confequence of thefe things in 
theftnner is, — that, if encompa^ed with the infirmities of 
the flefh, and expofed to the' troubles of life, he may at 
leafi each feventh day recolle5l, and give himfelf up to 
far preferable thoughts, and then chearfullyy on account 

L3 of 

I50 Of the First SABBATH. Book r. 

cf that part of the worflnp of God^ which cannot he per- 
formed without difengaging from hufinefs^ ahftain from 
the work cf his hands ^ and from feeking^ preparing and 
gathering the fruits of the earth. And as this cele- 
brated expofitor approves of this, I know not, why 
he fliould difapprove the elegant obfervation of 
Chryfoflow,^ Not : at Heb. §.13. That, hence ashy certain 
preludes God hath enigmatically taught us to confecrate 
andfet apart for fpiritiial employrnent each feventh day 
in the week. If we all agree, as I hope we may, in 
thefe pofitions, which feem not unhappily to explain 
the nature of the firft fabbath ; I truly reckon, that 
a way is paved and a great deal done, to compofe 
thofe unhappy difputes about the fabbath of the deca- 
logue, which, for fonie years pad, have made fuch 
noife in the Dutch univerfities and churches. 
This fab- XIII. Having thus explained the nature of the 
bath had i^^^ fabbath, we proceed to enquire into its fpiritual 
\T^t and myftical fignification ; from whence it will be 
tion. ' ^^fy ^^ conclude, that we have not improperly called 
it a facrament \ or which is the fame, a facred fign or 
feal (for, why fhould we wrangle about a word, not 
fcriptural, when we agree about the thing?) of the 
promifes of faivation made by God to Adam, We 
have Paul's authority to affert, that the fabbath had 
fome myftical meaning, and refpedled an eternal and 
happy reft, Heb. 4. 4, 10. And this is juftly fup- 
pofed by the Apoftle, as a thing well known to the 
Hebrews,, and which is a corner ftone or funda- 
mental point with their dodors. It was a common 
proverb, quoted by Bux lor f in Florilegio Hebr^o^ 299 ; 
ne fabbath is not given but to be a type of the life to 
corae. To the fame purpofe is that which we have 
in Zohar^ on Gen. fol. 5. chap. 15. M^hat is the 
fabbath day ? A type of the layid of the living,, which is 
the world to corae,, the world of fouls,, the vjorld of con- 
folations. Thefe things indeed, are not improper 
to be faid in general \ bat as you will not readily find 


Chap. 7. Of theFiRSxSABBATH. 151 

anywhere, [or in other authors] the analogy between 
the fabbath and eternal reil fpecially affigned -, can 
it be thought improper, if by diftinguifhing between 
the reft of God^ the reft of man^ and the feventh da)\ 
on which both refted, we ihould dillindly propofe 
the myftical meaning of each. 

XIV. T'he reft of God from the work of the creation, ^"^'^^^ %- 
was a type of a far more glorious reft of God from ^!^^^ 0^^ 
the work of the glorification of the whole univerfe. God. 
When God had created the firft world, fo as to be a 
commodious habitation for man, during his probation, 
and an illuftrious theatre of the perfections of the 
Creator ; he took pleafure in this his work, and 
refted with delight. For, he beftowed upon it all 
the perfedlion, which was requifite to compleat that 
Hate. But he had refolved, one day, to produce a 
far more perfect univerfe, and, by difTolving the ele- 
ments by fire, to raife a new heaven and a new earth, 
as it were, out of the afnes of the old : which new 
world, being bleffed with his immutable happinefs, 
was to be a far more auguft habitation for his glo- 
rified creatures ; in which, as in the laft difplay of 
his perfedlions, he w^as for ever to reft v/ith the 
greateft complacency. And befides, as God, ac- 
cording to his infinite wifdom, fo very wifely con- 
nefts all his adions, that the preceeding have a cer- 
tain rerpe6b to the following ; in like manner, fince 
that reft of God after the creation was lefs compleat 
than that other, when God lliall have concluded the 
whole, and which is to be followed by no other la- 
bour or toil ; it is proper, to confider, that firft reft 
of God, as a type, and a kind of prelude of that other, 
which is more perfe6t. In fine, becaufe it tends to 
man's greateft happinefs, that the whole univerie be 
thus glorified, and himfelf in the univerfe, that God 
may altogether reft in him, as having now obtained * 

his laft degree of perfe6lion, he is fajd, to enter into 
thsreft of God^Yl^h, /i^. 10. 

L4 XV. This 

Of the First SABBATH. 



What fig- XV. This reft of God was, after the creation, im- 

J^jJ^'^^^g^^^^ mediately fucceeded by the reft of man. For, when 

he had formed man on the fixth day, (as pofTibly may 

be gathered from the fimplicity of Mofes's narrative) 

he had brought him into Paradife on the fevcnth, 

\Tj p2 inn b'l, and put him^ or, -as others think the 

the words may be tran dated, he made him reft in the 

garden of Edsn^ Gen. 2. 15. Was not this a mod 

delightful rymbol,or fign, to Adam, that, after having 

finifhed his courfe of labour on this earth, he fhould be 

tranPiated from thence, into a place far more pleafant, 

and to a rcfl far more delightful than that which he 

enjoyed in Paradife? And v/hen, at certain times, 

he ceafed from tilling the ground in Paradife, and 

gave himfelf wholly up to the religious worfhip of 

God, with a foul delighting in God: was not tliis a 

certain earneft and a prelibation to him of that time, 

in which, exempted from all care about this animal 

life, he fhould immediately delight himfelf in the 

intimate communion of God, in being joined with the 

choirs of angels, and in doing the:works of angels } 

XVI. May not this reR both of God and man, 

falling uipon'ihefeventh day^ after the fix of creation, 

properly denote, that the reft of the glory of God is 

then' to be expe6led, after the week of this world 

is elapfed? And that man is not to enter into reft, 

till he has finifhed his courfe of probation, and God, 

upon ftrictly examining it by the rule of his law, 

finds it compleat, and in every refpe6l perfc^6l ? And 

are we to rejecl the learned obfervation of Peter 

Martyr \ that this feventh day is faid to have neither 

jnorning nor evenings becaufe this is a perpetual reft to 

thofe^ who are truly thefons of God ? 

Thofemy- XVil. It is indeed true, that, upon Adam's fin, 

fdcal fig- and violation of the covenant of works, the whole 

nifications ^^^^ ^^ things was changed : but all thefe things [we 

Wexphin- ^^^^ '^^^^ fpeaking ofj were fuch, as might have 

ed and been fignified and fealed by this fabbath to Adain^ 

fully con even in the ftate of innocence, and why might it not 


What is 
by this 
Ted's be- 
ing on the 


Chap. 7. Of the Fir ST S A B B A T H. 

really have been fo ? For, the A po file exprefsly de- 
clares, that God's reftmg from his works ^ from the 
foiindatioyi of the worlds Heb. 4. 3, had a myftical 
fignification. It is therefore our bufinefs to find out 
the agreement between the fign and the thing figni- 
fied •, for, the greater analogy we obferve between 
them, we fliall the more clearly and with joy dif- 
cover the infinite wifdom and goodnefs of God, 
various ways manlfefling themfelves. It cannot but 
tend to the praife of the divine architecl, if we can ob- 
ferve many excellent refemblances between the pic- 
ture given us by himlelf, and the copy. Indeed, 
I deny not, that Paul, when difcourfing of the fab- 
bath, leads us to that reft, purchafed for believers 
by the fufferings of Chrifl. But it cannot thence be 
inferred, that, after the entrance of fm, God's fab- 
bath borrowed all its myitical fignification from the 
covenant of grace. For, as to the fubflance of the 
thmg, the glorious refl promifed by the covenant of 
works, and now to be obtained by the covenant of 
grace, is one and the fame, confifling in a bleffed ac- 
quiefcence or reft of the foul in God. As this was 
fealed to man in innocence by the fabbath, under the 
covenant of works ; fo likewife it is fealed by the 
fabbath under the covenant of grace, tho' under ano- 
/ther relation, and under other circumftances. For, 
God, having perfecft knowledge, that man would not 
continue in the iirft covenant, had, from all eternity, 
decreed to fet on foot a quite different order of 
things, and bring his ele6b, by a new covenant of 
grace, to the moft peaceful reft. Accordingly, he 
fettled, in his unfearchablc wifdom, whatever pre- 
ceeded the fail, in fuch a manner, that man viewing 
them after the fall with the enlightened eyes of faith, 
might difcover itill greatc^r myfteries in them, which 
regarded Chrift and the glory to be obtained by him. 
But we are not to fpeak of this here. Whoever de- 
fires a learned explanation of thofe myfteries, may 


154 Ofthe First SABBATH. Book i. 

confult Meftrefat^s fcrmons, on the fourth chapter 
to the Hebrews, 
The fab- XVIII. This fabbath alfo put man in mind of va- 
bath was j-jous duties, to be performed by him, which having 
riaTo?va- poi"^^^ out above, §. 10, II. I think needlefs to re- 
nous du- peat now. And thus we have executed what we 
ties. promifed concerning the facraments of the covenant 

of works, 
A new o- XIX. And here I might conclude, did not a very 
pimon learned man come in my way : whofe thoughts on 
inethe^ii- ^^^ ^"^^ fabbath being widely different, from the com- 
flitution monly received notions, I intend, with his permif- 
ofthefab- fion Calmly to examine. He therefore maintains, 
bath. ^Yi2it Adaniy on the very day of his creation, being 
feduced by the devil, had envolved himfelf and the 
whole world, in the moll wretched bondage of cor- 
ruption : but that God, on the feventh day, reftored 
ail things, thus corrupted by the devil and by man, 
by his gracious promife of the Meffiah : upon this 
refloration he relied on that very day : and that reft, 
upon the reparation of the world, being peculiar to 
the feventh day, may be the foundation ofthe fab- 
bath. Doubtlefs, on the fixth day^ the heavens and the 
earth were finijhed^ and all the hoft of them. Gen. 2.1. 
And God beholding the works of his creation fo 
perfect, pleafantly reiled in them. This was the reft 
of the fixth day. But, on the fame day, Satan cor- 
rupted all; for upon lofing heaven, of whofe hoil he 
was one, anc} which he greatly diminifhed, by alTo^ 
ciating many other angels to himfelf, and fo far 
rendered that habitation a defart ; and on earth, by 
means of a calumnious lie he rendered man the prince 
ofthe terreftrialhoft, a fubje6t to himfelf, a rebel to 
God, and deftitute of life. This was the corruption 
of the earth. And thqs heaven and earth fo beau- 
tifully finifhed by God on the iixth day, were on the 
fame, bafely defiled by Satan and by man. This 
pccafioned God to be engaged in a new work on 
the feventh, even to reftore what had been thus 


Chap. 7. Of the First SABBATH. 155 

defiled and corrupted, and to compleat them anew. 
Which he did on thefeventh day, when the Mediator, 
God-man, was revealed by the Golpel, whom, in 
the promife, he appointed to triumph over Satan the 
CDrruptor of all, and fo to reftore all things •, both 
of the earth ; where he began the reftoration, by de* 
livering the eled: of mankind from the bondage of 
corruption; and of heaven, by bringing the fame 
choftn people into the heavenly habitation, in order 
to its being again repeopled with that colony of new 
inhabitants : In this manner he will compleat the 
reftoration. Which completion Mofes intimates, 
verfe 2 ; and on the feventh day God ended his zvcrk^ 
which he had made. This finijhiftg of the reftoration^ 
fignified, verfe 3, by the word r\vz')^b made^ is very 
diftinft from the finijhing of the creation^ mentioned, 
verfe r. When God had done all this, upon giv- 
ing his fon to men for a Mediator and redeemer, he 
himfelf refted in this his laft work, as this is the man 
of his delight^ If 42. i. And this reft was the only 
foundation for inftituting the fabbath. This inftitu- 
tion confifts of a twofold a61: : the firft is of hleffmg^ 
'by which God bleffed that very day, by a moft 
diftinguiftiing priviledge, to be the day devoted to 
the Meffiah^ who was revealed in it by the Gofpel. 
For, this is the honour of the fabbath, that it is 
the delight^ on account of the holy of the Lord being 
glorified^ If. 58. i^- The other a6l is that o'i fanEli- 
fication^ by which he fet it apart for a fign and me- 
morial of that benefit, becaufe through and for 
the holy of the Lord^ he choofes to fan6tify the cledb. 
This is the fum of that opinion. Let us now con- 
fider, v/hether it be folid, and can be proved by 

XX. The whole foundation of this opinion is : it is not 
that Adam fell on the very day in which he was certain, 
created : which the fcripture no where fays. I know ^^^^ ^^ 
that fome Jewiili dodors, with boldnefs, as is their ,^ed on the 
way, aiTert thisj and, as if they were perfei5lly ac- day of his 

quainted creation. 

J56 Of the First SABBAT H. Book i; 

qualnted with what God was about every hour, de- 
clare, that man was created the third hour of the 
day, fell the eleventh, and was expelled Paradife the 
twelfth. But this raOinefs is to be treated with in- 
dignation. The learned perfon deems it his glory 
to be wife from the fcriptures alone, and juftly : 
for thus it becomes a divine. But, what portion of 
fcripture determines any thing about the day of the 
firft fm ? We have here, fcarce any more than bare 
conjedures, which at bed are toofandy a foundation, 
on which any wife architect will ever prefume to 
build fo grand an edifice. 
It is more XXL Nay, there are many things, from which 
Ite^didnot^^ rather incline to think, that man's fin happened 
fin on that not on thefixthday. For, it was after God had, on that 
day. day, created the beads ; after he had formed Adam 
of the dud of the earth ; after he had prefcribed him 
the law concerning the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil-, after he had prelented to him the beads 
in Paradife, that, upon enquiring into the nature of 
each (which alfo he performed with great accuracy, as 
the great Bochart has very learnedly diewn, Hierozoic. 
lib. I. €. 9,) he might call each by their proper 
names ; after Adam had found, there was not among 
them any help .meet for him, for the purpofes and 
convenience of marriage ; and after God had cad 
Adam into a deep fleep, and then at lad 
formed Eve from one of his ribs. All thefe things 
are, not of a nature to be performed, like the other 
works^of the preceeding days, in the diorted fpace 
of time poiTible, and as it were, in a moment \ but 
fucceeded one another in didin6l periods, and during 
thefe, fevcral things mud have been done by Adam 
himfelf Nay, there are divines of no fmall note, 
who infid, that thefe things were not all done in one 
day, and others podpone the creation of Eve to one 
of the days of the following week: but we do not 
now engage in thefe difputes. After all the(e things, 
the world was yet innocent, and free from all guilt, 


Chap. 7- Ofthe First SABBATH. 157 

ac lead on the part of man. And God, contemplat- 
ing his works, and concluding his day, approved of 
all, as very good and beautiful. He had yet no 
new labour for reftoring the fallen world, which 
would have been no ways inferior to the work of the 
creation. But what probability is there, that, in 
thofe very few hours, which remained, if yet a fm- 
gle hour remained, Adam fhould have parted from 
Eve, who had been juft created, expofed his moll 
beloved confort to an infidious ferpent, and that both 
.of them, juft from the hands of the Creator, fhould 
fo fuddeniy have given ear to the deceiver ? Unlefs 
one is prepofTefTed in favour of the contrary opinion, 
what reafon could he have, notwithftanding fo ma- 
ny probabilities to the contrary, prematurely thus to 
hurry on Adam's fm ? Since therefore the whole of 
this foundation is fo very weak, what folid fuper- 
ftruclure can we imagine it is capable of ? 

XXII. Let us now take a nearer view of the fuper- 1]^^. fi- 
ftruclure itfelf, and examine, whether its conftruc- "^™"S ^ 
tion be fufficiently firm and compact. The very ed Gen. 2, 
learned perfon imagines he fees a new labour, or 2. is not 
work on the feventh day, and a new reft fucceedingthat ^^^, ^^^°- 
labour, which is the foundation of the fabbath. The [^e wo°fa 
labour was, a prcmife of the Mejfiah^ by which the by the 
world, miferably polluted with fin, was to be reftor- promifeof 
edj and that Mofes treats of this chap. 2. 2, and on the Mef- 
the feventh day God ended his work^ which he had made. ^^ ' 
The reft was, the fatisfadion and delight he had in 
that promife, and in the Mefjiah promifed. But let 
us offer the following confiderations in oppofiton to 
this fentiment: ift, If God, on the feventh day, 
performed the immenfe work of recovering the 
world from the fall : a work, which if not greater, 
yet certainly is not lefs than the creation of the 
world out of nothing, and he was again to reft, 
when he had finiihed it ; certainly then, the fe- 
venth day was as much a day of work to God, and 
no more a fabbath, or day of reft, than any of 
the preceeding days. For, God having finifhed the 


158 OftheFiRST SABBATH. Book r, 

work of each day, refted for a while, and delighted 
in it. 2dly, Moies in the fecond verfe, makes ufe of 
the fame word, by which he had cxprefled the finiih- 
ing of the world in the firft. But, the fimjhing in the 
firfl verfe, as the learned perfon himfelf owns, relates to 
the finilhing of the creation ; what neceffity then can 
there be for giving fuch different fenfes to one and 
the fame word, in the fame context, when there is 
not the lead mark of diftindion. 3dly, Hitherto, 
Mofes has not given the lead imaginable hint of the 
fall of our firft parents : is it then probable, that he 
would fo abruptly mention the reftitution of the 
world from the fail \ and that in the very fame words, 
which he had juft ufed, and was afterwards to ufe 
for explaining the firft creation ? What can oblige, 
or who can fuffer us to confound the neatnefs of 
Mofes's method, and the perfpicuity of his words, 
by this feigned irregularity and ambiguity ? 4thly, 
It may be doubted, whether we can properly fay, 
that, by the promife of the Meffiah, all things were 
perfeded and finifhed ; fince God, if we follow the 
thread of Mofes's narrative, did, after this promife, 
punilh the world with a deferved curfe : and* the 
Apoftle ftill fays, of the world, that the creature was 
made fuhjc^ to vanity^ and groans under the bondage of 
corruption^ Rom. 8. 20,- 21. It is indeed true, that the 
promife of the Mefftah, which could not be fruftrac- 
cd, was the foundation of the comfort of the fa- 
thers ; but the fcripture no where declares that, by 
this promife, as immediately made after the fall, 
all things were finifhed, nay, even this promife 
pointed out that perfon, who, after many ages, and 
by various a6ls, not of one and the fame office, was 
to effe61: the true confummation. 
This au- XXIII. Our learned author urges the following 
thor'srea reafon : whythofe two iiniiliings are not to be look- 
ap"V-^n^ .eduponas the fame, ift. It would be -i. tautology ^ 
Gen. 2. ' ^f r^o^9 ^ri inexcufable battology^ or idle repetition, in 
3,4.10 fuch a compendious narrative-, and either the firfb 


Chap. 7- Of the First SABBATH. 159 

vcrfc, or the begining of the fecond, would be fu- the pro- 
perfiuous. 2dly, The finifhing or ending verfe 2, ^/^°u^^ 
is annexed to the feventh day\ by a double article, in 
the fame manner as the reft is. And on very the feventh 
day God ended his work^ which he had made ; and he 
refted on the very feventh day from all his work which he 
had made. So that, if the former verb ^n»i be ren- 
dered by the preterpluperfecl, and he had ended^ the 
latter riat:'^ muft be rendered fo too, and he had reft- 
ed^ but this is ncongruous. Nay, fince on the other 
days we reje6t the preterpluperfed fenle, lead the 
v/orks of the following day ftiould be referred to 
thofe of the preceeding, contrary to hiftorical truth ; 
it ought not then here to be admitted on the feventh 
day. 3dly. When the third verfe fhewsthe caufe of this 
refr, it fpeaks of diflindnnifliings, the latter of which is 
that of the feventh day, and God hleffed the feventh day, 
and fan5lified it^ hecaufe that in it he had refted froin all his 
work^ which God N")i:i created and made. By two verbs 
he defcribes two a6lions ; ^"1:2 denotes to create^ and 
nir7> to adorn^ to polifh : thefe words are frequently 
of the fame import, yet, when joined together, they 
are to be diftinguifned ; as is owned not only by 
chrifhian, but by Jewiih interpreters. (Thus it is. 
If. 43. 7. Where another v/ord is added, ">3;n to form^ 
and, as to all the three, ^^"ln certainly fignifies, the 
creation of the fouU but ^^'N the formation of the hody^ 
and vri'Vy reformation by grace,) Rut thefe two ac- 
tions are fo defcribed, that n>i^^, makings immedi- 
ately prcceeds refting^ and was the work of the fe- 
venth day, but n«nn, creation^ the work of the fix 
preceeding days. 4thly, To the fame purpofe is the 
recapitulation of verfe 4, which repeats and confirms 
the diftinftion juft now mentioned : thefe are the gene- 
rations of the heavens and of the earthy when they were 
created \ in the day that the Lord God made the earth 
and the heavens. Thus he recites the generations 
both of the firft fix days, (in which the heavens and 
the earth, with their refpedive hofls, were created) 


i6o Of the First SABBATH. Book i. 

and of the beginning of that one dav, namely, the 
feventh, which is that of operation, in which he 
made, and polifhed, inverting the order ; firft the 
earth, then the heavens. Thus far our very learned 
We are to XXIV. But we cannot afTent to thefe things, and 
fpeakwith therefore we anfwer each in order. To tbe frft^ I 
would earneflly entreat our brother, both to think 
and fpeak more reverently of the itile of the Holy 
Ghoft, nor charge thofe fimple and artlefs repeti- 
tions of one and the fame thing, even in a concife 
narrative, with an inexcufable tautology, if not a 
battology, or vain and ufelefs repetitions. It does 
not become us, the humble difciples of the Divine 
Spirit, to cridcife on the molt learned language, and 
the moft pure ftile of our adorable mailer. It is 
very frequent, in the facred writings, more than once 
to repeat the fame thing, in almoft the fame words, 
at no great diftance afunder. This very fecond 
chapter of Genefis, of which we now treat, gives us 
various examples of this. The reafon of the 
fandification of the feventh day \ namely the reft 
of God upon that day, is propofed in nearly the 
fame words, in the fecond and third verfes. This 
learned perfon himfelf calls the fourth verfe a re- 
capitulation of what was juft faid. And what is the 
whole of the fecond chapter, but a fuller explication 
of the formation of man, which indeed we have plain- 
ly, but more briefly, related in the firft chapter ? 
Shall we therefore fay, that a part of the firft chap- 
ter, or the whole of the fecond, is in a great meafure 
fuperfluous ^. Or, fhall we dare to charge God with 
tautologies, if not with inexcufable battologies? Is it 
not more becoming to tremble with awe at his 
words, and rather return him thanks, that, on account 
of the dulnefs of our apprehcnfion, he has vouchfafed 
to propofe, two or three times, the fame truths, 
cither in the fame, or in a variety of words, having 
all the lame meaning ? For my own part, I would 


Chap. 7. Of the First SABBATH. ' i6i 

a<5l in this mamier without any doubt of afting as 

XXV. To tbe fecond^ I would anfwer. id, The How or la 
words of Mofes may be taken in this fenfe , namely, r^i^^^' , 
that God finifhed the work of the fixth day, and '^^\\^ ^^ 
confequencly of all the fix days, in the very moment finifh on 
in which the feventh began. Thus the ancient He- tliefe- 
brews, and after them, R. Solomo, explains this man- venthday. 
ner of fpeaking ; as thereby to intimate, that God, 
in the very moment, in which he entered on the 
fabbath, finifhed his work : for, God alone knows 
the moments and leaft parts of time in another man- 
ner than men do. 2dly, Nor is it an improper ob- 
fervation of Ahen Ezra^ that the finifljing of the work 
is not the work itfelf but only means the ceafingfrom 
work, and that the text explains itfelf thus •, and he 
finifhed^ that is, and he rejled\ having finifhed his 
work, he worked no longer. 3dly, But we need not 
infift on this : Brujius fpeaks to excellent purpofeon 
this place : The preterperfeSl Hebrew may be as well 
rendered by the preterpliiperfe5f as otherwife. It is 
really fo : the Hebrews have only one preterpcrfeEl^ 
which they ufe for every kind of pafi time : and there- 
forey according to the conne^ion^ it may be rendered feme- 
times by the preterperfe5l^ and at other times by the pre^ 
ter pluperfect. Let it therefore be rendered here by 
the preterpluperfe^l, and he hadfinifhed^ as the Dutch 
tranflation has alfo done, and all the difficulty will 
difappear. Our learned author may infift, that if 
this be granted^ then the following nni:?n muft be 
alfo rendered by the preterpluperfed. But it does 
not follow: for, we are to confider the nature of the 
fubjeft and the different circumftances. The learned 
perfon infifts, that the word finifhing^ is ufed in a 
different fcnfe in the firft, from what it is in the 
fecond verfe \ and (hall we not be allowed to inter- 
pret a preterperfecl, which, by the genius of the 
language is indeterminate, fometimes by thepreter- 
perfed, and at other times by the preterpluperfcifl. 

Vol. I. M as 

1 52 Of the Fi RST S A H B A T H. Book i. 

as the fubjed (hall require? And if elfewhere we 
JLiflly reject the preterpluperfeft fenfe, it is not be- 
caiife the genius of the Hebrew tongue does not 
admit of it, but becaufe, as the learned perfon him- 
felf obferves, fuch an interpretation is contrary to 
the truth of the hiftory. Which not being the cafe 
here, fuch a reafon cannot be urged. I willonly add ; 
It A'lcfes wanted to fay, what we imagine he ha^faid, 
et confummaverat die feptima^ &c. etceJfavityScc. and on 
thefeventh^ Godhadfinijhed^^z. and refted^ &:c. could 
he pofTibly have exprefied in other wofds, or more 
aptly, according to the genius of the language, this 
fenfe? Was the learned perfon himfelf to render into 
Hebrew, word for v/ord, thefe Latin words, he would 
certainly have rendered them in the fame tenfe and 
mood, as Mofes has done. 
Of the XXVI. To the third reafon, T reply : ill, The 
meaning ^^q^^ r\^y is very general, and fignifies, to do a thing 

wordnW ^'^-^ ^^"'^'^ '^^^^ °^ ^^^' ^^ ^^ ^^^'^' ^^ P^^^^^ °^ phyfical 
evil, Amos^ 4. 13, HD*;;; nrt'ki^ nti/7 who maketh the morn- 
ing darknefs -, andEzck. 35. 6. '^'2:;i< rusb I will pre- 
pare (make) thee unto blood. And of moral evil, 
Mich. 2. I, vjhen the moj^ning is light they pra^iceit j 
r\yz'T' We Ihall give more inltances prefently. 
Hence it appears, that the learned perfon too much- 
reftridis the meaning of this word, when he explains- 
it, by the words, to adoryi^ or folifij : efpecially, if he 
would precifely confine it to the reformation by grace. 
2d]y, The fime word "^'^'V is often exprefrive of the 
fix days work-, as Gtn. i. 31, and God faiv^^ ^^: 
rw)f iii'&? all that he had made ; and Exod. 20. 11, injix 
days the Lord'^^-^V made heaven and earth: likewife 
Ezeck. 46. I, nii^yon ny ry^''2j the fix working days are 
oppofed to the labhath. Neither docs the learned 
perfon deny, tliac the words J^^3 and nrj; are often 
eouivalent. And why not here alfo ? Is there any 
necefTity, or probable reafon, for t iking n'u^^j; for //^^ 
work of the feveyUh day^ and n.^nn for the zvork 
of the fix prececding days. 3dly, I think he goes a 
little too far, when he alTerts, that both Ghriftian 


Chap. 7- OftheFiRSTSABBATH. 163 

and Jewilh interpreters admit, that thefe words, 
when joined together, have diflin6t fignifications. 
Truly, for my own part, of the feveral interpreters, 
both Jewifh and Chriftian, whom I have confulted, 
I never found one, who diftinguiflies the meaning 
of thefe words, as this learned author has done. 
See Fagius on Gen, t. i. Alenajfeh Ben Ifrael^ de Great, 
Probl. 4. Cocceius Bifput,fele£f. p. 70. §. -72. Let us, 
in this cafe, hear the very learned de Dieu^ who thus 
comments on this pafTage. // appears to he an ufual 
hchraifm^ whereby the inJiniti'Oe^ nvu^y^, added to a 
verhi including a like aEiion^ is generally redundant: 
fuch asjudgesyi^.i^^ and a6ting, he a6led wonderoufly, 
that is, he a^ed wonderoufly, i Kings, 14. 9, and 
doing, thou haft done evil, that is, thou haft done 
evil, 2 Kings, 21. 6. and working, he multiplied 
wickednefs, that is fimply, he multiplied wickednefsy 
or^ he wrought much wickednefs, 2 Chron. 20. 35, he 
doing did wickedly, he doing is redundant. Pf. 126; 
2, the Lord doing has done great things for them, 
doing is again redundant, Eccl. 2. 1 1, on the labour, 
that doing I had laboured, that is fimply, I had 
laboured. Which lad pafTage is entirely parallel with 
this in Genefis, for, whether you fay, nvi^^? /r:)^ he 
doing laboured, or r\Xl^V^ Nnn he making created, you 
fay the fame thing : unlefs that ^<^^ ftgnifies to pro- 
duce fomething new^ without any precedent or pattern^ 
and which had no exiftence before -, therefore, he mak- 
ing created, is no other than, he made fomethif^g 
mw. Thefe things neither could, nor ought to be 
unknown to this learned perfon, confidering his great 
fkill in Hebrew learning. 4thly, He ought not to 
have made fuch adiftindion, barely and without any- 
proof between the words ^<"2, "]>*' and ni^'];, v;hich 
are ufed by Ifaiah, 43. 7; as if the firft intends /^^ 
creation of the foul •, the ferond, the formation oi tfie 
body, and the third, the reformation by ov^iCQ: there 
iiot being the Icall foundation for it in fcripture. 

M 2 For, 

,i64 OftheFiRST SABBATH. Book r; 

For, 1. ^<'^^ fometimes fignifies reformation by grace^ 
as Pr. 51. 10. *^ ^"^^ Create in me a clean heart. 2, ^V 
is fometimes applied to the foul., Zach.12.1, and nT\'yi> 
dK fcrmeth the fpirit of man within him: and Pf. 

00. i^. Di7 in> i^^n and fafhtoneth their hearts alike-, 
fometimes too it denotes formation hy grace-, as 
If 4^. 21. this people ^Ts'^T have J formed for my- 
felf, they fhall fhew forth my praife, 3. nw:)i% more 
than once ufed for the firjt formation of man *, as Gen. 

1. 26, nm'^let us make man: and Gen. 2. 18, nu;;;^ 
/ will make him an help meet for him; Jer. 38. 16, 
nti'i> nii'M Z/??^/ w^^^ us this foul, fays king Zedekiah to 
Jeremiah., without having any thoughts of a refor- 
mation by grace. As therefore all thefe words are 
fo promifcuoufly ufed in fcripture, ought we not to 
look upon him, who diftinguifhes them in fuch a ma- 
aifterial manner, as one who gives too much fcope to 
his own fancy ? And what if one fhould invert the 
order of our author, and pofitively affert, that H^^ 
here denotes, reformation hy grace, as Pf 51. [o:"i2f' 
the prodti^iion of the foul, as Zack. 12. i : and nii';^, the 
formation of the body, as Gen. 2. 8. What reply 
could the learned perfon make ? But thefe are weak 
arguments. It is more natural to take thefe words 
in Ifaiah, as meant of the new creation and reforma- 
tion by grace. And this accumulation or multi- 
plying of v/ords, is very proper to denote the ex- 
ceeding greatnefs of the fp)wer of God, and his effec- 
tual working in the fandlification of the eledt. 
There is a parallel place, Eph. 2. 10, for we are 
his, Heb. ntr7?^» {worhnanfhip) Heb. a'^t*^3:l, created, 
inChrtft J efus unto good works, which God ^"ii^^ hath be- 
fore ordained., that we fhoidd walk in them : as If 22. 

II. t^tnno rv\^^ fafbioned it long ago, which properly 
5rpc/;Tc.,'xa<7£ he hath before ordained. From all this it 
appears, that this paffage in Ifaiah can be of no fer- 
vice to our learned author. 5thly, But if we mufl 
diilinguifli between -ro nid and to xvL'-^y nothing, 
I think, is more to the purpofe than the inter- 

Chap. 7. Covenant of WORKS. 165 

pretation of Ben Nachman, He rejled from all his 
works ^ which K^rn, he created^ by ^producing fomething 
out of nothings nvii'yb, to make of it all the works men- 
tioned in the fix days : and lo ! he fays, he refied from 
creating and from working •, from creating, as hav- 
ing created in thefirfi day^ and from working, as hav- 
ing compleated his 'Working in the remaining days. 

XXVII. The fourth reafon coincides with the fore- This re- 
going, only that it is ftill more cabbaliftical. ifl, 'Tis ^^^h^j^fg 
a flrange interpretation tp fay, that by rin^in the ge- io\t 
derations of heaven and earthy we are to underftand found 
not only their firft creation, but their refloration by verfethe 
the promife of the Mejfiah. For, it is quite foreign "^^^^ 
to the fubjed to tell us, that by the fm of the angels, 
a ftate of corruption was introduced into the heaven 
of heavens, and thereby the throne of the divine 
majefty was bafely defiled ; for, tho' by the angelical 
apollacy, corruption had been introduced into heaven; 
yet by their ejection, whereby they \Vere hurled into 
hell, the heavens v/ere purged from that corruption. 
Nor was there any new heaven made by the promife 
of the Meffiah^ that was given on the fixth day ; for 
that promife made no alteration there, but only fore- 
told, that, after many years, fome ele6i: fouls were to 
be received into that holy and blefled habitation. 
2dly. As to the order, in which the earth is put be- 
fore the heavens ; 'tis well known, that the fcripture 
does not always relate things in the fame order. Nor 
from the mere order of the narrative, which is an arbi- 
trary thing, can any arguments be formed. However, 
Junius's obfervation is not to be rejeded. Earth and 
heaven are mentioned in an inverted or der^ hecaufe the for- 
mation of the earth preceeded that of the heavens : for, 
the earth was ferfeiled on the third day of the creation \ 
heaven on the fourth. 3d]y, 'Tis doing manifeft vio- 
lence to the text, if we underftand the formation of 
the earth and heavens, of their reformation by grace, 
in virtue of the promiie of the Meffiah^ made on the 
fcventh day : becaufe Mofes treats of that formation 

M 3 of 

:. 5 Ofthe First SABBATH. Book li 

of earth and heaven, which was prior to that of 
plants and herbs ; as appears from the connexion of 
verfe 3, with verfe 4. For, thus the words tun : 

Thefe are the generations of the heavens and of the earthy 
when they were created^ in the day that the Lord God 
made the earth and the heavens^ and every 'plant of the 
fields before it was in the earthy and every herb of the 
fields &c. Or, as the learned de Dieu (hews, they may 
otherwife be very properly rendered ; in the day that 
the Lord made the heavens and the earthy there was yet 
no plant of the field created^ &c. So that this formation 
of the earth and the heavens was prior to man's own 
creation, much more to the fall, and to the reftitution 
from the fall. And this verfe wholly overturns the 
diftindion which this learned perfon has invented. 
God's reft XXVIII. And as we have thus fhewn, that the 
^^^^ ^^f^ words of Mofes neither mention nor intimate any 
reforma- "^^''^^> ^7 which God reftored all things from the 
tionof the ^^^^ o" ^^^ feventh day j fo neither of any rejt from 
feventh that work of reiloration, which is the foundation of 
daya mere the refi of the fabbath. For, ift, It is irrational to 
Acuion. ftippofe, that when God promifed the Mcffiah^ he 
then refled from the work of the gracious reforma- 
tion of the univerfe \ becaufe that promife was a 
prophecy of the fulferings, conflicls and at the laft of 
the death of Chrii'l, by which that reformation was 
to be brought about and accomphfhed. 2d]yj How 
can it be faid, that God reded, immediately after 
having made that promife, from all his work, when 
dircdly upon it, he pronounced and executed fen- 
tence upon Adam, Eve, and the earth, that was 
curled for their crime, and expelled them Paradife ? 
Which work (to fpeak after the manner of men, 
compare If. 28. 21.) Vv^as truly a greater labour to 
God than the very creation of the world. And thus, 
inftead of a .S^^to^, which Mofes delcribes, this day 
is made one of the moll laborious to God. 3dly. 
The fabbath day, after the publication of the firil 


Chap. 7, Of the Fi r st S A B B A T H. 16 ; 

Gofpel promlfe, was doubtlefs facred to the Mejfiah^ 
and to be celebrated to his honour by the faints with 
a holy exultation of foul. Nor fliall I be much againfl 
the learned perfon, (hould he < hoofe to tranflate, If. 
58.13, that the fabbath may be called, a delight^ on ac- 
count of the holy of the Lord being glorified: but it cannot, 
with any probability, be inferred from this, that the 
promife of the Meffiah was the foundation of the firft 
fabbath •, fmce the fabbath, as well as other things, did 
not acquire that relation, tiil after the fall. 4thly, 
The Scripture in exprefs terms declares, that the rell 
of God from the work of the firft creation^ which 
was compleated in fix days, was the foundation of 
the fabbath. In fix days the Lord made heaven and 
earthy the fea and all that in them is^ and refied on the 
feventh day\ wherefore he blejfed the fabbath day and 
hallowed it, Exod. 20. xi. Which being plain, it 
■ fufficiently, if I miftake not, appears, that it is much 
fafer to go in the old and beaten path, which is the 
king's high way, than in that other new trodden and 
rough one, which the learned perfon, whofe opinion 
we have been examining, has chofen to tread in, 
yVnd fo much for this fubjed. 

M 4 CHAP. 

( i^S ) 

CHAP. viir. 

Of the Violation of the Covenant of Works on 
the part of Man. 

The whole j^ A S the Scripture does not declare, how long this 
waTvb- x\ covenant, thus ratified and confirmed, con- 
lated by tinued unbroken, we are fatisfied to remain In the 
the firft dark. And we would have a holy dread of prefum- 
fin of our j^g rafhly to fix the limits of a time, which is really 
rents^^' uncertain. It is however evident, that man, wickedly 
prefuming to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree, incur- 
red the guilt of violating the covenant. Nor ought 
that to be deemed a fmall fin, (as the Apoftle Rom. 5, 
calls it, the offence^ difobedience and tran/greffion^) be- 
caufe it may feem to have been committed about a 
thing of no great importance. For, the meaner the 
thing is, from which God commanded to abftain, 
and for which man defpifed the promlfe of the cove- 
nant, makes his tranfgrefllon of it the more heinous j 
as may be illuflrated by the profanenefs of EfaUy 
which was fo much the greater, as the Mefs was of fo 
little value, for which he fold his birth-right^ Heb. 1 2. 
16. In that fin, as divines generally obferve, there 
was, as it were, a kind of complication of many 
crimes. But it is our chief purpofe, to fhow that this 
was the violation of the whole covenant. For, not 
only that tree, as we proved above, was a facrament 
of the covenant, the abufe of which ought to be 
looked upon as a violence done to the whole ; not only 
the precept concerning that tree, which was the trial 
of univerfal obedience ; but likewife the covenant in 
its whole conftitution, was violated by that tranfgref- 
fion: the law of the covenant was trampled upon, 
when man, as if he had been his own lord and 


Chap. 8. Covenant of W O R K S. 169 

jnafter in all things, did, in defiance of his Lord, 
lay hold on what was not his property, and throw 
off the yoke of obedience, that was due to God : 
the promifes of the covenant were fet lefs by than a 
tranfitory guft of pleafure, and the empty promifes 
of the feducer : and that dreadful death, which the 
author of the covenant threatened the tranfgrefTor 
with, not confidered and thought of in all its dread- 
ful effedls, but he prefumed to ad in oppofition to 
it. And thus Adam tranfgrejfed the covenant^ Hof. 


II. Tho' Eve had the firft hand in this crime, yet Why this 
it is ufually in Scripture afcribed to Adam : by one man ^""^^ ^^ 

fm entered the worlds according to PW, Rom. 5. 12 ; (bribed ^o 
whom verfe 1 4, he declares to be Adam, For Adam Adam, 
was the head of the covenant, with whom, even be- 
fore the creation of Eve^ God feems to have tranflated. 
Adam was the root of all mankind, and even of Eve 
herfelf, who was formed out of one of his ribs : 
neither is it cuilomary to deduce a genealogy from 
a woman. Nor, was the covenant judged to be en- 
tirely broken, till Adam alfo added his own crime 
to that of his wife's. Then it was that the Creator, 
firft afting in the character of a judge, fummoned to 
his bar the inconfiderate pair, already condemned by 
their own, confcience. But we are not to think that 
this inheritance of fin was fo derived from our father 
Adam, as to excufe our mother Eve from that guilt. 
For, as by marriage they were made one flefh, fo 
far they may be confidered as one man. Nay, Adam 
is not confidered as the head and root of mankind, 
but in conjundion with his wife. To this purpofe 
is what Malachy 2. 15, fays, that God, feeking a 
godly feed^ made one: one pair ; two into one flefh. 

III. It was doubtlefs a wicked fpirit, who feduced '^i^^ ^^" 
man to this apoftacy, and who, tormented with hor- theTe^f^ 
rors of his guilty confcience, envied man his hap- in the fer- 
pinefs in God, and God the pleafure he had in man, pent, 
and fought to have the wretched confolation of mak- 


JO The Viol ATfON of the Book t^ 

ing one a partaker of his mifery. And, the more 
eafily to infiiiuate himfclf into man's favour, by his 
enfnaring difcourfe, he concealed himfelf in the fer- 
pent, the moll fubcile of all animals, and at that time 
not lefs acceptable to man, than the reft of the ob- 
iequious creatures. The great du Moulin, difput. 3. 
de Angelis^ §. 44, conjectures, this ferpent was of ^ 
xonlpicuous form, with fiery eyes, decked with gold, 
and marked with fhining fpots ; fo as to draw the 
eyes of Eve tp it: and that he had before that tim,e, 
more than once infinuated himfelf, by his foothing 
founds, into Eve's favour^ in order, that having 
preconceived a good opinion of him, (he might be 
brought the more readily to yield to him. In fine, 
he was fuch, that what Mofes fays of the fubtilety of 
the ferpent muft be applied to him only, and not to 
the whole fpecies. To this conjedlure, it is alfo 
added, that Eve perhaps, fuch was her fimplicity, 
did not know, whether God had beftowed the ufe of 
fpeech on any other animals, befides man, Lauren- 
tins Kamirez^ in his Pentecontarch. c. i, (quoted by 
Bochart^ Hierozoic. lib. i. c. 4. p. 30.) goes a ftep far- 
ther, and feigns, that Eve was wont to play with the 
ferpent, and adorn her bofom, neck and arms, with 
it : and hence, at this day, the ornaments for thofe 
parts have the refemblance of ferpents, and are 
cdMQ:dio(pt^<^y Serpents^ by the Greeks. 

IV. But all this is apocryphal. We are not to ad- 
vance fuch romantick things, without any Scripture 
authority. Whether this was the firft, or the only 
apparition of the ferpent, as having the ufe of fpeech, 
I (hall neither boldly affirm, nor obftinately deny. 
But what we are told, as probable, of fome extraor- 
dinary ferpent h curioufly fpotted and fet off\, and 
now made familiar to Eve, by an intercourfe repeat- 
ed feveral times, are the pleafmg amufements of a 
curious mind. The fubtilety of ferpents is every where 
fo well known, that among many nations they are 
propofed as the diftinguifhing character and hiero- 

Chap. 8. CovENANTof W O R K S. 171 

glyphic of prudence. Bochart in his Hierozoic. lib. i. 
c. 4. has coUcdled many things relating to this, from 
feveral authors. To this purpofe is what our Saviour 
fays, Mat. 10. 16, Be ye wife as fer pent s. 'Tis alfo in- 
jurious and reproachful to our mother Eve^ to rcpre- 
fent her fo weak, and at fo fmall a remove from the 
brutal creation, as not to be able to diftinguifh be- 
tween a brure and a man, and to be ignorant, that the 
life of fpeech was the peculiar priviledge of rational 
creatures. Such ftupid ignorance isinconfiftent with 
the happy (late of our firft parents, and with the 
image of God, which fhone fo illullrioufly alfo in 
Eve, We are rather to believe, that the devil afTum- 
ed this organ, the more eafily to recommend himfelf 
to man, as a prudent fpirit ; efpecially fmce this 
looked like a miracle, or a prodigy at leaft, that the 
ferpent (liould fpeak with human voice. Here was 
fome degree of probability, that fome fpirit lay con- 
cealed in this animal, and that too extraordinarily 
fent by God, who fhould inflru(5l man more fully 
about the will of God, and whofe words this very 
miracle, as it were, feemed toconiirm. For, that fer- 
pents have a tongue unadapted to utter articulate 
founds, is the obfervatlon of Ariftotle^ de Part. am?n, 
lib. 2. c. 17. See Voffius de Idol, lib. 4.^.54. 

V. As this temptation of the devil is fomewhat The man- 
like to all his follovv'ing ones, we judge it not im- ner of the 
probable, that Satan exerted all his cunning, and temptati- 
tranformed himfelf, as he ufually does, into an angel ^"JJ'^^ 
of light, and addrcifed himfelf to Eve, as if he had 
been an extraordinary teacher of fome important 
truth, not yet fully underftood. And therefore does 
not openly contradi6l tbe command o( God, hur Jir/l^ J- He 
propofes it as a doubt, whether Adam un.ierfLOod 'f''^^^^^"\-^^ 
well the meaning or the divmc prohibition ; whether the fcaic 
he faithfully related it to Eve •, whether (he herfelf nfthe 
too, did not miftake the fenfe of it ; and, whether at coii^^iand. 
leafl that coa:imand, taken literally, was not fo im- 

172 The Viol ATioN of the' Book i, 

probable, as to render it nnneceflary to think of a 
more myfterious meaning. And thus he teaches to 
raife reafoyiings and murmurings againft the words of 
God, v/hich are the deftruftion of faith. 
2. Heun- VI. Next, he undermines the threatning, annexed 
dermines to the Command, Te Jhall not furely die, fays he : 
the threat- Qq^^ never meant by death, what you in your fim- 
""^^* plicity are apt to fufped. Could death be fuppofed 
to hang on io pleafant and agreeable a tree ? Or, do 
you imagine God fo envious, as to forbid you, who 
are his familiars and friends, t@ eat the fruit of this 
delicious tree, under the dreadful penalty of death ? 
This is inconfiilent with his infinite goodnefs, which 
you fo largely experience, and with the beauty of this 
fpecious tree, and its fruit. And therefore there muft 
be another meaning of this expreffion, which you do 
not underftand. And thus, he inftilled that herefy 
into the unwary woman, the firft heard of in the 
world ; that there is a fm, which does not deferve 
death, or, which is the fame thing, avenialjin. The 
falfe prophet, the attendant on Antichriil, who hath 
horns like a lamb, and fpeaketh as a dragon. Rev. 13, 
II, does, at this very day, maintain this capital herefie 
in the church of Rome, and nothing is ftill more 
ufual with Satan, than, by hope of impunity, toper- 
fuade men to fin. 
S.Headds VII, He adds, the promife of a greater happinefs : 
^he pro- your eyes Jhall he opened, and ye Jhall he as Gods, know- 
inifeof a ifig gQQ^ ^^^ ^^//^ f^e prefuppofes, what in itfelf was 
fappinefs. ^^^^ ^^^ harmlefs, that man had a defire after fome 
more perfe6l happinefs ; which he made to confift in 
his being made like to God ; which John affirms to 
be, as it were, the principal mark of falvation, that 
we JJoall he like God, i John, 3. 2. He fays further, 
that this likenefs was to be joined with the opening 
of their eyes, and a greater meafure of knowledge. 
Now, this is not unlike the doctrines of the Scripture, 
which affirm, thsit wc Jhall Jee God, and that, as he is ^ 
and Jhall know him^ even as we ourjelves are known. 


Chap. S. Covenant ofW O R K S. 173 

And thus far indeed it might appear, that Satan 
fpoke not amlfs, blending many truths, and thofe 
evident to the confcience, with his own lies, the more 
eafily to deceive under the appearance of a true 
teacher. But herein the fraud lies concealed: i ft, That 
he teaches them, not to wait for God's appointed 
time, but unadvifedly and precipitantly lay hold oa 
the promifed felicity. Man cannot indeed too much 
love, and defire perfedion, if he does it hy preparation 
and earnefi expectation : preparing himfelf in a courfe 
of holy patience, and fubjedlion to the will of God, 
defiring not to anticipate, even for a moment, 
the good pleafure of God. 2dly, That he points out 
a falfe way, as if the eating of that tree was either a 
natural, or, more probably, a moral mean, to attain the 
promifed blifs : and, as if God had appointed this, 
as a neceflary requifite, without which there was no • 
pofTibility of coming to a more intimate communion 
with God, and a more perfed degree of wifdom ; 
nor in fine, of obtaining that ftate, in which know- 
ing equally good and evil, they would be no longer 
in danger of any degree of deception. And it is moil 
likely, he perverted the meaning of the name of the 
tree. But all thefe were mere delufions. 

VIII. At laft this difguifed teacher appeals to the He calls 
knowledge of God himfelf: God doth know. Moft^^^^^JP 
mterpreters, both Jewifh and Chriftian, ancient and 
modern, interpret thefe words; as if Satan would 
charge God with open malignity and envy, as if he 
forbid this tree, leaft he fhould be obliged to admit 
man into a partnerfhip in his glory. And indeed, there 
is no blafphemy fo horrid, that Satan is alliamed of. 
But we are here to confider, whether fuch a fhocking 
and bare-faced blafphemy, would not have rather 
ftruck, with horror, man, who had not yet entertain- 
ed any bad thoughts of God, than recommended it^ 
felf by any appearance of probability. For why? ' 
Is it credible, that a man, in his right fenfes could \ 
be perfuaded, that the acquifuion of wifdom and a 

likeriCfs ■ 

174 The Violation af the Book i. 

likenefs to God depended on a tree -, Co that he fhould 
obtain both thele by eating of it, whether God would 
or not ? And then, that God, whom man mud 
know to be infinitely great and good, was liable to 
the pafTion of envy •, a plain indication of malignity 
and weaknefs : in fine, that there was fiich a virtue 
in that tree, that, on tailing it, God could not de- 
prive man of life. For, all thefe particulars are to be 
believed by him, who can imagine, that out of envy, 
God had forbid him the ufe of that tree. It does not 
fcem cofiftent with the fubtilety of Satan, to judge it 
advifeable to propofe to man things fo abfurd, and 
fo repugnant to common notions, and the innate 
knowledge, which he muft have had of God. May 
it not be more proper, to take that exprefiion for a 
form of an oath ? As Paul himfelf fays, 2 Cor. 11. 11. 
Gad knoweth. And thus the perjured impoftor ap- 
pealed to God, as witnefs of what he advanced. 

Whether IX. Some think, that Adam was not deceived ; 

^^^^ and did not believe, what the ferpent had perfuaded 

was not , , ' , r 11 r 1 1 • 

deceived ; ^"^ woman to ; but rather fell out of love to his 
but only wife, whom he was unwilling to grieve: and there- 
^^l^ fore, tho' he was confcious of a divine command, 

thelmeh^^"^ not cxpofed to thc wiles of Satan-, yet, that he 
had for his "^^'g^^^ ^o^ abandon her in this condition, he tafted 
wife. the fruit ihe offered •, probably believing, that this 
inftance of his affedion for the fpoufe, whom God 
had given him, if in any meafure faulty, might befea- 
fi'.y exculed. To this they refer the Apoftie's words. 
I Tim. 2. 14, for Adam was not deceived^ hut the wo- 
man being deceived was in the tranfgreffwn. But this 
carries us off from the fimplicity of the divine ora- 
cles. The defign of the Apoftle is plainly to (hew 
that the woman ought not to exercife any dominion 
over her hufband, fur two reafons, which he urges. 
lit. Etxaufe Adam was firft created, as the head \ and 
rh^n Eve, as a help meet for him. 2dly, Becaufe the 
v.oman fliewed, (he was more eafily deceived •, for 
being deceived firit, fhe was the caufe of deceiving 


Chap. 8. Covenant of W OR K S. I7; 

her hufband : who was hkewife deceived, tho' not 
firfl, but by her means. For, we commonly find in 
Scripture, that feme things feem to be ahfolutely de- 
fied, which we are to undcrfland only, as denied in 
a reftridtive fenfe. John, 6. 27, and Phil. 2. 4, are 
inilances of this. Nor can we conceive, how Adam, 
when he beheved,- that what he did was forbidden by 
God, and that, if he did it, he fhould forfeit the pro- 
mifed happinefs, nay, incur moll certain death (for 
all this he muil know and believe, if he flill remained 
uncorrupted by the wiles of Satan,) would have 
taken part in the crime, only to pleafe his wife. 
Certainly, ifh^ believed, that the tranfgrefTion of the 
divine command, the contempt of the promifed fe- 
licity, and his rafli expofing himfelf to the danger of 
eternal death, could be excufed only by his affedion 
for his wife, he no lefs Ihamefully erred, nor was lefs 
deceived, if not more, than his confort herfelf. 
Nor can it be concluded, from his anfwer to God, 
in which he throws the blame, not on the ferpent's 
deceit,- but on the woman, whom God had given 
him ; that the man fell into this fin, not fo much by 
an error in the underftanding, as givmg way to his 
afFedlion. For, this fubverts the whole order of the 
faculties of the foul ^ fince every error in the afFecftion, 
fuppofes fome error in the underilanding. This was 
doubtlefs an error, and indeed one of the grcateft, to 
believe, that a higher regard was to be paid to his 
affeclion for his wife, than to the divine command. 
It was a confiderable error, to think, that it was an 
inftance of love, to become an accomplice in fin : 
becaufe it Is the duty of love, to convince the finner, 
and, as far as may be, reftore him, to the favour of 
God, which certainly Adam would have done, had 
he been entirely without error. In whatever light there- 
fore we view this point, v/e are obliged to own, that 
he was deceived. The only apology, Adam would 
make, feems to be, that his beloved confort had, by 


i']S The Vi OLATJON of the Book i. 

her infinuations, which flie had learned from the fer- 
pent, perluaded him alfo ; and that he was not the 
firft in that fin, nor readily fufpefted any error or 
deception by her, who was given him as an help 
by God. 
Adam's X. It cannot be doubted, that providence was 
knovvn^' Concerned about this fall of our firft parents. It is 
from eter- certain, that it was foreknown from eternity : none cart 
»ity. deny this, but he who facrilegiouily dares to venture 
to deny the omnifcience of God. Nay, as God, by his 
eternal decree, laid the plan of the whole oeconomy 
of our falvation, and preconceived fucceflion of the 
moil important things, prefuppofes the fin of man, 
it could not therefore happen unforefeen by God. 
And this is the more evident, becaufe, according to 
Peter, be {Chrift) was foreordained before the foundation 
of the worlds and that as the lamb, whofe blood was 
to be fhed, i Pet. i. 19, 20. which invincible ar- 
gument Socinus knew not how otherwife to elude, 
but by this ridiculous aflertion , that after men had 
finned^ Chriji indeed came to aholifh their f.ns ; but that 
he would have come^ notwitftanding^ thd* they had never 
ftnned. But as this idle aflertion is unfcriptural, nay 
and antifcriptural, fo it is not appofite to this place. 
For, the order of Peter's words obliges us to interpret 
them, concerning Chrifl's being foreknown, as a 
lamb to be flain, and to fhed his blood, to be the 
price of our redemption. And he likewife fpeaks, 
A6t. 2. 23, of this determinate counfel and foreknow^ 
ledge of God^ according ro which Chrift was delivered' 
unto the hands of wicked men. Since therefore 
Chrift was foreknown from eternity, as one to be 
flain for the fins of men, man*s fin was alio necclfa- 
rily foreknown. 
And pre- ^I« And'if/m?.^;7f5TC'«, it was alfo predetermined : 
determin- thus Peter, in the plr.ce juft quoted, joins together 
^^- the determinate counfel and foreknowledge of God, Nor 

can God's prefcieiice of future things be conceived, 


Chap. t. Covenant of W O R K S. 177 

but in conneclioa with his decree concerning 


Xli. From all this may be inferred, by a plain conC And foln- 
fequence, that man could not but fall on ac-^ f'^Hibiy to 
count of the infallibility of the divine prefcience, ^'^^I'-^^^ 
and of that necefllty, which they call a neceffity of 
confequence. For, it is inconfiftent with the divine 
perfe(5lion, that any decree of God fhould be ren- 
dered void, or, that the ev^nt Hiould not beanfwer- 
able to it. 'TIs the prerogative of Jehovah to fay, 
my counfel Jhall ftand^ If. 46. 10. His counfels of old 
are fait bfulnefs and truths If. 25. i. God himfelf has 
ratified the {lability of his purpofes by an oath, the 
more certainly to declare the immutability of his counfel^ 
Heb. 6. 17. The Lord of hofls hath fworn^ faying^ 
furely as I have thought^ fo fhall it come to pafs^ and as 
I have propofed^ Jo fhall it Jiand^ If 14. 24. 

XIII. The infallibility of the event, as to man's As ap- 
fin, may be proved by another argument ; if weoAly pears fioin 
attend to that fubordination, by which all creatures ^^^ cffica- 
depend on God, in their operations. For, 'tis not ^•'vtne^"^ 
polTible, that God fhall, by his almighty concurrence, concur- 
influence any creature to a6t, and yet that creature r<-'n^'c, or 
fufpend its adting. And if God fhall not influence to i*^^^^"^^^' 
the moral goodnefs of that natural adlion, the crea- 
ture cannot, without that influx, perform that ac- 
tion morally good. This is evident from the nature 
of God and the creature ; as he cannot inefl^ev5lually 
influence his creatures to ac>-, fo they cannot but act, 
when under his influence. Thefe things being fup- 
pofed, as they are evident to any perfon of atten- 
tion, it is impofllble, that man can abfl:ain from 
reafoning, willing and eating, where God influences 
to thefe a6ls by his almighty concurrence. Nor is it 
apy more poflible, that man can reafon, will and eat 
in a holy manner, if God, by his almighty concur- 
rence, does not influence the holinefs of it. Sup- 
pofing therefore, that God had affbrded his influence 
to the natural a6l oi reafoning, willing, earing, as he 
a^ually did, but nor the moral goodncls of thole a^ts, . 

Vol. I. N aj 

I y 8 The V I o L A T I o N of the Book i^ 

as he did not •, it could not otherwife be, but that man 
Ihould adl at that time, and perform his a<5lion 
■wrong. All this holds true, not only of this firft fin 
of man, but of all other fins. I fee not therefore, 
why we may not boldly maintain thefe things, as 
they are evidently true, and more efpecially, as they 
tend to the glory of God, and to demonftrate his fu- 
pereminence, and the abfolute dependence of the 
creatures upon him, as much in their operations, as 
in their exiflence. Should rh e of the contrary Pe- 
lagian fentiments pervert thd/- truths, it will be at 
their peril. Nor ought we fo much to regard that, 
as on their account to conceal the truth. 
A fuller -^lY However it will not be amifs to infift a 
^^^l^^^l- little longer on thsfubjea:; that all the apparent 
thii harfhnefs of this dcclr ne, may be en rely remov- 

ed by an evident demonfirac.on of the truth, which 
we think we (hall be able toeffed, by beginning with 
the more evident truths, in one continued chain of 
arguments, nowinor from each other, in fuch a 
manner, as to gain the alTent, even of the mod ob- 
Allfccohd XV. And nrft, I think, it will be readily granted, 
c&ufes, in tha; there is but one iirlt caut'c •, that all other caufes 
•^'^^'h?' *^^ ddp^^nd upon tliat, both in exifting and adling, 
peni on ^^ Vv^ithout it CO be able neither to exift, nor to act. 
the ?afl,' Paul inculcated this upon the Athenians^ A(fls, 1 7, 
28, in him we live, and move, and hav our being. Nor 
indeed, can the moft powerful monarch in the world, 
fuch as the AJfyrian was, in the time of Ifaiah, any 
more move without God, than the ^.ve without him, 
that heweth therewith^ or, the Jaw without him^ that 
jha; eth it\ If lo. 15. 
, . , . XVI. Reafon, in this, concurs with Scripture. For, 
r^reeable ^^ ^'^^^^ ^^^ ^"7 ^^"^^ bcfidcs God, which could 
tc? reafon ad independently of him, it would follow, there 
jtreli". were more firil principles than one •, as Thomas Aqui- 
nas reafons well m his Secundo fententJiJlinSf, '^'],qu<ejt, 
.■\ art, 2 Whofe reafoning, as it is both folid, and very 


Chap. 8. CovENANTof W O R K S. 179 

much to the purpofe, we fhail not fcruple to give In 
his own words. It is^ fays he, 10 the fir ft 
principle^ that ^t can oU wi. hout th.^. aj! fiance and in- 
fluence of a p"irr agent \ fo rh^*. if the human ivill 
could produce any a^icn^ of ivhhh God was net author^ 
the human "cvJl would have the nature of afirfi prin- 

XVII. Tho' they endeavour to folve this, by fay- What is 
ing, that, rotwithftanding the will be of i.felf capa oK^eaed 
ble of producino; an action, without the influence ^° '^ 
or a prior agent, yet it has not its being rrom itlelt, pofe, 
but fiom another ; whereas the nature of a firfl prin- 
ciple is to be felf exillent. But it feems inconfiftent 

to fay, that what has not Its being of itfelf, can yet 
aft of itfelf; for, what is not of itfelf, cannot con- 
tinue of itfelf. For, all the power of a6ling arifes 
from the eflence, and the operation from the powen 
Confequently, what has its effence from another, 
muft alfo have its power and operation from that 
other. Moreover, tho' this reply denies that it is 
Jimply the firft ; yet, we cannot but fee, that it is 
thtfirfi agents if its adling cannot be referred to fome 
prior agent, as the caufe. Thus far Thomas Aqui- 

XVIII. Nor does God only concur with the anions God not 
of fecond caufes, when they adl, but alfo influences onlyinflu- 
the caufes themfelves to aft. Becaufe, the beginning ^"^^'^ ^^^ 

/» o- 1 1 -r 1 n. 1 r ^ anions Or 

or aftions depends, it not more, at leait not lets on effcds of 
God, than their progrefs. This opinion is not un- the cau. s 
happily expreffed in the Roman Catechtfm^ publifhed l'"^ ^^^ 
by the decree of the council ot Trent^ at the com- ^^^^^ 
mand of Pope Pius Y. part I. on the firft article feives^ 
of the Creed, No. 22. to this purpofe : But God^^wt 
only by his 'providence^ preferves and g'vcrns all things 
thatexift\ but he likezvifiy by a fecret energy, fo influences 
thofe that move and a 51^ to motion and a5fion^ t at tho* 
he hinders not the efjiciency of fecond catifes, yet he pre- 
vents or goei before it ; feeing his viofi fecret power ex- 

N 2 tends 

i8o The Violation of the Book. i. 

tends to each in particular •, and^ as -f the wife man 

tejlijies, reaches powerfully from one end to the other ^ and 

difpofes all things fweetly. Wherefore it was f aid by 

the Jpojlle, when declaring to the Athenians the God, 

whom they ignorantly worfhiped : he is not far from every 

one of us \ for in him we iive^ and move^ and have our 


Thecrea- XIX. Moreover, as a fecond caufe cannot ad, un- 

ture can- lefs aded Upon, and previoufly moved to ad, by the 

aainccn- preventing and predetermining influence of the firft 

fequence caufe : fo, in l^ke manner, that influence of the firil 

of this in- caufe is fo eitjcacious, as that fuppofmg it, the fecond 

fiuence, ^^^^^ canncr but ad. For, it is unworthy of God to 

imagine any concurrence of his to be fo indiff^erent, 

as at laft only to be determined by the co-operation 

of fecond caufes : as if the rodfloould Jhake him^ who 

' lifts it up 5 <?r, as if the fiaff fhould lift up what is not 

wood^ If. 10. i5> for fo the words properly run. 

And the meaning is, that it is highly abfurd to afcribe 

to an inftrument of wood, the raifmg and managing 

of what is of a more excellent nature, namely fpirit. 

By this allegory is intimated the abfurdity of that 

opinion, which makes God to be determined in his 

adions by the creature. 

Which is XX. Didacus Alvarez, de Juxiliis divine gratis-, 

evident ^-^ diPhut. 21. p. 163, makes ufe of the following 

from the ^ •'^ . n 1 • '^ 1 1 r 

perfeaion argument againfl: this : namely, the manner or con- 
of God. curring by a will, of itfelf indifferent to produce this, 
or the other effed, or its oppofite, is very imperfed ; 
becaufe, in its efficacy, it depends on the concur- 
rence of a fecond caufe ; and every dependance 
imports in the thing, which depends, fome imper- 
fedion and inferiority, in refped of him on whom it 
depends : and therefore, fuch a manner of concur- 

f N. B. This is a quotation from the apocryphal book of nvif 
dcniy ch. 8. I. Where it is faid, njuifdotn reacheth fro7n one end 
io another y mightily and fleetly doth Jhe order all things , 


Chap. 8 Covenant ofW O R K S. i8i 

rence cannot be afcribed to God, or agree with his 
t/ill, which is an infinite and moft perfecl: caufe. 

XXI. And then this infolvable difficulty hkev/ife And the 
remains: if the fecond cauP.^ determines the concur- contraryis 
rence of God, in itfelf indiiTerent -, in that aft of ^^J^'l'^^^^^^ 
determination, it w;]l be independent of God : and ^bfurdi- 
fo become the firft caufe. And if in one adion ic can ties. 

a6b independently of God, why not in a fecond ? 
If in the beginning of the aftion, why not alio in the 
progrefs ? Since the tranfition from non-a6ling to 
a6ling, is greater than the continuing an action once 

XXII. As thefe things are univerfally true, they All which 
may be applied to thofe free adlions of rational crea- ^\ ^^^^ 
tures, in which there is a moral evil inherent: name- p'^'^^^' 
ly, that creatures may be determined to thofe ac- ffnfui ^ac- 
tions by the efficacious influence of God, fo far as they tions, as 
are a5lions, according to their phyfical entity. Ele- ^^7 ^""^ 
gantly to this purpofe Thomas Aquinas^ in the place ^'^^^"^' 
juft quoted. Since the ad of fin is a kind of be- 

, ing, not only as negations and privations are faid to 
\ be beings ; but alfo as things, which in general exift, 
( are beings, becaufe even thefe aflions in general • 
\ are ranked in that order, and if the adions of fin 
) [as anions] are not from God, it would follow that 
\ there would be fome being, which had not its efl^ence 
vfrom God : and thus God would not be the univerfal 
caufe of all beings. Which is contrary to the per- 
fection of the firil being. 

XXIII. Neither does God only excite and prede- The will 
termine the will of men to vitious actions, fo far of man is 
as they are adlions; but he likewifefo excites it, that ^ikewife 
it is not pofiible, but, thus aded upon, it (hall ad. ^^rfeTto 
For, if upon fuppofition of that divine influx, it was Ihefe ao- 
poffible for the created will not to ad, thefe two ab- tions, as 
furdities would follow, ift, That the human will ^"c^- 
could baffle the providence of God, and either give 
to, or take from the divine influx all its efficacy. 
2dly5 That there could be fome ud in the creature, 

N 3 of 



1 52 The Viol AT ION of the Book i^ 

of fnch weight as to refift the divine influence, and be 
independent of God. Nor do I imagine, they wilt 
f ;y, that God concurs to the production of that ac- 
tion, whereby his 'nfiux is refilled. But we have al- 
ready refuted any concurrence as in itfelf indilferent, 
to be determine d by the free will of the cna^ures. 
And yet XXIV. Further, the free will of man excited to 
wi h^ot a(5li.ons cannot, according to its pbyfical elTence, give them a moral and fpuitual goodnefs, without the 

^^'^'^ !l^ divine providence influencing; and concurrinG; to that 
five mo- f^ . . , ^ ^ . 

raigo'^d- goodnefs. Thir> is evident from what has been faid. 
nefs to its For, as moial goodnefs is a fuperior and more perredt 
aaions. (jegree of entity, than a phyfical entity alone, and 
man in the phyfical entity of his adlions depends on 
God ; fo it is nece^r^ry, he fnoLld much more de- 
pend on God, in produfling the mioral goodnefs of his 
adions ; that the g'ory thereof ought to be rendered 
to God, as the firfl caufe. 
The con- XXV. If allth.fe truths, thus demonftrated, be | 
c u lou. joined and linked together, they will produce thatj 
conclufion, which we laid down lect XIII. For, iff 
all creatures depend on God in acting •, if he not j 
only concurs with them, when they 3.&,^ but ahb ' 
cxc'tcs them to act •, if that excitation be fo pov/erful, ' 
„ as that ppon fiippoOng it, the effeft cannot but fol- 
low ; if God, With that fam.e efficacy influences vi- 
llous a(flion>, fo far as they are phyfical ; if the crea- 
tuie can^^ctgive its actions their due moral goodnefs 
without God •, it intdilibiy follows, that ^dam, God 
. himfelf moving h;rn to underftand, will and eat, 
.could not but underltand, will an :1 eat; and God \ 
I no' giving g('»odnef> to thole adions, man could not / 
f underftand and wiii in a righi manner. Which was,' 
to be proved. 
ITovvover XXIV. But it does notfoilaw, that man was ob- 
it does lig(-c{ to what was fimply impoiTible. For, it is only 
low'th^t ^ confequentjal and eventual infalHf)ility and neceiri- 
man was ty, w.'iichwe liave eftablilhed. God bellowed fulH- 
obligated cient powers on ipan, even fuchaiJ were proper fpr a 


Chap. 8. Covenant of W O R K S. 183 

creature, by which he could have overcome the to ^vj^at 
temptation. But then he could not proceed to ac- y^'^'^^^";!^'^^ 
tion witho t preiuppoiing tae divine concunence. |^j^ 
Who (hall deny, that man has a locoriiotive faculry, 
fo fufficient in ics kind, th.u he requires no more? 
For, will any afhrm, that man, by that locOinouive 
faculty, can adua^y move independently of Go 1, as 
the firfl caule, vvithout difcovering his ignorance 
both of the fupremacy of God, and the fubordina- 
tion o: man ? In like manner, we affirm, that, 
tho* God g-anred man fuch fufficient abilities to ful- 
fil all rightcoaincfs, thai, he had no need of any fur- 
ther habitual gract:, as it is called; yet, all this abi- 
lity was given him in fuch a manner that he fhould 
act only deoendently of the Creator, and his influ- 
ence, as we hin'^ed, chap. If. fefl. X'll. 

XXVII Much lefslhould it be faid, that man, by Or that he 
the above-mentioned afls of divine providence, was ^"^^^ ^^'■^" 
forced to nn. For, he finned with judgment and 
will; to wiiich faculries, liberty, as it is oppofed to 
compulfion, is fo peculiar, nay effential, as to be 
neither judgment nor will without it. And when 
we affirm, that Gjd fo^eorda'-ned and infallibly 
foreknew, that man (hould fin freely, the finner 
could not but fin freely ; unlefs we would have* 
the event not anfwer to the preordination and pre- 
fcicnce of God. And 'tis fo far from the decree of 
God, in the lead todiminilh the liberty of man in his 
ailing, that, on the contrary, this liberty has not a 
more folid foundation than that infallible decree of 

XXVIII. To make God the author of fin, is fuch Leaft of 
dreadful blafphemy, that the thought cannot, with- •'^11 that 
out horror, be entertained by any chriltian. God^°^^^^^^ 
indeed created man mutably good, infallibly forefaw ^j"^^ ^^ ^ 
his fin, foreordained the permiflion of that fin, really 
gave man fufficient powers to avoid it, but which 
could not ad without his influx \ and tho' he influ- 
N 4 enccd 

X 84 The Viol at i o n of the Book i . 

enced his faculties to natural or phyfical actions, 
without inPiuencing the moral gopdnefs of thofe ac- 
tions. All Vv^hich appear from ths event. Yet God 
neither is, nor, in any refped can be, the author of 
fin. And tho' it be difiicult, nay impoflible for vis, 
to reconcile thefe truths with each other; yet we 
ought not to deny whac is manifefb, on account of 
that which is hard to be underftood. We will re- 
ligioufiy profefs both truths, becaufe they are truths, 
and worthy of God ; nor can the one overturn the 
other; tho' in this our (late of blindnefs and igno- 
rance of God, we cannot thoroughly fee the aufic^- 
ble harmony between them. This is not thexilone, 
nor fingle difficulty, whofe foliition the fober divine 
will ever referve for the world to come. 
^-foTof ^^^^- ^^'^^ ^^ certain, rhat by this permiffion of 
Jn God ^^^' ^^^ ^^^ ^" oppor.unicy of difplaying his ma- 
took occa- nifold perfections. There is a fine paffage to this 
lion todii- purpofe in Clemens^ Strcm. : Ub.'i. which with pleafure 
^^^■^•f 1H ^^ ^*^^^ infert. ^Tis the greatefi work of divine provi- 
perfec- dence^ not to ftiffer the evil, ariftng from a voluntary 
tions. apoflacy^ to remain iinufeful, or, in every refpeol to be- 
come noxiotq. For it is peculiar to divine wifdom. and 
. power, not oily to do go od\th at Joeing, to fpeakfo, as much 
fhe nature of God, as it is the nature, of fire to warm, or 
of light to pine) but rniich mor?, to make the evil, dc- 
vifed by others, to anfwer a g-^sd end valuable , end', and 
manage thofe things whicB^ J^M^W to be evil, to the 
great efi advantage. 
When 4- XXX. It remains now laflly, to con fider, how, as 
dam fell Adam, in this covenant, was the head of mankind ; 
all his upon his fall, all his pofterity may be deemed to 
P°^5^^^y have fallen with him, and broken the covenant of 
^''^ God, The Apoftle exprefsly afferts this, P*.om.. 5. 
12. By one man Jin entered ihtoih^ wor^d^ and death by 
fin\ and fo death faffed upon all men, for that dl.have 
Jinned, \(3? ^f^m^'w-'^v'''' . '. .. 

Rom. V. XXXl " T6 /llluilrate the Apoflle's meaning, w 
12. ex- niufl obferve thefe things. J ft, "It is very clear, to 
plained. any 

Chap. 8. Coven ANT of W O K K S. 185 

any not under the power of prejudice, tha' when tb^ 
Apoflle affirms, that 2i\\ kavejinncd^ helpeaksofan 
ad of finning, or of an a<ftual fin •, the very term, 
to fin, denoting an adion. 'Tis one thing to fin, 
another to be finful, if I may fo fpeak. 2dly, 
When he affirms all to have finned ; he, under that 
iiniverfality, hkewife includes rhofe, who have no 
adual, proper and perlonal an, and who, as he himklf 
fays, have notftnned after thefimilitude of Adafn's iranf- 
grejfion^w^vk 14. Confequently thefe an? alfo guilty 
of fome a6tual fin, as appears from their dearh -, but 
that, not being their own proper and perfonal fin, 
mufl: be the fin of Adam, imputed to them by the iufl 
judgement of God. sdly. By thefe words £<? 'i'' Tramj 
'^ua^Tovfor that all have finned^ he gives the reafon, way 
he had afferted that, by the fm of one man, death 
pafTed upon all. This, fays he, ought not to alton- 
ifh us, for all have finned. If we mufl underfland 
this of fome perfonal fin of each, eidier actual or 
habitual, the reafon ing would not have been juft, 
and worthy of the Apoflle, but mere trifling. For, 
his argument would be thus, that by the one fin of 
one, all were become guilty of death, becatife eacia 
in particular had, befides that one and firfl iin, his 
own perfonal fm : which is inconfequential. 4thly, 
The fcope of the Apoftle is to illuftrate the dodrine 
o£. juflification, he had before treated of. . he 
fubftance of which confifled in this, that Chrifl, ia 
virtue of the covenant of grace, accomjliflied ail 
righteoufnefs for his chofen covenant-people, fo 
that the obedience of Chrifl is placed to their charge, 
and they, on accounc thereof, are no lefs abfolved 
from the guilt and dominion of fm, than if they 
themfelvcs had done and fuffered, in their own per- 
fon, what Chrifl did and fuffered, for them. He de- 
clares that, in this refned, Adam was the type of 
Chrifl, namely, as aniwering to him. It is therefore 
neceffary, that the fm of Adam, in virtue of the co- 
venant of works, be fo laid to the charge of his. 


i86 The Violation of the Book i, 

pofterlty, who were comprized with him in the fame 
covenant, that, on account of the demerit of his fin, 
they are born defti^ute of original righteoufnefs, 
and obnoxious to every kind of death, as much as 
if they themfelves, in duir own perfons, had done 
what Adam did. Uniels we fuppcfe this to be 
Paul's doclrine, his words are nodiing but mere 
empty found. 
THelm- XXXII. The lad words of this verfe, tf^vunti 
port of V^F^°^' are difFerentl/ explained by divines, becaufe 
s(p a the Greek phrafeology admits of various fignifica-- 

tions. The principal explanations are three: ift. 
Some render them, in fo far^ or, becaufe all have fin- 
ned. For, it is allowed, that ^' ^ frequently admits 
this fenfc; and thus, in feems to be taken, 2 Cor. 5.4, 
I?)' J oh Oix&^£y ly.^vad^ccx, not foT that wc would he uncloth* 
ed \ as if v/ritten, as Frohenius prints it, E^rei^vj, tho* 
Beza here greatly differs, zdly. Others obferve, it 
maybe explained, with 'u;hom^ i.e. whc finning^ all 
have finned. For £^* in a fimilar conftrudion denotes 
a time, in which fbmeihing was do e. Thus we fay 
in Greek, '^^^^ ^fto* (j^eipcuKUo t5to y^yovefwhen I was a hoy^ 
this happened^ and eti*, in the dog- days \ and the 
ApvOfile Heb. 9. 15. iTr\ t-nir^p.-fi^^cchm-n, under the firfl 
tefiament. And then the meaning woukl be, that 
upon Adam's finning, all are judged to have finned. 
3dly, Augiiftine^ and moft of the Orihodox^have ex- 
plained it, in whom. Which Erafmus in vain op- 
pofes, faying, that ^'^^ when fignifying upon^ or, /«, 
is joined to the genitive cafe ; as '^'^^ o»;€tf ^at E^ri td? ;)^^P? ; 
alio when denoting time^ as ^^r* «a(crapo? 'Ojcla/Sty. In all 
this he is ftrangely midraken. For, not to fay any 
th ng now of time^ ir is certain, that £'?'» when joined to 
the dative, denotes in: as Mat. 14. 8, ^^ri wij/ax., in a 
charger \ and in this very context of Paulwtx^c 14, 
exi'i0o:^oiu[ the fimiUtude. And which is mo.e, 
T6 i<p <»', cannot fomctimes be otherwife explained, 
than by, in whichy [or in whom] : as Mat. 2. 4, 
ifuo TrctcxKvliKog KocliK'alloy %vherein the Jickof the falfy layy 


Chap. 8. CovENANTof W O R K S. 187 

and Luke, gv 25, «?«?«<?'« x«V«»Jo» took up that^ whereon 
he lay. Nor is it taken in this light, in the facred 
writings only, but he might learn from Budaus^ 
Ccmmcvtar, ling. Grac, p. 506, that Ariftole ufed this 
phril(^o]ogv in rhe fame fenfe, «?>* ^ v-^* ^ 6^A£»a, im fiol/fw 
^0 u^yhi' i::^^o^, on the one the female ^ on the other the 
male b-oc^s. However, we reckon none of thofe ex- 
p)arar.>)n3 to be impertinent, as they are all almofl 
to the fame purpoie : yet, we give t..e prekience ro 
the la^J, btcaufe mod emphatical and very applica- 
ble to the /"^p.'llle's fcope , i: is a bad way of inter- 
preting fcrip.ure to reprefent it as declaring what is 
the lead tning intended. For, the words are to be 
taken in their fu.l import, where there is nothing ia 
the context to hinder it. 

XXXIII. CrotiUS really prevaricates, when he "Tlie inter- 
thus (ommen^s on the pafiage before us. It is a PJ^if^^^^ 
conr-pon mttonomy in the Hebrew, to ufe the word [ius/°* 

f^n. Jafre^.d vti punijhment ; and to fin ^ in (lead of to un^ 
daj'^o fumfnment^ wh^-nce extending this figure, they 
are lard, by a metalepfis, ^<*lO^ tofin^ who fuffer any 
ev.U fven tho' they are innocent, as Qtn. 31. 36, 
and Job, 6. 24. Where ^<o^ is rendered by ^yc-Trpyuv, 
to he unhappy,, 'E<?'where denotes through whom^ as 
£-« with tiie dative is taken, Luke, 5. 5, Ad:s, 3. 36. 
I Cor. 8. II, Heb 9. 17. C^r}/^^?;^ on this place 
fays. On his falU they who did not eat of the tree^ are 
from him all he come mortal, . 

XXXIV. This illulirious perfon feems to have Confuted, 
v/rote Without attention, as the whole is very imper- 
tinent, ift, Tho' we allow, that fin does fometimes 
metonomycaliy denote the punifhment of fin ; yet, 

we deny it to be ufual in Scripture, that he who un- 
dergoes punifliment, even v/hile innocent, may be 
faid to fin. Grotius fays, it is freq cnt, but he nei* 
ther does nor can, prove it by any one example ; 
which is certainly bold and rafli. Creliius confuting 
}iis bool^ on the f::tisfaclion of Chrift, brings in the 


i8B The Violation of the Book i. 

faying of Bathilieba to David, i Kings i. 21, I and 
my fon Soloman fijall he counted offenders \ that is, fays 
he, ive ft) all he treated as offenders^ or, he ruined. 
But a /inner ^ or Qvtnjin^ and to Jin are different things. 
To fm The former is faid of Chrift, 2 Cor. 5. 21: but not 
does not the latter, on any account. Moreover, to be a fin- 
H^'y^^ ner, does not fignify, in the paffage alledged, to un- 
punifh-^ dergo puniiliment, without any regard to a fault or 
ment with demerit, but to be guilty of aiming at the kingdom, 
outanyre- ;ind of high treafon, and as fuch to be punidied. 
gardtofm. 'phe teftimonies advanced by Grotius are fo foreign, 
tihat they feem not to have been examined by that 
great man. For, neither in the Hebrew do we find 
KOn, tofin^ nor in the Greek verfion, ^vctnr^.o'.yXvj -, nor do 
the circumftances admit, that what is there faid of 
fin, or miilake, can be explained of puniiliment. It 
is neceflary therefore to fuppofe, that either Grotius 
had fomething elfe in his view^or that here is a typo- 
graphical error. 2dly, Though we fhould grant, 
The Ape- which yet we do not in the lead, that/(?y?«, fometimes 
file here clenotes to Undergo punifhment^ yet it cannot fignify 
^^^•fhes ^^^^ ^^^^ ' b^^^'^^^^ ^^^ Apoille in this place imme- 
between d lately diilingu idles between death, as the punifh- 
fin and ment, and fm, as the meritorious caufe, and death hy 
punifn- y^;^^ ^P^ri by this interpretation of Grotius, the 
^^'^^' Apofile's difcourfe, which v/e have already fnewn is 
folid, would be an infipid tautology. For, where is 
Whether the lenfe to fay, So death paffed upon all^ through whom 
£^-w%ni-/3// die? 3dly, Grotius difcovers but little judgment 
fies thro' ji^ his attempt to prove, th-M ^^^ ^ ^igm^i^^ through 
^^°"^* ijuhcra: certainly, Luke, 5. 5, s'^* w p-^-al* ^«,.does 
not fignify through thy word^ but at thy word^ or as 
Beza tranflatcs, at thy command. And Hebr. 9. 17, 
E^srt j/Ejfpor? d.oes not fignify //??r^^/i^/^ the dead^ hut when 
deady and rather denotes a circumflance of time. 
A(fls, 3. 16, is alledged with a little more judgment 5 
and I Cor. 8. 11, not improperly. But it might be 
infifted, that ^^^'^p^'^^n fignifies, i/ /i owing to me :, that 


Chap. 8. Covenant of W O R K S. 189 

the meaning fhall be, to whom it was o-wh:^ that all 
finned. Which interpretation is not altogether to be 
rejected. Thus the fcholiart:, ^^'^'a^^^^, ^: h. And if 
there was nothing elfe couched under this, I would 
eafily grant Grotius this explanation of that phrafe- 
ology. 4thly, It cannot be explained confident ^"^^"^' 
with divine juftice-, how without a crime death lliould ^^^ j^jj^iy 
have pafTed upon Adam's pofterity. Profper reafoned be inflia- 
folidly and elegantly againil C^//^/^r, c. 20. Unle/s ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
perhaps it can he faid^ that the pmijhment^ and not the ^^i^\^q^ 
guilt pajfed on thepofterity of Adam •, but to fay this is in fm. 
every refpe5f falfe. For^ it is too impious to judge fo of 
thejufticeofGod\ as if he would-, contrary to his own 
law^ condemn the innocent with the guilty, ^he guilt 
therefore is evident^ where the punifhment is fo ; and a 
partaking in punifhment fhews a partaking in guilt \ that 
human rdfery is not the appointment of the Creator,, hut 
the retribution of the judge. If therefore through Adam 
all are obnoxious to punifhment, all too muft have 
finned in Adam. 5thly, Chtyfojiom alfo is here im- 
properly brought in, as if, from Adam, he derived 
only the punilhment of death, without partaking 
in the guilt. For, the homily, from which 
the words are quoted, begins thus : JVhen the 
Jew fhall fay., how is the world faved by the obe- 
dience of one., namely Chriji? Tou may reply ^ how 
was the world condemned by one difobedient Adam? 
Where it is to be obferved. ift. That he fuppofes the 
miferies of mankind to proceed .from God, as a 
judge, who cannot juflly condemn, but for fin. 
2dly, That he compares the condemnation of the 
world by Adam's difobedience with its falvation by 
Chrift's obedience. But this lafi: is imputed to be- 
lievers, and deemed to be theirs. And therefore 
Adam's fin is in like manner imputed to all. As 
alfo Gregory of Nazianzen^ quoted by Vojjius^ hifl. 
Paleg. lib. 2. P. 2 p. 163, faid, that Adam's guilt 
was his. Alas I my weaknefs I fays he, for I derive 
my weaknefs from thefirft parent, 

XXXV. But 

i^o The Violation of &c. Book r 

It IS only XXXV. But we only underftand this of Adam's 

^ftT^'* firft fin. We no wife agree with thofe, who abfurdly 

thatTs' ^^^^ ^^> ^^"^ Adam's other fins were alfo imputed to 

imputed US ; for Paul, when treating on this iubjecl, Rom. 5. 

to hispo- every where mentions tranf^reJfiGn^ in the fmguiar 

iterity. number i nay exprefsl), vcrle, 18, one tranfgreffion^ 

by which guile palTed upon all. And the reafon is 

manifeft. For, Adam ceafed to be a federal head, 

when the covenant was once bioken, and whatever 

fin he was afterwards guilty of, was his own perfonal 

fin, and not chargeable on his pofterity : unlefs In 

fo far as God is fometimes pleafed to vifit tne fins of 

the fathers on the children. In which Adam has 

now nothing peculiar above other; men. So much 

for the violation by the covenant of man* 

•^ # # * c^ 


( 191 ) 


Of the Abrogation of the Covenant of Works 
on the part of God. 

I. TTAVING fufficiently confidered the viola- The con- 

X A ^^0^ o^ the covenant by fin: Jet us now^^"^^°^ 
enquire, whether, and how far, it is made void, or'^^^^^P' 
abrogated by God himfelf. 

II. And firft, we are very certain, that there are Many 

many things in this covenant of immutable and eter- things in 

nal truth ; which we reckon up in this order, ill, ^^^^ ^^^^' 
,_, ^ r 1 .1 nantot e- 

The precepts ot the covenant, excepting that pro- temal 

batory one, oblige all and every one to a perfed per- truth, 
formance of duty, in what ftate foever they are, 
2dly, Eternal life, promifed by the covenant, can be 
obtained upon no other condition, than that of perfed, 
and, in every rcfped, comp'eat obedience, ^dly. No 
ad of difobedience efcapes the vengeance of God, and 
death is always the punifliment of fin. But thefe 
maxims do not exclude a furety, who may come un- 
der engagements in man's ftead, to undergo the pe- 
nalty, and perform the condition. But we Ihall fpeak 
of this afterwards, and now proceed to what has 
been propofed. 

III. It is indeed a moft deftrudive herefy to Thefinner 
maintain, that man, finful and obnoxious to punifh- is ftill ob- 
ment, is not bound to obedience. For, by no ^^P^^^ ^^ 
mifcondud of man, can God forfeit his right and 
fupremacy. But the right and fupremacy of God 
requires, that man, and even every creature, be fub- 

jed in all refpeds to God, fo far as poffible. More- 
over, the rational creature, fuch as finful man is, and 
does continue to be, can be fubjed not only to the 
natural, but alfo to the moral, providence of God ; 


ic)2 The Abrogation of the Book i.- 

nor only to his vindiflive juftice, but alfo to his le- 
giflaiive authority ; and, as he can, fo he ought to 
be iubje(5l to him, f^s to the obhgation of obedience : 
becaufe, every pofiible l"ubje6lion is eflfential to the 
Otherwife IV. If the finner, who deferves punifhment, was 
he could j^Q^ fuhjeft to the law, he could no longer fin ; and 
' '^^ therefore by one fin, he would fet himfelf free from 
the danger of further finning. For, where no law is 
b/iiuing^ there is no tranlgrelTion, no fin, which John 
dehnes to be «^o/^:a, the tranfgrejjion of the law^ i John, 
3. 4. But nothing can be imag ned more abfurd, 
than that man, by fm, has acquired an impeccabi- 
And all V. Moreover, according to tliis hypothefis, all 
finriers fmncTS would be cqual, and an equal degree of pu- 
wouid be j^iii^j-pjcfjt remain for every one : which is contrary 
^^^^ ' both to fQund reafon and fcripture, v/here the ine- 
quality of fins and punifhmcnt, is fo often incul- 
The fin- ^^- There is a plain pafiage. Gal. 5. 3. which con- 
ners obli- firms, that even, by the promulgation of the new 
gationap- Qoipel'Covenant, the breakers of the covenant, who 
pears from ^j.^ without Chrid, are not fet free from that obli- 
gation of the law, which demands perfedt obedience, 
but continue debtors tf) do the whole law. 
andlsil- VII. Nay, even in a human court, the penal com* 
luftrated p^^ fj deemed an additional compa^i^ adding to theprin- 
cri? 1^^^ ^//>^/ convention, and confequently not abrogating, 
but accumulating the former obligation. Much lefs 
at the bar of God, can the obligation topunilhment, 
arifing from the violation of the covenant, abrogate 
the primary and principal obligation of the law, 
whereby the covenant v/as ratified. 
The opi- VIII. Arminius therefore, (in epift. pr^ftantium vi- 
nion of rorumyp. 173.) very bafely refufes, that God, when 
Armimus. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^i from the ftate of innocence, and be- 
came obnoxious to punifliment, even of right re- 
quired obedience of man, as if God had forfeited his 


Chap. 9 Covenant of \V O R K 55. I93 

right by man's obedience. He makes uie of thefe 
arguments, id, Becaufe when man is in a (late of 
fin, he is not in covenant with God : therelore, there 
is no contra6t between God and man, by which he 
can require obedience : for, by what reward, what 
punifliment, can he give kndiion to the law, fince 
man, for the difobedience already committed, has 
forfeited the reward, and is become obnoxious to 
punifhment .? zdly. As God has, becaufe of fin, de- 
prived man of ability and power, to fulfil the law, 
fo, by this very thing, he has fignified, that he w*ill 
no longer require mian tofulfil it, unlefs he reftore his 
ability; nay, he cannot in judice do it. If any fliall fay, 
could therefore the creature be exempted from the 
right, or authority of the Creatoi-, as no longer to be 
bound to obey him ^ He anfv/ers, yes, indeed, if the 
creature be accurfed, and the Creator reckon it un- 
worthy to require obedience from it : for, it is the 
higheft punifhment, fo to conclude the fmner under 
fin, as not to require any more obedience from him, 
that being an evidence of irreconcileable anger-, 
namely in that flate. sdly, The law itfelf, to be 
performed, is fuch, as it would be unbecoming, it 
fhould be performed by a fmner, v;ho is out of the 
favour of God. He is commanded to have God for 
his God, to love, honour, and adore him, to put his 
truft in him, to ufe his name with reverence, &c. 
Is it probable, that fuch an obedience is required of 
him, who is under the curfe of God ? Thus far 
Arminius^ whofe arguments deferve to be carefully 

IX. We begin with the firft. Arminius fuppofes It Is falfe 
a great many things in this argument, which we ^v^^ 
cannot admit, fuch as: that all the obligation of uroc^as 
manarifes from the covenant, that the law does not from the 
oblige, but in fo far as it is enforced by rewards and covenant, 
punifhments : that God cannot threaten a greater 
punifhment, after man is once become obnoxi- 
ous to the penalty : now, fince we deny all this, 
jb, if we prove them to be falfe, as we hope to ^o^ 

Ypi*. 1/ Q . th^r$ 


The Abrogation of the Book t. 

there wiii not remain the lead appearance of force 
in this argument. The obligation of man to obe- 
dience is not fr:)unded iiril: and principally on a cove- 
nant, but in the fuper-eminent fovereignty, ma- 
jelty and holinefsof God, and every rational creature, 
from a confideration of tht^fe, is bound to be fubjeft 
to his fovereignty, adore his majefty, and form him- 
felf according to the example of his holinefs. God 
would not be the abfolute fovereign, if any rational 
creature exifted, which was not bound to take the 
rule of its afllons from him, and therefore, in re- 
gulating its a6lions, v/as not fubje6t to God. God 
would not be the fupreme majefty, if there was any 
rational creature, who was not bound to acknowledge, 
worfliip, adore, and be fubjedl to him in every re- 
fpe6l. God would not be perfe6l in holinefs, if any 
rational creature exifted, who was not bound to 
acknowledge that holinefs, as moft worthy of its 
imitation. As God is fuch a being, he cannot buc 
require to be acknowledged to be fo. The creature 
cannot acknowledge him in this manner, without 
owning its obligation, at the fame time, to obey him, 
who is the firll, the moft high and moft holy God. 
Which we have already explained and pro/ed more 
Andthat f^^jiiy^ ^i^.^p^ III^ fea. VIII. Moreover, it is not true, 
docs n^t ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ "°^ binding, but becaufc of the fanc- 
obligatc, tlon of lev^ards and punifnments. The principal ob- 
butbe- ligation of the law, arifes from the authority of the 
caafeof lawgiver, and the perfe6l equity of all his commands. 
lion of re- ^^'^^' ^^^ ^^^ enforced his law neither by rewards, 
wards and nor puniftiments, we had been no lefs bound to obe- 
punifh- dience : leaft felf-love, whereby we are led, to ob- 
ments. ^^j,^ ^i^^ reward and avoid the penalty, (hould be the 
only motive to ftir us up to obey God : the reve- 
rence of the Supreme Being, and the love of 
holinefs are to hold the chief place here. In fine, it is 
alfo falfe, that no further punifhment will be inftid- 
And that ^^^ ^fter that man, having once broken the covenant, 
puniJh-^^^ is become obnoxious to the penalty: for, there are de- 

Chap. 9- CovENANTof W O R K S. 195 

grees in condemnation. And if that was true, it mentcan 
would not take off the obligation to obedience. It ^^ infl»<S- 
would not be lawful for a robber, condemned to be ^^CnlT 
burnt alive, or broken on the wheel, or to the had'^ 
moft cruel death, that man can devife^ to commie, broken 
in the mean time,, a new cap:tal crime. For, as we ^^^ ^°^*^' 
have faid, the obligation arifes neither primarily nor "^"^* 
chiefly from the penal fandion, but from the autho- 
rity of the lawgiver. 

X. To the fecond, I anfwer •, ifl, Man himfelf is God has 
not only the meritorious, but alfo the phyfical caufe ^ "SJ-^ ^^ 
of his own impotence, which he brought upon him- ob^ j-'^^ 
felf by his mifcondud : as if an infolent and naughty from man! 
fervant fnould put out the candle, by which he tho' una- 
oughtto carry on his mailer's bufinefs ; or, by drink- b^^'ogive 
ing to excels, willingly render himfelf unfit for the ^^' 
fervice of his mafler. in this cafe, that mailer does, 
by no means, forfeit his right of requiring every 
piece of fervice properly due to him, and of punifh- 
ing that naughty fervant for non-performance. 2dly, 
Tho' God, as a juft judge, had deprived man of 
ability to fulfil the law, yet, on that account, he 
both will in point of right, and can require the 
performance of it by man. He can very juflly ; 
becaufe no wickednefs of man, jufily punifhed by 
God, can diminifh God's authority over him ; other- 
wife, it would be in man's pov/er, at his own plea- 
fure, either to extend, or limit the authority of God ; 
which is contrary to the immutable perfedion and 
bleflednefsof God. He alfo does require this for wife 
reafons ; of v/hich this is one, that fmful man may, 
by that means, be convinced of his irreparable mi- 
fery, upon findingfuch things juftly required of him, 
which h^ has rendered himlelf incapable to perform. 
And fince he is as unwilling as unable to obey God, 
he is the more inexcufable, the more clearly the duty 
of the law is inculcated upon him. 3dly, 'Tis abfurd 
to fay, that it is thegreatell punifhment, that God in- q „ 
flidls on man, not to require obedience from the re- reqminT* 
O 2 bellious obcdleirce 

196 The Abrog ATiON of the Book i. 

from the BeHIoiis creature. It is indeed true, that the crea- 
rebellious ^^^^ ought to reckon it a part of its happinefs, to 
noTthe^ have the glory of obeying. And it is the punifh- 
greatell ment of the creature, if, by the jud judgment of 
punifh- God, it is condemned, never to perform what is in- 
^^^^^' cumbent, and may be acceptable to God. But it 
is another thing to fay, that God will not require 
obedience from it. If God requires not obedience, 
the creature owes none : If it owes none, it does not 
zd: amifs by difobeying -, and if it does not 
amifs by difobeying, that cannot be the higheft 
puniihment for it. And thus Arminius deftroys his 
own argument. Who would have fpoke rightly, had 
he faid, that it is, inilead of the higheft puniihment 
to the creature, to be condemned, by the juft judg- 
ment of God, not to perform that obedience, which 
God, confiftently with his juftice and holinefs, re- 
Wecannot quires of it. 4thly, Should we deal more clofely 
without with a bold difputant, we might fay, that there is a 
a contra- contradidion in the adjund, when he fuppofes God 
fu^^ofe addreffing the creature thus, I will not have thee to 
God fay- peiform any obedience to me. For, if any calls for 
ing to the obedience, he pre fuppofes not only fome authority, 
creature, I {^y vvhich he can require it, but alfo a command, 
have"°ou "^^^^^ requires obedience, and which muft be obey- 
to obey ed. Whoever, by his authority, gives fuch a com- 
me. mand, requires, that obedience be yielded to it. If 

he fhould give another command to this purpofe, I 
will not have you to obey me, he would then contra- 
dict himfelf : nay, contradid the nature of the com- 
mand, wdiich confiils in an obligation to obedience. 
'Tis ab- 5thly, 'Tis the higheft abfurdity imaginable, that 
furd.thataa creature fhall, by its fm, obtain exemption from 
creature ^j^^ authority of the Creator, and be no longer bound 

exenmted ^^ ^^^Y ^^^"^- ^^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^^"^» ^^^" ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

from the deceivers fpoke truth, that man, by eating the for- 

authority bidden fruit, would become as God» Whoever is ex- 

ofthecrc- gj^pj-^^ from the authority of the Creator, is under 

the authority of none, is at his own difpofal •, in fine, 


Chap. 9- Covenant of WORKS. 197 

is God. ■ For to be at one's own difpofld, is to be 
God. Ah ! how ridiciulous is this ! 

XL The third argument is no lefs weak. For, There Is 
id. The fum of the law is, to love God with all the noihingin 
heart, mind, and lire ngrh, and our neighbour as our- ^"^'^:2'j^» 
felves. As this is reafonable in itfelf, fo it cannot the crea- 
but be propofed as fuch by God to man, for con- ture is not 
fcience itfelf, even that of the moft abandoned, will ^^^^^ ^o 
bear witnefs with God, to the reafonablenefs of this, ti'^^^^i^^t'^ 
Vvhat ? Is it notcerta-n, that God is the chief good ; ^v^y and 
coniequently the moil amiable.'^ Can he be unwilling, manner, 
that any fhould acknowledge him as the chief good, 
or, to be what he really i», what he cannot but be ? 
Is he not the fupreme majeily ? Can he be unwilling 
to be honoured as ilich, with the m.oll: fubniiiTive re- 
verence ? 2djy, Annmius ui ges, that the law alfo The law 
commands us to trufl in God. It does fo ; what can ^^'^^' 

be more rio-ht, what more becominp; than that man, "^^'^^^ 

o ' o' ' even aim* 

even a finner, fhould be bound to believe the tefti- ^cr to 

mony of God i (liould give him this glory, namciy trurt in 
that he alone both can and v/ill juflify the ungodly ; ^^^' 
that he fhould feek him even when angry ; hunger 
and third after his righteoufnefs •, and willingly en- 
deavour to be for his glory ; namely, that God may 
be glorified and admired in him by his juftification 
and glorification by free grace -, and that he ihould 
neither negle6t the falvation, which God has mod 
furely revealed, and neither delpife, nor rejetfl the 
Saviour ^ This is to trad in God, and will any pious 
perfon ever doubt of the probability, nay even of the 
mod infalhble cert^iimy of this, that man, under the 
curfe of God 'till now, is not called upon to this? 
3d]y, He will dill urge, that when he fpeaks of And to 
truding in God, he means thereby that full affur- take him 
ance of mind, whereby we hold God to be our God ; ^^^ ^^^ 
that at lead this is alfo enjoined by the law. We ° ' 
are to confider this more didindly. When the law 
enjoins us jto take God for our God, it is to be under- 
ilood in this manner, viz. to take him for our 

O 3 Creator, 

19 S The Ab ROG AT I ON of the Book i 

Creator, preferver, lawgiver, and Supreme Lord, this 
is abfolutely and without diftindion enjoined upon 
all men : but if we underhand it thus •, to take him 
for our faving good j this is enjoined, upon none, 
but in that method, which the revealed will of God 
prefcribes. And this is the v/ay cither that man 
fhall obtain the falvation of God by a mofc perfed: 
perfonal obedience, as propofed to Adam in inno- 
Bntina" ^ence ; which is now impofiible for the Tinner : or, 
light way. that finful man be converted, and united by faith to 
Chrift •, then examine himfelf, v>^hether he be in the 
faith and in Chrift-, which being difcovered, he 
may then indeed glory and exult in God his faviour : 
this is the v/ay that is now propofed in the Gofpel. 
Btft'the law enjoins us to embrace every truth by 
faith, which God either has revealed, or fhall reveal, 
nnd to walk agreeably to that truth. But the law no 
where enjoins the impenitent finner, to look upon 
God as the God of his falvation. Nay, the law, as 
it was given to Adam himfelf, enjoins him to be- 
lieve the contrary. And thus I imagine I have fully 
difpatched the quaint fubtleties of ^rminius ; that it is 
of immutable right, that man, even under fm and 
guilt is ftill under obligation to obey the law. 
Thefmner XII. We proceed a ftcp further, to fhew, that man, 
not only even after the violation of the covenant, continues 
obliged to bound not only to obedience, but to a perfedl per- 
buttoper- fo^fn^nce of duty. Paul faid of thofe, who are Vv^ith- 
fediofl. out the covenant of grace, Gal. 5. c^, thai they are 
debtors to do the whole law. Nor can it otherwiie be. 
For, the law of the covenant, as to the natural pre- 
cepts, is immutable, being the tranfcript of the 
image of God, which is no lefs immutable than God 
himfelf. For, if the image, v/hich had the neareil 
refemblance is changed, and yet continues fiill to re- 
femible its archetype, or original, the archetype itfelf 
mufl: aifo neceffarily be cha iged. But the law of the 
covenant did undoubtedly require perfect obedi- 

Xm. Be- 

Chap. 9. Coven ANT of W O R K S. 199 

XIII. Befides, if we imagine any abatement and Asap- 
relaxation of the law after fin, we are to conceive, P^arsfrom 
that God addrcfled finful man after this manner : naUreTf 
*' 1 formerly commanded thee to efteem me as the God. 
'^ fupreme truth, thy chief good, and thy fovcreign 
*' Lord, and confequcntly to affent, with the fulleft 
" aflurance of faith, to all my precepts, to love me 
*' with all thy foul, and all thy llrcngth, and efteem 
" nothing preferable to that which is acceptable to 
" me, to employ thy all in my fervice, at all times 
'^ and in all things, to be at my command and beck, 
" and never venture on any thing, that is not agree- 
*' able to my will. But now, fince thou haft once 
*' prefumed to difobey me, I require no more for 
" the future, but that thou efteem me indeed to be 
" the truth, but not infallible ; to be thy good, but 
'-' not the chief; to be thy lord, but not the fupreme: 
*' and I allow thee to doubt of fome of my teftimo- 
" nies, to love other things behdes and above me-, to 
*' place thy happinefs in other things befides my 
^' favour, in fine to depend on me in fom.e things ; but 
*' in other things to -dCt at thy ovv^n difcretion." If 
all thefe be abfurd and unworthy of God, as they 
certainly are ; 'tis alfo abfurd and unworthy of God, 
to abate and relax any thing of his law. Bur if thefe 
general propfiticns are of immutable truth ; that as 
God is the chief good, he is, at all times, and by all 
perfons to be loved with the whole heart ; as he is 
the fupreme lord, none can ever, under any pretf^nce, 
a61: but according to his command •, now th r.ioft 
perfect!: performance of every duty, muft t;e tlie 
nianifeft confequence of all this. 

XIV. Aoain, to perform duty perfe6lly, as every Becaufe « 
one will allow, is better than to do it in a flight perform 
manner. For all the eoodnefs of duty confifts in .^S{ ^■^^' 
Its agreement with the rule and directory or it. preferable 
There muft therefore be a certain rule, enjoining to doing 
;hat perfedion, which is a greater degree of good- it^thw- 

O 4 nefs. ''"=• 

20(5 The Abrogation ofth6 Book. i. 

ticfs. If God has prefcribed fuch a rule, it mull cer- 
tainly bird man to conform himfelf to it. 
Natural XV. The confclence of man, upon due attention^ 
confcieace cannot but aiTent to thefe things. To make this ap- 
this.^ " peat) I 111 all adjoin two excellent pafiages, one froni 
EpiBetus^ the other from the emperor Julian. The 
former fpeaks thus, Dijfertat. lib. 2, c. 11. Having 
found a ruk-^ let us keep it inviolably^ and not extend fo 
much as a finger beyond it. The latter thus, Or at. r. 
^here is an ancient law given by birn^ who firft taught 
mankind philofophy^ and which runs thus : that all^ who 
have an eye to virtue and to honejiy., ought., in their 
words and aElions., in fociety and in all the affairs cf this 
life., both fmall and great., endeavour altogether after 
hcnefly. The law therefore of the old covenant con- 
tinues to bind all mankind, without exception, to a 
perfect performance of duty. 
Eternal XVI. The fecond thing, which we faid, ^cdi. II. 

life u nob- ^^^ immutable in the covenant of v/orks, was this-, 
but by t^^t eternal life was not obtainable on any other con- 
perfea o- dition, but that of perfed obedience : as may thus 
bedience. j^g invincibly proved •, for, by virtue of this general 
rule, it was necefiary for Cbrift to be made under the 
law., Gal. 4. 4, znd fulfil a'l righeoufncfs^ and that for 
this end, that the right eoufnefs of the law might be 
fulfilled, Rom. 8. 4. But if this righreoufnefs had 
not been facred and inviolable, Chrift would Jiave 
been under no necelllty to fubmit to the covenant of 
the law, in order to merit eternal life for his people. 
This therefore is evident, that there ought to be a 
merit of perfect obedience, on which a right to 
eternal life may be founded. Nor is it miaterial, 
whether that perfect obedience be performed by man 
himfelf, or by his furety. 

XVII. The third thing which we affirmed, as an 
unchangeable truth, regards the penal fandion ; for 
that in.mutable and indifpenfible juftice, which we 
already defended by io many arguments, chap. V. 


Chap. 9- Covenant of W O R K S. 201 

fedl. XVIII. feq. certainly requires this, fo that there 
Is no occafion to add any thing further. 

XVIII. Since then thefe three things, the law, the Vet, there 
promife and the thrcatning, conftitute the entire na- J^ ^°"^^ ^' 
ture of the covenant, as propofed by God, (land fo orthe^co- 
firm ; one may conclude that, tho' man has really, venant of 
on his part, broken the covenant, yet no abrogation works ; 
of the covenant is made on the part of God. But, 

on duly weighing the matter, we muft alfo acknow- 
ledge fome abrogation on the part of God : as may 
be evidently inferred from the fubltitution of the new 
covenant of grace. For, thus the Apoftle has taught 
lis to reaibn, Heb. 8.13. /;-/ that he faith a new cove- 
7mnt^ he hath made the fir ft old. For, tho' the abroga- 
tion of the old does not neceiTarily infer the fubftitu- 
tion of a new •, yet the fubftitution of a new does cer- 
tainly import the abrogation of the old. It is indeed 
true, that the Apoftle, in this place, does not fpeak 
precifely of the covenant of works, but of the old oe- 
conom.y of the covenant of grace, which he fays is 
abrogated. But yet, we properly build on his rea- 
foning, which we may alio, and ought to apply to 
this fubje6l •, namely, that every fubftitution of a 
new covenant fuppofes the abrogation of an old 

XIX. That abrogation on the part of God, confids confift'ng 
in this, that God has declared, that no man can, by in this, ^ 
virtue of this covenant, have friendfhip with him, ^^- ;' ^y '^ 
or obtain eternal life-, fo that he has declared all JJ^^^ ^g*^ 
to have forfieited the promife of the covenant, and faved. 
the hope of enjoying that promife according to that 
covenant. This is what the Apoftle fays-, there Is 

not now a law.^ which can give life^ as that righteoufnefs 
ffjGuld be by the law., Gal. 3. 21. To this purpofe is, 
what the law cannot do^ which he inculcates, Rom. 


XX. And that covenant is fo really abrogated. The co- 
that it can, on no account, be renewed. For, Ihould venant of 
we imagine God faying to man ^ ''If, for the tu-^°^*^^^° 

'' ture. 

202 The Abrog ATfON of the Book !• 

abrogated « turc, thou canfl perfectly keep my law, thou (halt 
mirof^no " t*^-^^t)y acquire a right to eternal life," God would 
renew^. ^^^ byfuch words renew this v^ery covenant of works, 
for, fin is now pre-fuppofed to exift, which is contrary 
to that perfedlion of obedience, which the covenant 
of works acquires. God would therefore tranfadt 
here with man on a different condition, whereby 
forgiving the former fin, he would prefcribe a con- 
dition of an obedience lefs perfed. than that which he 
itipulated by the covenant of works ; which, exclude 
ing all fin, knevv^ nothing of forgivenefs of fin. Nay, 
fuch a tranfaclion v/ould be fo far from a renewal of 
the covenant of works, that it would rather manifefl- 
ly deftroy it. For, the penal fan6tion makes a part 
of that covenant, v/hereby God threatned the fmner 
with death, fo that if he forgave him without a due 
fatisfadion, he would a6l contrary to the covenant, 
and his own truth, 
t ab - XXI. The 'aw therefore remains, as the rule of our 
tjated,asa^^^yi but abrogated as to its federal nature; nor 
rule of life can it be the condition, by the performance of which 
but as a m^n may acquire a right to the reward . In this fenfs 
covenant. ^|^^ Apofilc i^ays, fVe are not under the law^ Rom. 6. 
14. Namely, as prefcribing the condition of life. 
There is indeed ftill an indiffoiuble connexion ht- 
tween perfect righteoufnefs and eternal life, lb that 
the laji cannot be obtained without ihejirft. But after 
that man, by falling from righteoufnef?, had lod all his 
hope of the reward, God was at liberty either to pu- 
nifh the (inner, according to his dem^'rit, or give him 
afurety to fulfil all righteoufnefs in '.is ilead. 
ppinion XXII. There are learned men, who, befides this 
of learned abolition of the covenant of works, which regards the 
otherwavs pollibility of giving life and j unification, enumerate 
ofabolilh- four other degrees of abolition in this order, ifb, 
ingihe CO- Of condemnation^ by Cbrift being propofed in the 
venant of ^^^^-^^^^ ^^^ apprehended by faith. 2d\y, Of terror, 
or the power of the fear of death and bondage, by the 

Chap. 9. CovEKANTof W O R K S. 203 

prcmulgation of the new covenant^ after the expiation of 
fin : which being once accomplifhed, they, who are 
redeemed, are under the law of the redeemer. So that 
the fame law, abolifhed in the redeemer as the law of 
fin, becomes the law of the faviour, and adjudges 
righteoufnefs to tho!e who are his. ^dly, Of that war 
or ftruggle with fin, by the death of the body. 4thly, Of 
all the effeuls of it, by therefurre^fion from the dead. Our re~ 
XXIII. But let us give our reafons, \\hy we have ^eaions 
hitherto doubted, whether thefe things are, with ^^^^^°^« 
fufficient accuracy, conceived anddlgefted. ift. All 
the particulars here mentioned belong to the covenant 
of grace. But the covenant of grace does not abro- 
gate, but fuppofes the abrogation of the covenant of 
works: becaufe there could be no place for this, 
without, the abrogation of the other, in the fenfe now 
mentioned. 2dly, The covenant of grace is not the 
abolition, but rather the confirmation of the covenant 
of works, in fo far.asthe mediator has fulfilled all the 
conditions of that covenant, fo that all believers may 
be juflified, and-faved, according to the covenant of 
works, to which fatisfaclion was made by the medi- 
ator. This is the Apoftle's meaning, Rom. 3. 31, 
Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid\ 
yea^ we efiaUlfh the law. And again., Rom. 8.4. l!hat 
the righteoufnefs of the law rdght be fulfilled in us. 
Which fignifies (as the learned perfon, whofe opinioa 
we are now examining, comments on this place) 
that what the law accounts for righteoufnefs is fully be* 
Jiozved on us •, and confequently^ that what merits the 
reward of the law ^ becomes 'perfectly ours, 3dly, The 
very law of the covenant, which gave up the human 
finner to fin, when his condition is once changed by 
union with Chrift the furety, does now, without any 
abolition, abrogation, or any other change whatever, 
abfolve the man from the guilt and dominion of fin, 
and bellow on him that fanftificadon and glorifica- 
tion, \yhich are gradually to be brought to that per- 


204 The Abrog A TiON of the Booki;. 

feftion, which he fhall obtain at the refurre^lion of 
the dead ; as being conftrained to bear witnefs to 
the juftification of the covenant of grace. This is 
what the learned perfon not improperly fays, in the 
words we have juft quoted : So that the fame laWy 
aholijhed in the redeemer as the law of Jin, becomes the 
law of the Saviour^ and heftows righteoufnefs on thofe^ 
who are his \ which he has at large and learnedly 
explained on Rom. 8. 2. In a word, the fame law, 
which was, to man in innocence, a commandment to 
life, and is to man in fin,the law of fin, giving him up 
to the dominion and guilt of fir,becomes again in the 
redeemer the law of the fpirit of life, teftitying that 
fatisfadion was made to it by the redeemer, and 
beftowing on man, who by faith is become one with 
the redeemer, all the fruits of righteoufnefs for juftifi- 
cation, fanftification and glorification. All the change 
is in the ftate of the man, none in the law of the 
covenant, according to which man, in whatever ftate 
he is, is judged. Which things feem not to have 
efcaped the obfervation of the learned perfon him- 
felf-, when Summa T'heolog. c. 31. .§. i. He fpeaks 
to this purpofe. Neverrhelefs when we f^y this^ we 
mean, that this fourf eld c.boliuon and removal of the 
covenant concerning works to be done, which is con- 
nedted without our own happlnefs, is founded on the 
fame law : not that this could he done by virtue of the 
law in itfelf alone^ but that the intervention of a furety 
and redeemer made it ^ at lajh poffihle to the laiv. I al- 
low, that what he calls the abolition of the covenant 
concerning works, is founded in the law of works : 
but I leave it to the reader's confideraiion, whether 
it is not a ftrange way of talking, to fay, that the 
abolition and removal of the law^ is founded on the law 
itfelf^ and that the intervention of a furety and redeemer 
made it at lafi pfjiblc to the lazv, namely, that itfelf 
fhould efFe6t its own abfolution and removal ? From 
all which, I conclude, that it will be more proper 


Chap. 9. Covenant of W O R K S. 205 

to treat of thefe things, when we fpeak of the 
fruits and effeEls of the covenant of grace^ than when 
confidering the abolition of the covenant of works: 
which is, on no account, abolifhed, but in fo far, as 
it is become impoflible for man to attain to life, 
by his own perfonal works. 





O F . T H E 

Divine Covenants. 

BOOK 11. 


Introduuiion to the Covenant of Grace* 

By the I- F"^"^ HEN the covenant of works was thus broken^ 

breach of ^WS5|i; j^y ^^^ y^^ ^y ^^^^ ^^^^ abrogated by the jujl 

the cove- ^^^-^ judgment of God, wretched man was cafl: 

nantof }^eadlong into the deepeftgulf of ruin, whence there 

man be- could be no efcape. For, liftning to the follicltation 

came a of the devil, and giving way to his own reafonings, 

flave to ^^^ in a mojl violent manner^ withdrew himielf from 

fndh^im-"^^^* that he might be at his own difpofal-, and, (hke 

^"if, ^"^' the prodigal fon, Luke 15. 12.) throwing off his 

rightful fubordination to God, fold and enflaVed 

himfelf to the devil All which were ads of the high- 

clt irijuHiee : for, man had no right, thus to difpofe of 

himfelf I 

Chip. t. Co V E N A N T of G R A C E. 207 

him/elf-, nor the devil to accept of what was God's. 
Yet, God confidering, that, by this rafh and unjuft 
a6]:ion, man v/asjuftly punlHied, did, by his right- 
eous judgment, ratify all this for his further punifh- 
ment, gave him up to himfelf^ as the moft wretched 
and foolifli of mailers ; and \.o fin^ as a cruel tyrant, 
which would continually force him to every abomi- 
nable praflice. And even as th-.y did not like to retain 
God in thetr knowledge^ God gave them over to a repro- 
bate mindy to do thofe things which are not convenient^ 
Rom. I. 28. He alfo gave them up unto vile affections^ 
verfe 26-, that lb they might receive that recompencSy 
ivhich was meet ^ v. 27. In fine, he delivered them up 
as flaves to the devil^ to be taken captive by him at his 
will^ 2 Tim. 2. 26. And all this according to that 
moft equitable law ; of whom a man is overcome, of 
the fame he is brought in bondage^ 2 Pet. 2. 19. 

II. Moreover, when man was no longer in covenant WitHout 
with God, he then became without God and without ^.°^» ^'^^ 
hope in the worlds Eph. 2. 12. For, it was impolTible ^'^^°H^ 
for him to devife any method, becoming God, the world, 
whereby, confiftently with divine truths jujiice^ and 
holinefs^ he could be reconciled with God, and re- 
turn again to his favour. The law of fm was alfo 

juft, by which man was cnllaved to fin, to the do- 
minion and condemnation of it, and given up to the 
devil, as his tormentor. In which fenfe, he is faid 
to be not only the captive of the devil^ of the ftrong 
man^ mentioned Mat, 12. 29-, but alfo, the lawful 
captive^ If 49. 24. For, \\q\\2A the power of death, 
Heb. 2. 14. and that by the law, i Cor. 15. 56, 
the ftrength of fin is the laiv. Nor could man contrive 
any way, whereby, fin, which condemned, by the 
jnoa equitable law, could itfelf be juftly condemned 
by God. 

III. But it pleafed God, according to the riches of God lays 
his unfearchable wifdom, to lay this breach of the ^^.^^^^^^^ 
legal covenant as a foundation for his ftupendous ^^.j^^^j^jq^' 
works 5 for he took occafion, to fet up a new covenant works as 


2o8 Introduction to the Book 2. 

the foun- of grace ; in which he might much more clearly difplay 

^1?^^°" ft^ the ineftirnable treaiures of his all-lufficiency, than if 

llupend- every thing had gone well with man according to the 

ous works firft covenant : and thus he difcovered what feemed 

by fntingto furpals all belief and comprehenfion, that God, who 

venant^7 ^^ ^^^^^-^^^ ^"^ Z:'^/)', could, without any diminution 

frrace. ^^t ^'^1 rather with a much more illuftrious difplay of 

his adorable perfe(5lions, become theGod?c^A Salvation 

of the firmer : for he found out that admirable way to 

reconcile the ftridleft vindiflive juftice with the moft 

condefcending mercy. So that the one Ihould be 

no obftrudiion to the other. For fo illuftrious an 

^'xercife of thefe perfe6lions, there could have been 

noplace under the covenant of works. 

IV. If therefore any thing ought to be ac-* 
counted worthy of our moft attentive confideration, 
certainly it is the covenant of grace, of which we 
now attempt to treat. Here the way is pointed 
out to a Paradife far preferable to the earthly, and to 
a more certain and ftable felicity, than that from 
which Adam fell. Here a new hope fhines upon 
ruined mortals, which ought to be the more accept- 
able, the more unexpeded it comes. Here con- 
ditions are offered, to which eternal falvation is an- 
nexed ; conditions, not to be performed again by us, 
which might throw the mind into defpondency \ but 
by him, who would not part with his life, before 
he had truly faid, it is finijhed. Here with the 
brighteft fplendor fliine forth the wonderful per- 
fections of our God, his wifdom, power, truth, 
juftice, holinefs, goodnefs, philanthropy, or good- 
will to man, mercy, and what tongue can rehearfe 
them all ? Never before difplayed on a more au- 
guft theatre, to the admiration of all, who behold 
them. Whoever therefore loves his own falvation, 
whoever longs to delight himfelf in the contempla- 
tion of the divine perfedlions, he muft come hither, 
and deeply engage in holy meditations on the cove- 

Chap. I. Co V E N A N T of G R A C E. 209 

riant of grace : which I think may not improperly be 
thus defined. 

V. 'The covenant of grace is a compaEl^ or agreement^ Definition 
between God and the ele^ finner \ God on his fart de- ^^^ 

daring his free good -^.v ill concerning eternal fahmtion^ grace. 
and every thing relative thereto^ freely to he given to thofe 
in covenant^ by and for the mediator Chrifi \ and man on 
his part ccnfenti7:g to that gcod-ivill by afmcere faith. 

C30O ecao 

Vol. I. B CHAP. 

( tm ) 


Of the covenant heticeen God the Father and 
the Son. 

A twofold I. T N order the more thoroughly to underftand the 
compaft J^ nature of the covenant of grace^ two things are 
'" ^^^ '^''; above all to be diilindly conlidered. ift. "The cove- 

venant of , - , - -^r r- i i -n i j 

grace, i. ^ani, which intervenes bep-u^een iiod the bather^ and 
Between Clvijt the Mediator. 2d!y, That tefiamentory difpw 
the Fathery^^/^;^^ by v/hich G^jJ hejlows^ by an immutable cove- 
Son 2 Be- v^"^"'^' eternal fahaticn^ and every thing relative 
tween* thereto, upon the ele6l. The former agreement is 
God and between God and the Mediator : the latter, between 
the Elea. Qo^ and the Elect, This laft pre-fuppoles the iirft, 

and is founded upon it. 
The com- ^^' ^^en I fpeak of the compa«5l between the Fa- 
pad be- ther and the Son^ 1 thereby underftand the will of the 
tween the Pather^ giving the Son., to be thei?r^Jand Redeemer 
father and q£ ^.f^^ ^\q^ . ^j^^^ ^^^ ^/// ^jr ^^^ ^^^^^ prefenting him- 

plained!"^' felf, as difponfor., or furety for them ; in all which, 
the nature of a compad: and agreement confifls. 
The Scriptures reprefent the Father in the osconomy 
of our falvatiou-j as demanding the obedience of the Son 
even into death, and, upon condition of that obe- 
dience, proniihng him in his turn that nar:e, which 
IS above every name, even that he fnould be the 
head of the cledl in glory: but the Son, as prefenting 
himfelf to do the will of tlie Father, acquiefcing in that 
promife^ and in fine, requiring, by virtue of the com- 
pact, the kingdom and glory promifed to him. When v/e 
have clearly dernonftrated all thefe p rticulars from 
Scripture, it cannot, on any pretence be denied, 
that there is a com pad between the Father and 
the Son, which is the foundation of our falvation. 
; But let us proceed diilindly. ift, By producing 


Chap. 2. the Fa T H E R and the Son. 211 

fuch places of Scripture, as fpeak only in gene- 
ral, but yet, exprcfsly, of this compact. 2dly, 
By more fully unfolding the particulars, which com- 
pleat or conftitute this compadl. 3dly, By in- 
vincibly proving the fame from the nature of the 
Sacraments, which Chrift alfo made ufe of. 

III. Chrift himfclf fpeaks of this compad, in ex- Andprov- 

prefs words, Luke 22. 20. Kayw ^aTtOe/xat IfxiTv, y.a$«? ed from 

l»c$£To f^ot irollrjp ^y f]aai)^tiav, and I engage by covenant unto ^^^^' ^^» 
you a kingdom^ as my father hath engaged by covenant ' 
unto me. In which words the Lord Jefus fays, that, 
by virtue of fome covenant or difpofition, he obtains 
a kingdom, as we alfo obtain it by virtue of the 

IV. And, Heb. 7. 22, where he is faid to be a and Heb, 
furety of a better covenant or teflament. But he is ?• ^z. 
called the furety of a teftament, not principally on 

this account, becaufe he engages to us for God and 
his promifes, or, becaufe he engages for us^ that we 
/hall obey j as Mofes intervened as a furety between 
God and the Ifraelites^ Ex. 19. 3 — 8. For, by how 
much Chrift v/as greater than Mofes, in fo much he 
was alfo a furety, in a more excellent manner. His 
furetilhip confifts in this, that he hirnfelf undertook to 
perform that condition^ without which, confiftently 
with thejufticeof God, the grace and promifes of 
God could not reach unto us ; but being once per- 
formed, they v/ere infallibly to come to the children 
of the covenant, unlefs then we would make void the 
furetifhip of Chrift, and gratify the Socinians, the 
Very wor(^ perverters of Scripture. It is neceffary, 
we conceive of fome covenant, the conditions of 
which Chrift took upon himfelf •, engaging in our 
name with the Father, to perform them for us ; and 
that, having perfornried them, he might engage to 
us for the f;^ cher, that we fhould certainly hare grace 
and gJory beftowed upon us. 

V. Moreover, Gal. 3. I7, Paul mentions a cer- FromGal. 
tain ^ct^mr.v covenant., or teftament., that was confirmed 3* i7- 
Jbefore of God in Chrift, Where the contrading parties 

Pa are 

212 The Covenant between Book 2* 

are, on one fide God^ on the other C^r//? ; and tbe 
agreement between both is ratified. But leaft any 
fhould think, that Chriil is here only confidered as 
the executor of the teftament^ bequeathed to us by- 
God, the Apoftle twice repeats, that Chrift was not 
p'ornifed to us^ or, that falvation was not promifed to us 
through Chrift^ though that be alfo true; but that the 
prcmifes were made to Chrift himfelf^ v. i6. That 
Chriit zvas that feed^ ulTTccyy^-^M, to which he had pro- 
mifed^ or, to which the promife was made ♦, namely, 
concerning the inheritance of the world and theking- 
dom of grace and glory. It is evident therefore, 
that the word ^'V^f^^ does here denote fome cove- 
nant ox tedammt^ by which fomething is promifed by 
God to Chriil. Nor do I fee, what can be objected 
to this, unlefs by Chrift we fhould underftand the 
head, together with the myfticalhody^ which with Chrift 
is that one feed, to which the promifes are made. 
This indeed we fhall not refufe, if it alfo be admit- 
ted, that Chrift, who is the head, and eminently the 
feed of Abraham, be, on no account, excluded from 
th fe prom.ifes, efpecially as the promifes made to 
his myftical body, ought to be confidered as made to 
himfeif; fince he alfo himfelf hath received gifts for 
men, Pf 68. 19. 
From Pf. VI. Nor ought thofe places to be omitted, in 
119. 122. ^hici^ explicit mention is made of the furetiftoip of 

, ^^* ^■^' Chrift : as Pf. i f g. 122. he furety for thy fervant for 
jer.30 21. ... ^ ^^ ^. ■^^. ' •' y_ -^ 

good', that IS, as iurety receive hmi into thy pro- 

tedion, that it mav be well with him. In like mann 
ner. If 38. 14, J am opprejfed, undertake for me, be 
to me a iurety and patron. And that none but 
Chrift alone could thus undertake, God himfelf fays, 
Jer. 30. 21, who is this, "in^ nx nn;; /i?^/ engaged his 
heart, or appealed his heart by his furetiftiip, or 
fweetened his heart by a voluntary and fiducial en- 
gagement, or, in fine, pledged his very heart, giving his 
,• foul as both the matter and price of furetiiliip (for 
ail thefe things are comprized ui the emphafis of the 
Mebrew language) to apprsach unto me, that he may 


Chap. 2, the F A T H E R and the Soy. 213 

expiate fin ? Thefe- words alio fhew, what that 
furetil'hip, or undertaking was, which David and He- 
zekiah fought for : namely, a declaration of will to 
approach unto God, in order to procure the ex. 
piation of fins. 

VII. In fine, we may refer to this point, Zach. 6. From 
13, the counfel of peace Jhall he between th:m ho:h\ZRQk. 6. 
namely, between the man, whofe name is the branchy 13. Which 
and Jehovah: f( r, no other two occur here. It will ^^ ""^% 
not be foreign to our purpofe, to throw fome light phr^}^j 
on this place by a fl:iort analyfis and paraphrafe. In 
this and the preceeding verle, there is a remarkable 
prophecy concerning the Meffiah^ who{c per/on, offices, 
and^/^ry, the Prophet truly defcribes in a (hort, but 
lively manner, fubjoining at lait the can fe of all thefe ; 
namely, why th <:/'%?.? 6 appeared as fuch zperfoUy 
executed fuch cjjicss^ and obtained fuch a glory ; 
namely, becaufe of that counfel^ which was between 
him and the fa her, the fruit of which withrefped to 
us, is peace. Of the perfon oi the Meffiah he fays, that 
he is ii^'N* the man, that is, true man, fee Hof 2.15, 
and indeed, ^hi. moft eminent among men -, not ti'iSK or 
CPTN, which words denote wretched man^ but ii**i*» 
l^'D* the man of thy right hand, Pf ^o. ly. Becaufe 
Chrift is not here confidered as in the abafement of 
his mifj:y, but as in the excellence of his glory. 
His name is the Branch, becaufe fprung from God, 
If 4 2, Zech, I. 12. A new root pf anewofi-spring, 
or of the Sons of God according to promife and re- 
generation, the fecond Adam. And indeed, a 
I'ranch, \<j\\\ch fhall bloffom from under hhnf elf . Aben 
Ezra, r'PiSD, from itfelf, which fliall not be produced, 
or propagared, by any fowing, or planting of man's 
hand, but fliail fpring from a virgin, by the peculiar 
power of the Deity. Mis offi^ce is to build the temple of 
the Lord, that is, the church of the Eied, wKch is the 
houfe of God, I Tim. 3. 15, which Chrift "aracrx/t/acrj 
framed, Heb. 3. 4, and built, Mat. 16. 18. Lay- 

^ 3 ing 

The Covenant between Book 2. 

ing the foundation inhiscrofs, and cementing it with 
his blood. But becaufe, in the fame breath, it is 
twice faid, hejhall build the temple of the Lord^ it may 
fugged to our minds, whether, befides the building 
of the church, which is the myftical body of Chrift, 
the refurredion of Chrift's own natural body may not 
be intended, which is called, the building of the tempky 
John, 2. 19, 21. which being done ^ he will receive ma- 
jefiy^ a name above every name, and Jit on the throne 
of Gcd^ to execute his kingly and prieftly office in 
glory. For a king to fit on a throne, is nothing 
l-trange, but, for a prieft^ very much fo ; being con- 
trary to the cuflom of the ancient priefts in the Old 
Teflament, who ftood daily, often offering the fame 
facrifices •, becaufe their labour was ineffedual to re- 
move the guilt of fm. Heb. 10, 11. But Chrift hav- 
ing once offered up the one facrifice of himfelf, and, 
by it, obtained eternal redemption, fat down forever 
at the right hand of the father, never to rife to offer 
^ fecond time, Heb. i. 3. and 9. 12, 14. He now 
does what his felTion gives him a right to do, he 
makes intercefiion for his people, Rom. 8. 34. As 
■\vas ingenioufly obfervcd by James Altingius^ Hept. 3. 
Differ t. 6. §. 49. But whence does all this proceed, 
and what is tb.e origin of fuch important things ? 
The counfel of peace^ which is between the manwhofe 
name is the Branchy and between Jehovah^ whofe 
temple he fhall build, and on whofe throne he lliall 
fit, Rev. 3. 21. And what eife can this counfel be, 
but the mutual will of the father and the fon^ which, 
we faid, is the nature of the covenant ? It is called a 
counfel^ both on account of the free and liberal good 
pleafure of both, and of the difplay of the greateft 
wifdom m an ifefled therein. And a counfel of /)^<3^^, 
hot between God and Chrift, between whom there 
never was any enmity, but of peace to be procured 
to fmful man with God, and to finners with them- 


Chap. 2. the Fath I R and the Son. 215 

VIII. It feems, two things may be obje6led, to That ex- 
which we are briefly to anfwer. ift. That by thofe gjf^",^^°^" 
two we are not to undeHland the father 2ind the fofi^ 
but the Jews and the Gentiles, 2dly, That here it is 
not the counfel, which is the original and caufe of all 
thefe thing?;, and which ought to have been exprefied 
in the preterperfe^ or prefent tenfe •, but the counfel, 
which is the fruit of Chrilt's interceffion, of wh^ch the 
prophet fpeaks in the future tenfe. To the firfi, I an- 
fwer : that this expofition is afierted but not proved. 
There is no diflindl mention made of Jews and G>«- 
//7f J in the preceeding verfes of this chapter. And 
it is not lawful for us to add any thing to the text. 
What others alledge concerning a prieil and king, 
or the office of pried and king, or about the Jews of 
Jerufalem and Babylon, is quite forced. Our expli- 
cation^ fays the very learned de Dieu^ who, here, is of 
the fame opinion with us, appears Jimple and plain. 
Neither is it new^ fince Jerome tells us, that this 
-verfe was underftood of the Father and the Son. To 
the fecond^ I reply ; that there is nothing can oblige 
us to aflent to it •, as the words, by our analyfis and 
explanation, yield a very juft and profitable fenfe, 
and this covenant could not be exprefled by a more 
fignificant term, than that of a mutual counfel be- 
tween the Father and the fon. What is added with 
refped to the difference of tenfes, feems to be of • 
fmall moment : for, that the tenfes in Hebrew are 
often put one for the other, and the future for the 
prefent^ none can be ignorant of, but they who are 
indifferently ikillcd in that language : fee Pf. 17. 3. 
«Von b:i >2nDiy, thou hafl tried me^ and thou doeft^ or 
didjlfind nothing \ literally, thou fhalt find. Such changes 
of tenfes often occur in the fame Ffalm. Be- 
fides, fomething is then faid to be done in Scripture, 
when it is declared to be folcmnly done; of which 
inftances are to be met with every where, fee Ads, 2. 
36. We will therefore fully explain the words thus, 
the counfel of peace is between both. And if you en- 

P 4 tirely 

21 6 The Co VE N A N T between Book :2^ 

tlrely infift on the future tenfe^ the meaning will be 
this. At the exaltation of Chrift, and the peace ad- 
vanced by him from heaven, there will be a mani- 
fed execution of this counfel. But we need not come 
to this : for, if by this counfel, we underftand that 
agreement, which fabhfted between the Father and 
Chrift, Gcd-man, v/hen aflliming human nature, 
he appeared as the furety •, the Prophet might 
and ought to fpeak of it in the future tenfe : and he 
does fo in a beautiful order, afcending from the ef- 
fedls to the caufe, in the following manner •, Chrift, 
God- man fhall build the fpiritual temple of the 
Lord; for which he fhall receive as a reward, glo-«> 
rious majefty, and fliall fit on the throne of God. 
And this needs not (eem ftrange : for Chrift, cloath- 
ing himfelf with human fieftj, will, by a certain com- 
pa6l, on which our peace is founded, promife to the 
Father that he will do all this. The Father, on the 
Other hand, will promife, thus to reward that fer- 
vice. In this manner, every thing runs fmoothly. 
See more of this, chap. III. §. 2 — 4. 
Chrift cal- ^^- ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ proof of this, that Chrift, often ia 
ling the the Pfdms and elfewhere, calls God the Father his 
father his Qod. See, among other places, Pf. 22. 3, and 45. 8. 
God, in- j^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ John 20. 17. Which is the form or 
compa^a. nianner of the covenant. In this lenfe Jacob pro- 
mifed, that the Lord Jhould he his God, Gen. 28. 21 : 
that is, that he would fo frame his whole lifv.% as be- 
came one in covenant with God. The Ifraelites alfo, 
when they folemnly renewed the covenant, Jof 24. 
18, faid, we will ferve the Lord, for he is our God. 
In like manner Godpromifcs in the covenant, that he 
v/ill be the God of liis covenant people ; that is, dif- 
play the riches of his all-furlaciency for their falva- 
tion, Jer. 31. 33. This is my coven a}? t, that I will 
make with the houfe of Ifrael. I will he their God, 
Deut. 26. 17, thou haft avouched the Lord, (thou hafi 
made the Lord {zy)this day to he, that he will he 4hy Cod, 
The very meaning of the word, [wliich we render 


Chap. 2 the F A T H E R and the S o m. 217 

God] implies this : for, r6^i Eloah, derived from 
%\bi<, he fwore or adjured^ denotes him, whofe prero- 
gative it is to bind us, by oath, to love and faithful 
obedience to him, and to whom we ought, by oath, 
to give all obedience -, and v/ho on his part engages, 
that he will be all-fufncient to his faithful fervants for 
falvation. He therefore, who profelTes Eloah to be 
his God, does, at the fame time, by virtue of the 
covenant of God, call himfelf the fervant of God : 
For, ^3)/, fervant^ is the correlate of n^x, Eloah, or, 
CDTibHy Elohm: as Pf 86. 2, 'n^>< npt^ inn;r V'^^l^, 
freferve thy servant, thou my God. And in this 
manner the Father calls Chrift^ in many places, his 
fervant^ If. 49. 5, 6. Befides, fuch a one profefTes, 
that he only depends on the promifc and teflimony 
of that covenant : in thefe things the whole nature 
and defign of the covenant confifts. As therefore 
Lhrijl calls God the Father his God ; and on the other 
hand, the Father calls Chrift his fervant^ both of them 
do, by that name, indicate a compad of obedience 
and reward. 

X. But we come now more particularly to difcufs g^ch part 
all the parts o^ this covenant, that it may not only of this co- 
appear, there fubfiils fome covenant between Chrift venantde- 

and the Father, but what that covenant is, and of "l^"^""^*" 

, Jr-i r-7 • • 1 ed from 

what nature. The contramng -parties are, on the one Scripture. 

hand, the Father^ whom Chriil calls my Lord^ Pf. 16. 
2. On I he other hand, the Son^ whom the Father 
calls his fervant^ l^* 53- ?!• '2"/^^ law of the covenant 
is propofed by the Father^ John 10. jS. this command- 
tnent have I received of my Father -, and John 12. 49, 
the Father 'ujhich fent me^ he gave me a commandment . 
To that law a promife is added by the Father, If. 53. 
JO — 12, when then fhalt make his foul an offering for 
Jin^ (when his foul fhall make itfelf an offering for Jin) 
he Jhallfee hisfeed^ &c. and If 49. 6—8, it is a light 
fhing^ that thou fjouldejl be my fervant^ to raife up the 
tribes ofjaccb^^c. On performing that law^ the Son 
^fc^uires a right to afk the reward, Pf. 2, 8, afk 


2i8 TheCovEN A NT between Book 2. 

afme^ and Ifiall give thee the Heathen for thine inherit- 
ance^ and the uttermcft parts of the earth for thy poffef- 
/ton. Thus far the propofal of the covenant on the 
fart of the Father, "The acceptance on the part of the 
Son confifts in this : that he willingly fubmitted him- 
felf to the law of the covenant, Pf. 40 7— -9, mi72e 
ears haft thou (bored) opened -, that is, thou haft en- 
gaged me as a willing fervant to thyfelf, having 
agreed about the reward. Then fatd /, lo ! I come. 
I delight to do thy wiii ; yea thy law is within my heart : 
fee alfo John 14. 31. Nor did the Son only undertake 
this, but aclually performed it, being made of a wo- 
man^ made under the law ^ Gal, 4. 4. John, 15. 10, 
/ have kept my fathers commandments^ and abide in his 
love: and John 8. 29. I do always thofe things that 
pleafe him. Nor did he part with his life, till he 
had truly faid, // is finifhed^ John 19. 30. In the 
courfe of this obedience, the Son comforted himfelf 
in the faithfulnefs of the Father^ to accompliHi his 
promifes. I faid^ furdy my judgment (reward) is with 
the Lord., and (the recompence of) my work with my 
God., If 49. 4. And when he drew near the 
end of his courfe, he claimed^ with great confidence of 
mind, the promifed reward, John 17. 4* 5. I have 
glorified thee on the earth : / have finifhed the work^ 
which thou gaveft me to do. And now., O Father, glo- 
rify thou me with thine ownfelf with the gloiy ^ii^hich I 
had with thee before the world was. What then can 
be fuppofed wanting to compleat the form of a 
covenant, which we have not here ? 
CbriiUlfo ^I- ^^ ^"^5 all thefe things may be confirmed 
yfed fa- from this, that Chrift likewife made ufe of the Sa* 
craments cramcnts ; not only as to the matter of thefe inftitu- 
^ra^nff' tions, as they were divine commands, the obfervance 
the cove- of which was to him meritorious 5 but as to the form, 
nant. as they were 7f^;/j and feals of the covenant-, God the 
Father, by the ufe of them, fealed the federal prcmife 
concerning juftification from fins, not his own per- 
fonaljnsy either of comrniffion or omiffwn, (for fuch he 


Ghap. 2. the F A T H E R and the Son. 219 

had none, 2 Cor. 5. 21. i Pet. 2. 18.) but from 
thofe, which, by a voluntary engagement, he took 
upon himfelf as his own, and from which, as furety^ 
he was juftified in the fpirit^ i Tim. 3. 16 ; and alfo 
concerning life eternal^ to be beftowed on him and 
his ; God the Son^ in the ufe of them, acknowledged 
himfelf a debtor to fulfil all righteouihefs : as thefe 
things have been learnedly obferved and explained 
by the celebrated Voetius^ difput. de fide Chrifti^ ejufque 
facramentorum ufu, D:fput, T. II. p. 160, and Effenius, 
de fuhje5lione Chrifti ad legem divinam, c, lo. §. 11. 
But let us illuftrate this by an example. In the 
}?aptifm of Chrift, there was an evident feahng of the 
covenant of both fides. Chrift declared, that it was 
his province to fulfil all right eoufnefs. To that he 
hound himfelf by baptifm ; telling John, upon his re- 
fufing to baptize him ; fuffer it to he fo now, for thus 
it become th us to fulfil all right eoufnefs^ Mat. 3. 16. 
The Father declared, that he accepted the furetifhip : 
in thee I am well pleafed, Luke 3. 22 : and put \\\m. 
in mind of the inheritance -, thou art my Son. And 
all thefe things he fealed by the fymbol of the Holy 
Choft defcending upon him. 

XII. As thefe things are evident, and contain a j^ qqj- 
demonftration of the truth to the confcience, I would of thisco- 
not have Pf 16. 2. drained to this purpofe; z/?^^ venant, 
haft [aid unto the Lord thou art my Lord'. ^^V ^^ 'nnro ^\^^' ^^ 
my gcodnefs (is not upon thee) extendeth not to thee, byaleam- 
As if in thefe words there was an addrefs of God ed perfon- 
the Father to the Son, to this purpofe: I require 
nothing more of thee, as a fatisf .ciion to me, in order 
to difplay my grace. For, thus a learned author 
paraphrafes thefe words. Thou haft f aid to the Lord. 
&CC. Thou, fon of man, hail a-.knowledged, that 
Jehovah is the Lord, and haft engaged thy obedience 
to him. Thou, by loving, an:i obeying as a fervant, 
even unto death (to which thou offereft thyfelf) haft 
declared me to be Lord, and honoured me with a 
perfed obedience. As to any advantage to be 


?2 The Cove N ANT between Book 2, 

obtained, my goodnefs^ that is, my grace, and the 
benefits depending thereon, extendeth not to thce^ 
(is not upon thee) that is, thou art r/lEAeiwp.;)/^, an ab- 
folute and perfedl: Saviour. What was laid upon thee, 
or what thou waft bound by furetilhip to perform, 
that my goodnefs might extend to mankind, that 
thou hail performed, and I accept of the whole. Thus 
^V generally denotes fomething due, both among the 
Hebrews, and in the facred writings 
But not fo XIII. But I think, thefe things are flrained, and do 
propeily. ^^^ ^^,^ ^j^i^ ^^^ fmoothnefs one could wifn. For, 
ift. There is nothing, w^hich obliges us to imagine, 
unlefs we incline fo to do, that there is, in thefe words, 
an addrefs of God the Father to the Eon \ fince the 
whole of this Pfaim has not the lead appearance of a 
dialogue, but only reprefenrs a fmgle perfon, fpeaking 
in one continued difcourf:^, whom Pifcator^ by weighty 
arguments proves to be the Lord Jefus. The learned 
perfon himfelf fpeaks thus: ^Tis certain this difcoitrfe 
may ht if en bed to the Son^ as addrejjing himfelf. And 
therefore, I fay, it is certainly poffible, that this dif- 
courfe c <nnot contain the approbation of the father, 
acquiefcing in the obedience of the Son. For, if the 
Son addrefles his own foul, which faid to Jehovah, 
thou art my Lord,, and my goodnefs extendeth not to thee\ 
doubrlefs the Son faid this to the Father, and not the 
Father to the Son. 2dly. I own that thefe words, 
- which the Son fays to the Father, or the father to the 
fon, are fo emphatical, that they cannot, in their full 
fignification, be fuppofed to be fpoken by either of 
them to the other, on account oithe 'peculiar excellence^ 
which is in the Son, Heb. i. 4, But I queftion, 
whether any can be eafily perfwaded, that the appro- 
bation of the m.oil perfeft obedience of the Son, and 
the acquiefcence of the Father therein are expreffed in 
fuch flender terms. 'Thou hafl faid^ thou art my Lord, 
I appeal to any, who teaches the good knowledge of the 
Lord,, as it is laid of the Levites 2 Cbron. 30. 22, 
Whether thole words of Scripture be Rich as that 


Chap. 2. the F A T H E R and the Son. 22 J 

nothing can he devifed more proper to illuftrate that fenfe 

which the very learned perlbn elfewhere requires, 

before he acquiefces in the meaning afUgned, Sum. 

Theol. c. 3. §. 30. 3dly, In is very true, that ^)f 

fome times among the Hebrews, fignifies fomething 

due. The very learned de Djeu^ on Gen. 16. 5, has 

long a go obferved this, from the writings of the 

Hebrews and alfo of the Arabs. But that fignihcation 

does not feem proper to this place. For, Chrift was 

neither indeked to God for his goodnefs^ or grace, and 

the blelTings depending upon it: Nor ^/Wi?^ properly 

owe the grace of God to believers. But it was by virtue 

of a compadl, that he owed obedience to God ; on 

performing which, God owed to Chrift and to them who 

are Chrift^ s^ the re-ward promifed by the compadl^ 

which is given to Chrift as a due debt. The fignification 

of being due might be infifted upon, had it been faid 

my law ^ or fatisfa^ion to my juftice^ or fomething to 

that purpofe, is no more upon thee^ no longer extendeth 

to thee. But we muft fetch a ftrange compafs to make 

thefe words, my goodnefs extendeth not to thee (is not 

upon thee) to fignify, ^hou art no longer indebted 

to my goodnefs^ and again, that the meaning of them^ 

fhould be. Thou haft done every things to which thou 

• waft bounds that my goodyiefs might be extended to men. 

And I verily doubt, whether it could ever come into 

any one's mind, that fuch an explication is thefulleft^ the 

moji fimple and mo ft fuited to the connection ; In fine ^ that 

it is fuchy that none^ who compares it with the words of 

Scripture y can devife a more happy manner of exprejfing 

the thing -, and that therein., an inexpreffible degree of 

lights truth and wifdom^ may be difcovered. For thefe 

are laws of interpretation, which the very learned 

perfon himfelf has laid down. Sum. TheoL c. 6. §. 38. 

XIV. 4thly, Another fenfe may be fairly brought The ge- 
from the words of the Pfalm, which has nothing nuine 
either harfh or ftrained, and contains what is becom- ™5^"^"ff 
ing the wifdom of God, as thus: the Lord Jefus j^^.^ j;^, 
being deeply engaged in holy meditations, addrefles his covered. 


The Covenant between Book 2. 

foull or himfelf : And declares, that while, in his 
meditation, he faid to Jehovah the father, thou art 
the Lord^ all-fufficient to and by thy k\f for all 
happinefs. And therefore by this whole work of my 
Mediation, and confequently by all my obedience, no 
accefiion of new or greater happinefs is made to thee, 
nor canfl: thou be enriched by my fatisfadtion : my 
goodnefs extendeth not to thee: Thou receiveft no benefit 
thereby : all the fruit of my fatisfadtion redounds to 
thy pious and chofen people. See Job 22.2. and 25. 7. 
The comment of Ben Nachman on the former place is 
elegant, agreeing very much with the phrafeology in 
our iQXX.^ he declares, 'That no addition of good is made 
to God, when any ^ood is done. All which words contain 
afalutary truth, inftru6ting us concerning the all- 
fufficiency of God, to whom no new good can accrue 
from any quarter, and concerning the fruit of Chriji's 
fa^isfa^ion, as redounding to the godly, and are 
moil adapted to the words and analogy of the whole 
Pfalm. For, ^V many times in fcripture fignifies the 
fame as ^h, to, I fhall produce a place or two, which 
occurred to me, when meditating on thefe things in 
reading the Scriptures : what Micah fays, chap. 4. i. 
CD^?3^ V^y nn3, and people fhall fiow unto it \ This If ai ah 
cxprelfes as follows, chap. 2. 2. tZD^rrin ^3 v^k innis, 
and all nations fhall flow unto it. Where ^]^ and '"^^ 
are taken in the fame fignification. In like manner 
2 Chron. 30. I. W^rote letters ni]>nDN b^y that is to the 
Ephraimites','tis ftill inore to the purpofe,what we have 
1 Sam. I. io. rr^rt' ^y t>^Dnn, prayed unto the Lord, and 

Pf. 18. 4I. 1'hey cried mn> V^;, unto the Lord^ 

hut he anfwired them not. Sometimes it fignifies the 
fame thing as "ry up to, or quite to, as 2 Chron. 32. 5. 
m^T^an ">^ ^yn, and raifed (the wall )up io the toivers: 
not that it is credible, the wall exceeded the towers 
in height. Jer, 4. 1 8 p^ ^V ^-^J, it reacheth unto thin^ 
heart. You may add other inftances from Ghffius 
Phil. Sacr, p> ^JS- As therefore the ufe of this 
particle is very extenfive, we have no reafon, to 


Chap. a. the F A T H E R and the S o n. 22 :? 

reflraln its fignification to owing or being due^ which 

feems lefs adapted to this place. 

XV. I fpeak not thefe things, with a view to And de- 

detrad: any thing from the due praifes of the very tended 

learned interpreter, to whomlprofefs mvfelf greatly ^S^^"^ 
iijLir 1--1 -^ ^1*^ van der 

cndebted , but becaule nothing is dearer to me, than Waeyen, 

to fearch out the true meaning of the Spirit fpeaking 
in the fcriptures. And while I am wholly intent 
upon this, I cannot avoid fometimes examining the 
opinions of others-, even ofthofe, for whom I have 
otherwife the greateft veneration. Faith is none of 
thofe things, which may be impofed by any human, 
authority: neither is any injury done even to the 
greateft of men, when we declare our dilTent in a 
modeft manner: whether we have done fo here or not, 
muft be left to the determination of the impartial 
reader, who may alfo judge, whether, bv thefe 
obfervations, I have defcrved that fevere 1 .nguage, 
which the very famous perfon Dr. John van der 
Waeyen^ was pleafed to throw out againft me in 
Sum. Iheol. thrift, lib. i. f. 4. 5. 267. Seq^. He very 
much complains, that I called that explication of the 
celebrated Cocceius harftj and forced^ and that the 
words of the Pfalm were wrefted to that meaning. 
I own indeed, I had formerly wrote in this manner, 
out of my fimplicity, nor did I imagine, there was 
either reproach or injury contained in thefe words: 
But there is no force of argument in the tartnefs of 
language: and that the leaft appearance of that may 
not remain, I now alter it, and inftead o^ wrefted., fay, 
harfto^ not running fo fmoothly. The reft I cancel. I 
freely forgive the ill language of my Reprover, 
as becomes a Chriftian. It does not belong to him, 
but to our common Lord, to pafs a judgment 
on my intention. As to the fubjedl itfelf, I be- 
feech the reader, to compare my reafonings with 
his-, and if he thinks, that mine are folidly con- 
futed, I am not againft his differing, in every re- 
fpec^, from me, as 1 differ from him; and the fimple 
explication of the words, which I nmintain, with 


224 The Covenant between Book 2/ 

the generality of expofitors, began the more to 
pleafe me, the more I faw my reprover ftand in need, 
for the defence of his opinion, of fach a compafs of 
words, and fo far-fetched and intricate fubtleties : I 
have no inclination minutely to confider the reft. 
Each one has his own temper, his own way of 
writing: which if I cannot commend, I endeavour 
to bear with. But I return from this unwilling 
This CO- XVI. As the doctrine of the covenant between 
venantbe- f]^^ Father and the Sen is fo exprefsly delivered 
5^^^^ *^^ in fcripture, it is injuflly traduced as a new and a 
thefon, late invention. Tho' I find few among the more 
mention- ancient, who have profefTedly handled this fub- 
edbythe j^^c^. y^t- fome of the greatcft divines have fome 
divbes times made mention of this covenant, I fay no- 
and there- thing now of ^r mm US ^ who does not carlefsly dif- 
forenotto courfe on this covenant, in his oration for the de- 
be tra- gj.£^ Qf do6lor -, from which the very accurate AmefiUS 
jjg^^j-^^^ produces and commends fome things in Refcriptione 
€overy, ^d Grevinchovium, c. i. Amefius himfelff;^ Anti-Sy- 
nodaiibus, de morte Chrifti, c, i. §. 5. charges a certain 
diilindion of the Remonjlrants with this abfurdity that 
it denies^ that the covenant^ entered into with Chriji (he 
JImll fee his feed ^ and the pleafure of the Lord fh all prof- 
fer in his hand), had been ratified. Gomarus^ treating 
of the Baptifm of Chrift, on Mat. 3. 13. fays, that it 
was the Jign and feal of the covenant between God and 
Chrift \ namely, that God would be his God, and the 
beftower of falvation ', but he him f elf was bound to pet- 
form obedience from a principle of perpetual gratitude. 
In like manner, on huke 2. 21, of the circumcifion 
of Chrift he fays, that it v/as a fign and feal of the co- 
tenant with God : which covenant conjifted in this ; 
partly that God was the God of Chj'ijl, according to th^ 
general promife, made alfo to him. Gen. 17. 7, as to 
the feed of Abraham, Gal. 3. 16, and according to the 
fingular character given of him, Pf 4.5. 7, Heb. 1.9; 
partly y that Chrift was bound to obey th&will of God^ 


Chap. 2. Co V E N A N T of G R A C E* 

John, 6. 38, Mat. 5. 17. See his difput. de merito 
Chrifti^ §. I. The very learned Cloppenburgius, difput. 
3, dt f(pJere Bei^ not only (lightly mentions this fub- 
jed, but fully and accurately handles it. The very- 
famous Vcetius difput, T, 2. p. 266, fays, He {Chrifl) 
was fubje5l for us to a fpecial law of paying our debt by 
a condign punifhment^ as our Mediator andfurety^ ac^ 
cording to the tenour of the covenant entered into with the 
father. Effenius^ formerly his fcholar, and after- 
wards his Collegue, de fubjeSlione Chrifli ad legem^ 
r. 10. §. 2. fays, the federal fealing of the divine promife. 
did alfo really take place in Chrifi^ according to\{. 53.' 
10, J I. Dr. Owen handles this very fubject at large, 
on Heb. T. i. Exercit, 4. p. 49. Nor was this 
do6lrine unknown to xhtPopifh doflors. Tirinuson 
If. 5^. II, thus comments^ that the Prophet there 
explains the compaSI agreed on between God the Father 
and Chrifl^ by which, on account of the fufferings 
and death of Chrifl:, redemption, jufl:ification and 
glorification were appointed to be the rewards of all 
thofe who faithfully adhere to Chrifl:. Thus, it ap- 
pears, that thefe fentiments concerning the covenant 
between the Father and Son^ are not to be treated with 

Vol, f. Q, C H A ft 

( 226 ) 


T!he nature of the Covenant between the Father 
and the Son^ more fully explained. 

Four I- A ^ ^^^ covenant between the Father and the 
*^^"^ f d l\^ ^^" ^^ ^^ foundation of the whole of our 
tobemore falvation, it will not be improper to flop here a httle, 
largely and, in our further meditation, enquire, i ft. From 
explained ^vvhence the beginning of this covenant ought to be 
*h t taken, and in what periods of time it was completed. 
2dly, 'SS\\2X the law of the covenant contains^ how far ^ 
and to what it hinds the Son. 3dl7, Whether the Son 
might ;2^/ have engaged in this covenant^ or, have with- 
drawn himfelffrom it, and had no more to do with it. 
4thly, What and how great a reward was promifcd 
to the Son, and which . he was to obtain in virtue of 
the covenant. 
The be- jj^ j confider three periods^ as it were, of this co- 
tMs^c(we- venant. Its commencement was in the eternal counfel 
nantinthe of the adorable Trinity : in which the Son of God was 
eternal conftituted by the Father^ with the approbation of the 
coui^el ^f iiQiy spirit^ the faviour of mankind -, on this condi- 
jy, ' tion, that, in the fulnefs of time, he ftiould be made 
of a woman, and made under the law \ which the 
Son undertook to perform. Peter has a view to this, 
when he fays, i Pet. i. 20. that Chrift was foreor- 
dained before the foundation of the world. To this pur- 
pofe is alfo, what the fupreme wifdom teftities con- 
cerning itfelf, Prov. 8. S3. Iwasfet ^/p (anointed) 
from everlajiing, that is, by my own, and the will 
of my P'ather, which is one and the fame, I was ap- 
pointed to the performance of the meditorial oince 
in time. Paul likewife declares, that we were chofen 
inChrifi before the foundation of the worlds Rph. i. 4. 
And confequently, Chrift himfelf was conflituted^ from 


Cbnp. 2' the Fa T H E R and the Son. 227 

everlafting^ the head of thofe that were to be faved, 
and theywere given unto him^ John, 17. 6, for whom 
he was to merit falvation, and in whom he was to be 
glorified and admired. From this conftitution the 
Son, from everlafting, bore a peculiar relation to 
thofe that were to be faved. Hence the book of 
life is efpecialiy appropriated to the lamb. Rev. 13. 8, 
as containing a deibriprion of the peculiar people af- 
ligned to the lamb from all eternity. Hence aifo it 
was, that God, by his amazing wifdom, fo ordered 
many things in man's ftate of innocence, that the 
attentive remembrance of them after the fall, and 
the comparing them with thofe things, which were 
afterwards revealed, might have reminded him of 
this divine counfelj as we have ihewn, chap. 6. 
feft. 3. 

III. "Thefecond period Oi this covenant I place in that The fe- of Chrifl, by which, immediately upon *^?"^.P^r 
the fall of man, he offered him.felf to God, now of- [n^ercef- 
fended, in order, actually to perform thofe things, fjon, be- 
to which he had engaged himfelf from eternity y fay- gun im- 
ing, thou haft given them to me, and I will make "^^d^^^^!/ 
fatisfac^tion for them : and fo he made way for the f^]j°" 
word of grace to be declared to, and the covenant of 
grace to be made with them. Thus Chrift was a5iu- 
ally conftituted Mediator, and revealed as fuch imme- 
diately upon the fall •, and having undertaken the fare- 
tijhip, he began to a^ many things, belonging to the 
ofEces of a Mediator. As a Prophet, and the in- 
terpreter of the divine will, he even then, by his 
Spirit, revealed thofe things, relating to the falva- 
tion of the eleft, and by his miniftcrs publifhed them. 
If 48. 15. I Pet. I. 1 1, and 3. 19. Nay, he him- 
felf fometimes appeared in the character of an Angela 
inftrufling his people in the counfel of God. As a 
King, he gathered his church, and formed to himfelf 
a people, in whom he might reign by his word and 
fpirit. For, it was the Son of God, who faid to 
Ifrael, Ex. 19. 6, and ye Jhall be unto me a kingdom of 
0^2 ^riejtsj 

228 The Covenant between Book a: 

priejis^ and who, with more than royal pomp, pub- 
lidied his law on mount Sinai^ Adis, 7. 38, and whom 
Ifaiah faw fitting as king upcn a throne^ chap. 6. com- 
pared with John 12. 41. As a Priest, he took 
upon himfelf the fins of the ele6l, that he might ex- 
fiate them by thefacrifice of his body, which was to be 
prepared for him in the fulnefs of time. In virtue of 
this, as a faithful furety, he likewife interceedei 
for the ele6t, by declaring his will, that they might 
be taken into favour, faying, deliver me from going 
down to the pit, I have found a ranfom. Job, 33. 24, 
But what a'ngel could fpeak thus, but the angel of the 
covenant ? Who, even then was called an angel, be- 
fore his coming in the flefli, becaufe he was accom- 
plifhing, what depended upon that future mifilon. 
He is one of a thoufand, the captain of the hoft of 
angels, that guards each believer, the chifefl of (the 
ftandard-bearer above) ten thoufands, Canticl. 5. 10. 
In like manner, the archangel Michael, (and who 
is this, but the Lord Jefus Chrift ?) Dan. 10. 13, is 
called, ci3'rii\^nn Dnirrt inx, one of the chief princes, 
that is, the unparalelled among the chiefs, becaufe 
he is ^"l^^niti'n the great prince, Dan. 12. i. It is he 
who declares to man his right eoufnefs, both the rigteouf- 
Ttefs of G^iand of man. it is he who is "^^^ the pro- 
pitiation, whom God hath fet forth as a propitiation^ 
Rom. 3. 25 ', feealfoZech. i. 12,13. 
The third IV. The third period of this covenant is that, 
on aflum- when, on his affuming human nature, he fuffered his 
J"§ hu- ^^^^ ^^ ^^ bored\ compare Pf 40. 7, with Heb. 10, 5; 
)^^^e, that is, engaged himfelf as a voluntary fervant to 
God, from love to his Lord the Father, and to his 
fpoufe the church, and his fpiritual children, (for, 
the ears of fuch voluntary fervants were bored, Ex. 
21.5,6.) was made under the lazv. Gal. 4.4, ky fuhjeBing 
himfelf to the law : which he Iblemnly teftified by his 
circumcifion, on the eighth day after his birth, whereby 
he made himfelf a debtor to do the whole law^ 
Gal. 5. 3. 

V. "Tlo 

Chap. 3. the F A T H E R and the Son.' 2 29 

V. "The law^ propofed to the Mediator^ may be con- Various 
fidered in a twofold view: ift. As the dire 51 or y cf his ^^^"^3^^^^' 
nature, and office. 2diy, As the condition of the cove- the law of 
Tiayit, The Mediator himfelf may be confidered thefe the covp- 
three ways. ift. As God, 2dly, As Man, 3dly, As "^"^ and 
Mediator God-man. We are diftindly to compare ^i^^^^^^ 
thefe things together. 

VI. '^he Son^ as precifely God, neither wns, nor xheMe- 
could be fubjedt to any law^ to any fuperior : that be- diator, as 
ing contrary to the nature of God-head, which we p°^' ^^^- 
now fuppofe the Son to have in common wirh thej^^^^^^^ 
Father. He thought it no robbery to be equal with God. 

No fubjedion, nothing but the higheft fuper-emi- 
nence can be conceived of the Deity. In this refpedt 
he is ki7tg of kings^ and lord of lords, i Tim. 6. 15. 
The emperors Gratian^ Valentine and Theodojius^ faid 
long ago, that he is a true Chriflian^ who believes^ that 
the Deiiy of the Father^ Son and Holy Ghofi^ is one in 
equal power % that^ under the fame majefiy^ there is one 
Deity ; and he^ who teaches the contrary^ is a Here tick j 
Cod. lib. I. Tit. I. 

VII. Nor is it any objection againft this, that the The eter- 
Son, from eternity^ undertook for men, and thereby nal fureti- 
came under a certain peculiar relation to thofe that ^^P^^the 
were to be faved. For, as that engagement was no- ^^g j^J 
thing but the moft glorious ad of the divine will of fjbjeaion 
the Son, doing what none but God could do, itim- of his 
plies therefore no manner of fubjedion ; it only im- Go^l-^^^*^ 
ports, that there fhould be a time, when that divine 
perfon, on alTuming flefli, would appear in the form 

of a fervant. And by undertaking to perform this 
obedience, in the human nature, in its proper time, 
the Son, as God, did no more fubje(5l himfelf to the 
Father, than the Father with refpe(^t to the Son, to 
the owing that reward of debt, which he promifed 
him a risrht to claim. All thefe things are to be con- 
ceived of in a manner becoming God. 

Q^S VIII. Nor 


230 The Covenant between Book 2; 

Nor his YllL Nor ought it to be urged, that//^^ Son^ even 
^dlnTn' ^^^^^^ his incarnation, was called I^^^D the Angela Gen. 
eel before 4^- ^^' Ex. 23. 20. For that fignifies no inferiority 
his incar- of the Son, before the time appointed for his incar- 
nation. nation ; but only a form refembling the appearances 
of angels, and prefiguring his future milTion into the 
As man, IX. As man, he was, doubtlefs, fubjedl to the moral 
was fub- law, as it is the rule both of the nature and anions of 
je(^i X the jjjan^ Por, it is a contradi6tion, as we proved be- 
jnorai aw. ^'^^^^ to fuppofe a rational creature, fuch as is the 
human nature of Chrift, to be withovit law; and in 
this manner, he was really bound by the law : lil, To 
prefer ve the holinefs implanted into his nature from his 
jfirfl: conception, unfpotted and pure. 2dly. To ex- 
prefs it in the moil perfe(5l manner in his life and 
anions, from all his heart, all his foul, and all his 
flrength. 3dly, Conftantly to perfevere therein, with- 
out yielding to any temptations, to the end of his 
As an If- X. And as Chrift v/as not only a man, and a com- 
raelite, ^^^ inhabitant of the world, but alfo an Ifraelite^ 
the"^cere- ^^^^^ ^^' ^ memher of the church of the Oldfeflament, and 
monial a citizen of the ccmmonwealth of Ifrael; he was alio 
and poli- fubject to the ceremonial and political laws, which 
tical law, ^gj-g |.|^gj^ (^jlj \^ force, according to the divine in- 
flitution. By virtue of thefe laws, Chrift made ufe 
of the Sacraments of the Old 'Teflament, obferved the 
fefiivals, repaired to the temple, and behaved as an 
obedient y^'/^V<^ under a lawful ;;M^f/^r^ry. He initiated 
himfeif by circumcifion to the obedience of the ce- 
remonial\2L^\ declared his obedience to /i>f political 
laws by paying tribute, i^f^/. 17. 24, 25. 
This fub- •^^' ^^ "^"^y ^^ objeded, that as to the ceremonial 
jeclion not laws, Chrift declared himfclf greater than the temple^ 
invalidat- Mat. 12. 6. And Lord of the fabhath^v. 8. As to 
^^'^y^^* the political, that being thefon of God, he was exempted 
and 17. ' ^^^"^ paying tribute. Mat, 17. 16. 27. But this may 
26, 27. be folved from the different relations, which Chrift 

2 fuftained 

Chap^ 3 • the Father and the Son. 231 

Hiftained, for, as God^ and thefon of God, he v/2isLord 
of the law^ the lawgiver himfelf, who, on account of 
his divine nature, had authority to difpenfe with 
precepts of a mutable and pofitive inflitution: and 
if, when he became man, he had infifled on his being 
the f on of God^ and for that reafon had aded, as equal 
to God, in that refpedl neither the officers of the 
temple, nor the queitors of the emperor could have 
demanded any thing of him as an inferior. But 
Chrift did not think proper to infift on this his right: 
but rather to behave as a Servant of Rulers y 
If. 49. 7. 

XII. But further, as Mediator and Surety^ ht is ^s Medj. 
under the law in another manner, and that two ^^^^\ ^^^ 
ways. I ft. As, enjoining the condition of perfed obe- der the' 
dience, upon which he and his were to partake of iaw. 
happinefs. 2dly, As binding to the penalty, due 

to the fins of the eled, which he had taken 
upon himfelf. 

XIII. As to the former: had the Son of God been i. Asen- 
pleafed to appear in our nature, but not in the quality J°i"^"5 
of a furety\ he would neceiTarily have been a holy [• ^^^^^-^ 
perfon, and conformed to the law of God, prefcribed which he" 
to the human nature. For every man, as fuch, is and his 
bound to be fubjed to God, in all righteoufnefs and ^puld at- 
holinefs, which is exactly dcfcribed in the divine |^^" ^° - 
law. But by the perfonal covenant engagement of 

the Mediator to that ablblute fubjeflion of nature, 
which is eternally to continue without end, there is 
another obligation to fubjedlion, limited to a certain 
period of time, which the Apoftle, Heb. 5. 7. calls 
'the days of his flefh \ during which, Chrift, when obey- 
ing the law, was meriting that happinefs, which he 
was not in pofTcffion of-, confidering this law, 
not only as a rule of life^ but aifo as prefcribing the 
condition of acquiring happinefs. For, if we feclude 
the procuring of our falvation, nothing hindered him 
from the poffefTion of glory and happinefs, from 
the very beginning of his conception. For by being 

QL4 ^Iie 

232 The Co VE N A N T between Baok a, 

the Ton, he was heir of all things. Bat it was owing 
to his voluntary-covenant engagement, that thd" he 
was r'lchy 2 Cor. %, (), and might have a6led as 
equal to God, from the very beginning] of his 
incarnation, ^^^ for our fakes he became poor. That 
this fubjedion to the law, as enjoining the condition of 
happinefs^ is to be diftinguilhed from that other 
abfolute fubje6tion to it, as the rule ofholinefs^ appears 
hence, that Chrift has laid afide the iirft, 
v/hiie this laft continues, and will continue, to 
^|;i^^ XIV. The ufefulnefs of this diftinftion is con- 

under- fiderable, in order to the folving that 'problem -, bow 
taken on the aBive obedience of Chrift^ fo called, tho' not fo 
our ac- ^ properly, may be invputed to us ; feeing^ as man he 
Sve'(>^ ^'^^^ it for himfelf For, befides that on our account 
bedience ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ i^ was not barely from his being 
is juftly man, that he was under the necefiTity of meriting eter-^ 
imputed nal life by the legal covenant: nay, and confidered as 
God- man, abftraded from his furetifhip, engagement, 
he might have exempted himfelf from all indigence, 
and all neceffity of meriting ^ and confequently 
might have gloriouQy exercifed all power in heaven 
and in earth, in and by the human nature, from 
the frjl moment of his incarnation: For, this flows 
from the union of the humanity with the perfon of 
the fon of God. But his fubje(5ling himfelf to the 
law, as prefcribing the condinon of happinefs, is 
wholly from his voluntary covenant-engagement, 
-which he entered into on our account, which by 
every right, or juft title, may and ought to be im- 
puted to us. The very ingenious and judicious di- 
vine, Francis Gomarus^ feems to have had this in his 
view, when he thus comments on Phil. 2. 9. For our 
fake \ he alfo vaJled his glory for a time, which he might 
jujily enjoy ^ and fubmltted to the curfed death of the crofs ; 
which^ if we conjider bis merit and power ^ he might 
h^ve declined. 

XV, Be, 


Chap. 3 the Fat H E R and the Son. 233 

XV. Befides, the Son of God was, in virtue of Secondly, 
the covenant, fubjeft to the cur fe of the lazv^ Z^^/;?^ ^<^ ^^'^^ un- 
made a curfe for us. Gal. 3. 16. For, as the law like- j^w, as 
^n^Q vtqmvod punifh-ment to be inflifted on the tranf- bindingto 
greflbr, and Chrift bound himfelf,by his engagement, puniih- 
to fulfil the whole law ; it was necefTary, he fhould '^^'^^' 
come in the likenefs of finful flefh, to condemn fa; in the 

fejh, Rom. 8.3. Which likenefs of finful fleili con- 
fifts in this, that Chrift, from his birth, was obnox- 
ious to various mlferies, both of foul and body •, and 
at laft to that death, by which he concluded the courfe 
of his painful life, and in which the m.oft evident 
figns of every kind of curfe appeared : for, it was 
juft that the finncr fhould thus live and die. Now 
Chrift, ' confidered fimply as a righteous perfcn, 
might have been exempted from thefe miferies, and 
from fuch a death •, but after having once, by a vo- 
luntary engagement, {uhmiztGd himielf to the lav/ for 
us, he became bound to fatisfy alfo this fanftion of 
the law, which threatned death to finners ; for all 
thefe things arife from the mediatorial covenant, and 
belong to Chrift, as Mediator, 

XVI. But fince in Chrift, as mediator, there is an Whether 
union of the divine and human natures, this difficulty ^" thrift 
remains to be difcufi^ed, whether both natures were in ^^^^^'^^- 
fome meafure fiibjed to the law. We may eafily natures 
affirm this of thi human, as we have already fo often were in 
Ihevvn, but it feems, from what wc have confirmed ^on^emea- 
§.6: it muft be denied with refpect to the divine. f^^^^\ 
However, as the human nature does not, without law. 

the divine, compleat the perfon of the mediator, it 
does not appear, that the mediator, as fuch, did 
not engage to be fubje6t to the law, without bring- 
ing his divine nature likewife to fhare in that 

XVII. In order to remove this difficulty, v/e Tho'the 
are accurately to diftinguifti between both natAires,^'^'^''^'^^'^^" 
coVi^xd^K^di fc'^arately^ and the fame natures united jn^'^'^^^^^'^^ 


234- The Coven A NT between Book 2^ 

on was the perfon of God-man, It was proper, that both 
perir^b- "^^"^^s, fliould afl fuitably to themfelves and their 
jea, yet di^nndl properties. Since the divine nature^ as fub- 
heinibme fifting in the fbn, could not truly and really he fuh- 
^SklXh^^^ ' ^^^^^^^'^' ^y virtue of the covenant, it did not 
majefty/^ ^^^^'^' or difplay all its majefty, in the afTumed form 
under the of a fervant ; nor hinder that nature, to which it 
afTumed was united by the hypoftatical union, from being 
form of aji-^^jy fyhjea: to the iaw, both as to the condition of 
the reward, and as to the penal fan6lion, v/bich in- 
deed, was neither a real renunciation^ nor degradation 
of the divine fuperiority, but only a certain (sconomical 
'vailing of it for a time. 
The hu- XVIIL T!he human nature was really and properly 
^^"^^' fubjed to the law: Nay, ixom the hypoftatical union 
only un- ^^^^^ was fuperadded, a certain peculiar obligation 
derana- Upon the human nature of Chrift, confidered in re- 
tu^al i^ah- lation to the furetijhip undertaken for us, as his bre- 
jeaion, lYi^Q^^ Pqi-^ 3S ^-^qj^ ^^^ bound to love God in fuch 
a certain ^ manner as above all things to feek his glory, which 
peculiar Ihines moft iiluftrious in the juftification and fan- 
obligation (f^ification of the finner-, and fo to love their neigh- 
from fhe ^^^^' ^^ ^^ defire to deliver their brother from fm and 
hypofUti- niifery, even at their own peril, if polFible : But tho' 
cal union, no mere man can effed this, yet the man Chrift, who 
is iikewife true God, and fo able, by his obedience 
and fuffering, to promote this glory of God and 
the falvation of his brethren, was therefore, obliged 
to undertake and undergo all thofe things, in which 
he might fhew forth this moft intenfe love of God 
and his neighbour: fmce he only, could do 
this, fo he only, was bound to do it. What 
others were obliged to do conditionally, as we obfcrve 
a fpark of this love in Mofej, Ex. 32. 32 ; and in 
Paul Rom. 9. 3. was incumbent on the man Chrift 
ahfolutely \ bccaufe being God-man^ he could abfo- 
lutely perform it. 
To the XIX. We commonly afcribe to the perfon, God-man^ 
peifon, ^1^^ relation of an inferior to a fuperi jr, by a con- 


Chap. 3» theF ATH E R and the Son. 235 

ftitution, or appointment; That, both by doing and god-man 

fufFering, thofe things might be accomplilhed, ac- ^^ ^°"^" 

cording to the condition of each nature, which were ^crib^- 

requifite to our falvation: fo that the very obedience ed the re- 

and fufFerings themfelves, are not only to be appro- ^^"o" <?^ 

priated to the human nature, butto be confidered, as tQa^^^^^^e- 

truly performed and fuffercd by the God-man. If this rior, hy% 

was not the cafe, they would not be of infinite value conflitu- 

and dignity, nor fufficient for our redemption. t*°"* 

Hence, be^ who is m the form of God, is faid to have 

made himfelf of no repiitation, and become obedient unto 

death, Phil. 2. 6, 7, 8. And to be the Lord of glory who 

was crucified, i Cor, 2. 8. 

XX. It is here ufual to enquire, whether Chrifl, as Whether 

Mediator, is inferior to the Father and Subordinate to ^l j?' ^^ 
7 • -r. 1 • r ' r i /'i Mediator, 

htm. But this controveriy, itleems, may be ealily be inferior 

fettled among the orthodox : if the Mediator be con- to the Fa- 
fidered in the ftate of humiliation and the form of^^^^* 
a fervant, he is certainly inferior to the father, and 
fubordinate to him. It was not of his human nature 
only, but of himfelf, in that ftate, that he himfelf faid, 
John 14. 28. "The father is greater than L Nay, we 
may look upon the very mediatorial office in itfelf, 
as importing a certain (economical inferiority or fubor- 
dination ; as being to be laid down, when all things 
fhall be perfectly finifhed, and God himfelf fh all be 
all in all, i Cor, 15. 28. Neverthelefs this under- 
taking and mediation, and the bringing of fallen 
man to God, to grace, and glory, is not fo much 
beneath the excellency of the Deity, but we may, 
without the leaft hefitation, affirm, that this glory of 
mediation is incommunicable to any creature. It is 
the glory of Jehovah to be the righteoufnefs of Ifrael. 
This glory he gives to none who is not God: to be 
Mediator does npt merely denote a fervant of God* 
but the great God and Saviour ; who, as the firft 
^nd principal caufe of faving grace, equal to the fa- 
ther, works by his own power, our reconciliation with 
God, by means of the fubjedion and obedience of his 


^3^ The Cove N A NT between Book 2. 

human nature, without which the coequal fon 
could neither perform his fervice, nor obey the 
Nothing XXI. The third thing we promifed to enquire 
Scj as^^ into, was this-. Could the fon refufe to undertake^ or 
Goa, to iJoithdraw himf elf from this covenant ? To which quef- 
this cove tlon we are again to anfwer diflincftly. ift. Yl the fon 
"T^^'if'''^" be confidered as God^ the whole of this covenant was 
maJf hr ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^*'^^- ^^^^ ^^^^ ^"^ pleafure. There neither 
could was, nor couid be any neceflity, to bind the fon of 
not with- God, as fuch, to this covenant. Here is nothing but 
'^^^^'^- mere good pleafure^ philanthropy unmerited^ and alto- 
gether liberal, pure and unmixed grace. 2dly. If he 
be confidered as 7nan^ tho' he indeed entered into 
this engagement, of his own accord, without be- 
ing conftrained; yet he could not, without fin, from 
which he is at the greateft diflance, withdraw from 
this agreement: Which we prove in following 

l^yjQf have often faid, could not be without law. The law 
love, under which it naturally is, is the royal law love, 
which e- Which does not mdecd formally as it was made for 
!^quiJec^ man in innocence, but yet eminently contain this 
that one* precept, which John inculcates, i,Ep:^, 16. 7hat 
lay down one lay down his life for the brethren, I fay, the law of 
^!^J^^^^^% love, as, given to man in innocence contains not 
thren?' ^^^^ precept formally ; death being inconfiflent with 
that ilate, and perfecl obedience, which is all 
fummed up in love, frees man from all neceflity of 
dying, according to the promife, he who doth thofe 
things^ fhall live in them. And therefore we have 
Ihown, that, if Chriil be confidered in himfelf as a holy 
perJoHy without refpecl to the decree of God, and his 
own engagement for his miferable brethren, he was, 
by virtue of his pcrfed: hoiinefs, under no neceflity of 
dying and fuffering. But the law of love does, fup- 
pofing the requifite circumflances, eminently contain 
the command of dying for our brethren. For, it 


Chap. 3* the Fa T H E R and the Son. 237 

enjoins us to love God above all^ and our neighbour as 
our felves. And he who loves God above all^ does 
not only delight in God his creator^ benefaElor^ lord, 
and example-, not only ftudies to pleafe him, but' 
endeavours to promote his glory, and dired all 
things that are God's to that end. And as he 
ought to have a tender regard for the glory of God 
above his own advantage, he alfo ought to be rea- 
dy to undergo every thing, by which the glory of 
God may be moft illuftrated. And fuppofing, fuch 
a one has brethren in diftrefs, from which he can 
deliver them by his death, fo that God fhall, in 
an eminent manner, appear glorious in them; the 
love of our brethren, together with the love of 
God, enjoins him not to decline dying for them; 
cfpecially, if he himfelf, becoming a conqueror over 
death, Ihall thereby obtain a moft diftinguilhing 
reward at laft. Since therefore, Chrift, as man, 
could not but be under the law of love; and a ho- 
ly man," as doubtlefs it became him to be, he can- 
not therefore be conceived as deftitute of love, much 
lefs as having a contrary difpofition, it follows, 
that he could not, in fuch circumftances, withdraw 
himfelf from his agreement to fatisfy for men; be- 
caufe the law of love eminently contains fuch an obli- 


XXIII. 2 dly, The Son of God had from eternity jf chrlft's 
engaged to fatisfy this covenant, by alTuming hu- human 
man nature, and obeying in it, as we (hewed above "^ture 
§. 2. If the human nature, perfonally united to ^^^-^^ 
him, could have v/ithdravvn itielr from, and re- from this 
nounced the covenant, it was pofTible that the Son covenant, 
of God himfelt might have violated his covenant ^^ ^P"^^ 
engagements. And in that cafe, Chrift would not ^J^J^)^^^^^® 
be either the true and faithful God, who cannot lye, engage- 
or not be God omnipotent; becaufe he, who, from mentof 
eternity, willingly engaged in this undertaking, could ^^^fon. 
not, in time, induce the human nature to execute 


238 The Covenant between Book 2. 

that, for which it was afTumed at firfl. Nor do 
I fee what reply can be made to this argument, un- 
lefs one fhail venture to fay, that it is contrary to 
' the nature of liberty, that the will fliould be thus 
bent, or brought over, by a fuperior caufe : and 
that, in fuch a cafe, the human nature, declining 
to fland to that covenant, would be deprived of 
the honour of the hypoflatical union, and another 
be affuiiied in its (lead. But befides that this over- 
throws the infeparabiiity of the hypoflatical union, 
admitted on both fides, the fame difficulty muft 
reciir with refpe6l to the nature newly affumed ; 
becaufe, equal liberty is to be afcribed to it. 
Andmake XXIV. 3 dly, God had, by an eternal and irre- 
voidthe vocable decree, appointed^ promifed and confirmed by 
^^^^^^' oath^ the inheritance of all bleffings in Chriil, 

and"oath ^^^' 6- ^3 — 1^5 ^^^^ '^' 1 Z' ^^^^ if Chrift could 
#f God. have withdrawn himfelf from the covenant, then, 
the decree of God would have become void^ his pro- 
mifes been deceitful and his oath falfified^ and therefore 
the whole counfel of God concerning the oeconomy 
of our falvation, fo often inculcated in the prophetical 
writings, would have become of no efifedl: Which is 
indeed, blafphemy, to imagine. There is no occa- 
fion to fuggeft, as one has done, that God could, 
without the payment of any price, have remitted the 
debt of fin, and among fome thoufand methods have 
found out another way of faving mankind, had this 
method proved ^unfuccefsful. For as this is very 
much more, than we can readily yield to, fo, it is 
nothing to the purpofe. For, God did, not only in 
general, decree, promife and confirm by oath, falva- 
tion to his elect-, but lalvation to be obtained by 
Chrift and his obedience •, which decree, promife and 
oath could be accomplilhed no other way •, not to 
fay, how unworthy it is of God, to be obliged to 
make new decrees, after the former had mifcarried. 
And this^is the very banc of the remonftrant divi- 

XXV. 4thly, 

Chap. 3' the Father and the Son. ' 239 

XXV. 4thly, Let us fuppofe, that the human Which 
nature of Chriil, to fpeak plainly, could have with- ^^"-"^ ^^^ 
drawn itfdf from this covenant; yet ?V f<?z//i^ not at ^em^'g^ 
lead without a horrible /->?, after the preordination of without a 
God, the eternal will of the fon, the promife and ^ornble 
oath had been difcovered to him. Nay, it had been ^^"* 
a more dreadful fin, than that of the firft Adam, for 
him obftinately to oppofe all thefe confiderations, 
and prefer his own private advantage to the glory 
of God and falvation of the ele6l, and by this means, 
we lliould be reduced, by this hypothefis, we are 
now contending againft, to the fhocking blaf- 
phemies of fome fchoolmen, who affirm, that Cbrifi 
could have finned^ and confequenily have been damned, 
Thefe are the depths of Satan, which all Chriftians 
ought to pronounce accurfed. 

XXVL Hence we fee, what we are to think of '^^^^^" 
the divinity of the remonftrants on this head, who, "^?"f'"^"' 
in chap. 17. p. 187, h. of their apology or remon- °^^"'°^* 
flrance, fay, that the obedience of Chriji was of a dif- 
ferent nature from ours •, hut agreeing in this, that it 
was altogether free. Chriji obeyed the will of his Fa- 
ther^ not as we obey the law of God, under the threat^ 
ning of eternal death, in cafe of difobedience : God for^ 
hid ; but as an ambaffador is faid to obey his fovereign^ 
or a beloved fon his father, when hii fovereign or father^ 
confers on either an honourable office to be executed by 
them^ adding the promife of fome extraordinary reward^ 
if they will freely, and on their account undertake it. 
Whoever obeys in this manner, that is, willingly takes 
that office upon himfelf he indeed, properly and freely 
obeys, not that he would properly fin, did he not under- 
take it ; or when undertaken, lay it down again, with 
the good-will of the father ; much lefs that he would de- 
ferve eternal ptmifhynent, if he did not undertake it, orex^ 
cufe himfelf from undertaking, or bearing the burden 
thereof', as it is moft certain, that when we difoley God 
and hi! law, we deferve puyiifmnent. But no fuch 
threatning of punifhment was made to Chriji -, but he 


2^0 The Covenant between Book 2^ 

couU either not undertake it, or when he undertook it^ 
rejign his charge, and fo not enjoy ^ or forfeit the pro- 
mifed reward. 
Confuted: XXVII. In this difcourfe there are as many faults, 
liberty not ^^ fentences. We will now chiefly remark thefe 
inkdif-^ following things, ill. The leading error of the re- 
ference, monflrants, from whence their other errors flow, is 
their making the liberty of the will to conflfl in in- 
difference, fo as one may, or may not obey, whereas 
it is to be placed in the free good pleafure of the mind: 
Unlefs one would affirm either of thefe things, that 
it was either poffible, or lawful, for the holy angels, and 
the fpirits of jufl: men made perfed, nay, Chrifi him- 
Thegracefelf exalted, not to do the will of God. 2dly, 
of Chrift, They difl:inguifli not the per f on of the Son ofGod^ 
?l^^J["| -and the grace, by which he humbled himfelf to un- 
noreputa- dertake obedience in the aflumed human nature^ 
tion to be from the human nature itfelf, and obedience of Chrifl:, 
diftin- j^Q^v in his (late of humiliation. The grace of the Son 
guifned ^r Q^^ ^^^ ^^ £^^^^ ^j^^^ l^g could not be againfl: this 

obedience humiliation, or emptying of himfelf, that he might 
come under an obligation to obedience. There is 
no reafon, but the mofl: free good pleafure of the di- 
vine will, why this future humiliation was decreed 
by the adorable Trinity, and confequently by the 
Son himfelf. Yet, upon fuppoflng this free decree, 
the human nature aflumed by the logos, or the word^ 
could not decline, or draw back from the office af- 
figned to Chrifl:, and now undertaken by the logos 
himfelf, without fln and difobedience. 3dly, They 
^'licration ^^ "^^ conflder, that the human nature of Chrift was 
toholinefs bound, by anindifpenfihle neceffity, to that\holinefs which 
to be^ dif- is the image of God : fince they compare the whole of 
^^"g"^^^^ Chrift*s obedience with the undertaking of fom.e ojjicey 
dertakine '^hich a fovereign confers on his amhaffador, or a father 
the medi- on his fon. For, as an ambafiiador, in the quality of 
tori al of' afuhje5f, and a fon, z^fiich, are bound by /i?^ law of 
^^^" nature itfelf^ to perform to a fovereign and a father, 

an obedjtncediftindfrom thatj which arifes from their 


Chap. 3- the Father and the Son. 241 

willingly undertaking this honorary office : fo in like 
manner, the human nature ofChrill, was, and ftiil 
continues to be, bound to perform obedience to God, 
in order to maintain this conformity with the holinefs 
of God ; which obligation is diftindl from his under- 
taking the mediatorial office. 4thly, They falfely The obe- 
place the effiential difference between the obedience of ^'^^"^^^ "^^ 
Chrift and ours\ in that we obey being awed by the *""^"" 
threatning of death •, but Chrift not fo. For, that eflentially 
threatning does not properly belong to obedience, different, 
which really ought not to be extorted from us by the 
fear of punifhment, but to come freely from a reve- 
rence to the divine command, and a love to holinefs. 
Our obedience will be no lefs obedience in heaven, 
when tlie threatning of eternal death fhall no longer 
have anyplace. Moreover, the fame law, which is 
propofed to us, was the rule of the life and adions 
of Chrift. But that law had the fandion of eternal 
death, which it was incumbent on Chrift to believe 
to bejuftand right; tending to inform the confciencc 
of God's hatred to fin, and to inflame it likewife 
with a hatred of fin and unrighteoufnefs. And thus 
far, after Chrift had humbled himfelf for us, he 
obeyed the law even under the threatning, and ac- 
knowledged the fame to be juft •, and that very threat- 
ning of the law, produced in Chrift a fenfe of the 
wrath of God, when he fuftered for us. 5thly, They Chrift 
abfurdly pretend, that Chrift could, with the Fa- ^^."^'^ "o^* 
therms confent^ decline the office committed to him^ or, re- confect of 
/ign it^ after he had undertaken it : as if one ftiould cheFather, 
fay, that a fon could have the confent of a virtuous decline 
father, to make him a liar and guilty of perjury, l^^oftiee. 
For, God the Father had promifed, and folemnly 
confirmed by oath, that he would procure our fal- 
vation by the Son. 6thly, Nor is it lefs abfurd, that Becaufeof 
they perceive no inconvenience flowing from the non- many ab- 
fufception, or from the refignation of that office, furditiej, 
b!4t this one, that, in that caie, Chrift would not en- 
joy^ or would forfeit the promifed reward -, fince the 
Vol. I. R very 

242 The Covenant betv*^een Book 2; 

very falvation of all the eleJl, and, which is above 
all, the whole of the glory of God would thence fall 
to the ground. I would alfo fain know, what re- 
ward Chrifb would, according to that hypothefis, 
have forfeited i whedier the honour of the hypofta- 
tical union, or eternal falvation itfelf, and the com- 
munion of the divine love and glory •, or whether 
that fublime glory, in which he is now eminently- 
placed above the reft of the creatures : alfo, whether 
it is not blafphemy to fay, that either the hypoftatical 
union is dilTolved, or that any nature hypoftatically 
united to the Son of God, can have no Ihare in 
eternal falvation ; or, if in a ftate of happinefs, has 
not a more excellent name^ih2.n the reft of the creatures : 
in like manner, whether the lofs of fo great a hap- 
pinefs, can, in an intelligent nature, be without an 
eternal fenfation of the moft bitter anguifh : in fine, 
whether it is not much better, and more worthy of 
God and his Chrift, to believe, thatChrift could not 
but undertake the office affigned unto him by the 
Father, and never withdraw from it ^ than run head- 
long into fuch abfurdities. 
t^ere- XXVIII. We Ihall briefly difpatch the fourth 
^u! -^^^ ^ ihincr remainino; ., namely, the reward which the Son 

obtained ^ , . , ^ . r i - i 

in virtue '^^•^ ^^ obtain^ in Virtue oj this covenant^ by enquiring 
oHhhco-jirft^ what reward was promifed the fon : and then, 
venant. iz^hat relation his obedience had to this reward. 
The re- XXIX, The reward promifed to the Son, is the 
ward of high eft degree of glory ^ John 17. i. Father ^glorify thy 
the human ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^y ^^^ ^jj^q may glorify thee. But this glory 
jiatuie, ^^^^ 1^^ confidered diftindly with refped to the hu- 
inanity^ to the Deity ^ and to the whole perfon. In the 
humanity, I obferve thefe three degrees of glory, 
I ft. That, together with theelecl, his fellows^ Pi. 45. 
7, and co-heirs^ Rom. 8. 17. it is blelTed in the per- 
fect fruition of God. 2dly, That it is exalted above 
all creatures, on account of the dignity of the hy- 
poftatical union. 3dly, That the glory of his God- 
head fhines forth therein, with a more illuftrious 


dhdp; 3; the F A T H E li and the S o' ni i^4.| 

refulgence^ thrn in the days bf the flefh : fd that 'th6 
man Chrifl cannot be feen, but he muit appear to be 
the glorious Son of God, and his glory be, as 
tIJ glory cf the only beget I en of the father^ John; 

XXX. As the Deity bf the Son could not properly ^^. ^^^ 
be humbled, fo neither could it acquire any new en- ^i^^'^l 
creafe of glory. For, as the humiliation oi Chrift, could b^ 
with refpe£l to his God-head, confided in this, that notiewac- 
under the human form of a fervant, which heafTum- '^^^^^"^^.. 
ed, the brightnefsof his glory was covered as with a on°7a^^^ 
vail: ^0 the glorification cf the Beity confifls in this, more il- 
that all the magnificence of the glorious majefty of '^ftridus ^ 
God beautifully difcovers itfelf, and becomes niore f^^P^^^; !^^ 
confpicuous. And this is what Chrift prayed for, fore-^ 
John. 17. 5. And now ^ O Father^ glorify thou me 'With 

thine cwnfelf with the glory which I had with thee^ be- 
fore the world was, 

XXXI. The whole per fon of the Mediator obtains for tlie fS- 
a reward, ifl, that God hath vi<^^\v\u<Tt over raifed, ward of 
highly exalted him^ and given him a name^ which is above ^^-^ whoi^ 
every name ^ Phil. 9. 2. Far above all principality ;y and^^ ' 
power^ and might and domiriion^ and every 7iame that 

is named^ not only in this worlds but alfo in that which 
is to come^ Eph. 1.21. adly, That the whole thurch 
is given him. as his peculiar poflTelfion, Pf. 2. 8; 
If 53. 10. And that he himfelf is given as head over 
iall things to the churchy Eph. i. 22, and all power 
given him in heaven and in earthy Mat. 28. 18, that he 
may govern all things, for the benefit of the church, 
^dly. That, oji account of the rrioft intimate uhiori 
of the church, as his myftical body, v/ith himfelf he 
receives all thofe gifts, which he merited, and bri 
that account, are bellowed on the elecft. For, thfe 
church united to Chrid, the body, together with the 
head, is called Chrifl^ i Cor. 12. 12. And thus li- 
terally run thev/ords, Pf 68. 18, csiin m:nD nnp^i 
thou haft received gifts in men ^ as the feptu agent: alfd 
renders thenij f?.af?€?^o>«]a^v a^8pwwo«^ Inilead of whifcH 

R 2 iM 

^4.4- "TThe CovEiTANT between Book 2. 

the Apoftle, Eph. 4. ^5 not tranflating literally, but 
giving the fenfe of the words, fais, *^^'^^^ ^o[x»ra, tdj? 
tcy^fuwoif, he gave gifts to men. For, as Chrid is fup- 
pofed to receive them, when they are given to his 
members, fo he gives his members what he received 
of the Father, A(fts, 2. 33, therefore being by the right 
hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father 
the promife of the Holy Ghofty he hath Jhed forth this 
which ye now fee and hear. 
fj^g XXXII. The obedience of Chrifl bears to thefe 

Scripture hUffings^ not Only the relation of antecedent to confe- 
cxprefsJy quent^ but of merit to reward : fo that his obedience is 
declares; ^^^ caufe^ and the condition now fulfilled, by virtue of 
Chriftme- which he has a right to the reward, as feveral exprefs 
rited thefe palTages of Scripture declare ; Pf. 45. 7, thou loveji 
rewards righteoufnefs and hatefl wickednefsy (which is a defcrip- 
felf^^"^' tio^ of the obedience of Chrift) I^ ^y> therefore 
Gody thy God^ hath anointed thee with the oil of gladnefs 
above thy fellows^ which words contain the reward, 
intimating the mod joyful entrance of Chrifl into the 
kingdom of his glory and delight. The relation of 
obedience to the reward is fet forth by the word, 
therefore^ which denotes the caufe, and not a mere 
antecedent. In like manner. If. 53. 12, \2b, 
THEREFORE wHl I divide him a portion with the great^ 
and he fhall divide the fpoil with thefirong^ *)^« rinn 
BECAUSE ^(? hath poured out his foul unto death. Where 
the relative particles, "i^J< nnn, and p^» exprefsly in- 
dicate that commutative juftice, whereby the reward 
due, bears a reciprocal relation to the obedience 
performed, Phil. 2. 8, 9, he became obedient unto deaths 
even the death of tht crofs : ^»o nul 6 ^105 avlov ivifv^ua-i, 
WHEREFORE God olfo hath highly exalted him, Heb. 

12. 2, «"''* Tn? a-poxn^fvr}? aJlaJ OCufciq vvti^tm rctvpov, who^ FOR 

the joy that was fet before him, endured the crofs. 
Where there is an exprefs commutation, or inter- 
change, of obedience and reward. 
Thcthing XXXIII. And the thing fpeaks for itfelf. For, 
{peaks for ^g ^j^gjg -g ^ covenant between the Father and the 

itlelr. ^ 

Son ; 

Chap. 3.. the F A T H E R and the S o n, 145 

Son-, when thoujhalt make his foul (if the foul of the 
Son fliall devote himlelf) ^« offering for Jin^ If. 53. 10. 
upon performing the condition, the Son acquired a 
right to the reward, and fo has a merit according to 
the covenant. Nay, as it is not the obedience of a 
mere man, but of Chrift God-man, an infinite per- 
fon^ it is alfo of an infinite value, confequcntly bears 
iht jufteft proportion to the greateft correfponding 
glory ; and thus far it is a merit of condignity^ as it 
is called ; fuch as no mere creature is capable to 

XXXIV. The palTages of Scripture, which re- The prin- 
prefent the humiliation of Chrift, as the antecedent to 5^P^^ o^- 
the fubfequent glory, are not contrary to this doc- ^^riefl^* 
trine. For, every caufe is an antecedent, though fwered, 
every antecedent \% not a caufe. And the merit of 
Chrift for himfelf is fo far from being prejudicial to 
his merit for us^ that, on the contrary, they are in- 
feparably conjoined. For, if he merited iox himfelf 
in order to be the head of the eled in glory, and to 
receive gifts for them, he certainly, at the fame 
time, merited for the ek^^ in order to their be- 
ing glorified, and enriched with gifts, becoming the 
myftical body of Chrift. Neither, by this dodtrine is 
the excellency of the love of Chrift towards us dimi- 
■nilhed, tho' in his ftate of humiliation, he had like- 
wife an eye to his own exaltation. J- or, he might 
have been glorious as to himfelf, without going to it 
by this way of death, and the pains of hell. Befides, 
he looked upon his own glory, as the beginning and 
caule of ours, and whofe fruit was all to redound to 
us. And it was the higheft pitch of love, that he 
would not be glorious without us. Norftiould the 
^NQx^i^/«'^'K^^^«''H give7i^ which the Apoftle ufes, Phil. 
2. 9, be urged too clofely, as if the rewards, there 
mentioned, were of mere grace, freely given to Chrift, 
without any regard to his obedience, as the caufe of 
Jiis right, or title to them. For, Paul there exprefsly 

R 3 after ts> 

The Covenant between, ^c» Book 2, 

afTerts, that they v/ere given to Chrift on account 
pf his obedience. And that term does not always 
denote mere grace. Hefychius^ that very excellent 
mafter of Greek, explains it by ^?a,Aoc xEpt^aptcr^t^aW, to da 
what is acceptable. But thofe things alio are called, 
acceptable, which ^rc diie : the Greeks fay, ©"'',- >-^- 
xa-picriAiva, TToiBrv, to do whdt ts dcceptahU to the Gods, 
"Whence the fame thing, which here, in refpeft to 
Chrifl, is called %«pK^i^a, is If. 49. 4, called ^H/J/d, his 
worky or the reward of his work, adjudged to him 
by the jufl judgrnent of God. My judgment is with th& 
Lordy and my work with my God. So that the plain 
jneaning of this pafTage in Faiil is this •, becaufe 
Chrift fubmitted himfelf to the Father, by free or 
voluntary obedience, the Father therefore alfo re- 
warded him by giving him a name above everji 

G H A B, 

( 247 ) 


Of the Per/on of the Surety. 

I. T TAving, with fome degree of care, explained the What is 

JL JL nature of thecovenant between the Father and ^^ ^^ 
the Son, it is fit we treat a little more diftindly oi^^^:^^^^^""^ 
the furety himfelf, concerning whom thefe are the " ^' 
principal particulars ; and firji^ we (hall confider the 
Person of the Surety, and what is requifite to con- 
flitute fuch : and then that satisfaction, which 
he undertook to make by his furetifhip ; the truth, 
necessity, effects, and extent, of v«^hich we 
ihall diftindlly deduce from the Scriptures. 

IL Thefe four things are required, as necelTary to The re- 
iheV LKSON of a Surety, that he might be capable to ^^^^^^^ 
engage for us. ift. That he be true man, confiding i^^^'""^' 
of a human foul and body. 2dly, That he be ^ ^ 
righteous and holy man, without any fpot of fin. 3dly, 
That he be true and eternal God. 4thly, That he be 
all this in the unity of perfon. Of each feverally and 
in order. 

III. That our furety ought to be true man, is what The firf!, 
Taul declares more than once, Heb. 2. 10, u^ that he be 
16,17, ^TrptTTB^i^ became him, it behoved him, it was ^^"^ "^^*'* 
becoming God, that he who fanElifieth, and they who 

are fan5lified, he all of one, of one human feed, fo that 
they might call each other brethren. In all things it 
behoved him to he made like unto his hrethern^ in order 
to be their Goel or kinfman-redeemer : for, verily 
he took not on him the nature of angels, hut he took on 
him the feed of Abraham, (did not take upon him to 
deliver angels, but to deliver the feed of Abra- 

IV. This afiumption, or taking, does not feem to Heb. z. 
;T>e to deriOte the affuming human nature into per- 16, ex- 

R 4 fonal P^^^^^- ^ 

Of the P E S R S O N Book i. 

fonal union, but the afluming of the eledl, in order 
to their deliverance. For, ift. The caufal conjunc- 
tion /(?r, indicates, that the Apoftle ufes this middle 
term [or this as an argument] to prove, what he had 
faid V. 14. about the partaking of fle(h and blood, 
and which v. 17. he deduces by the illative particle, 
wherefore. But the middle term muft be diftinguifhed 
from the conclufion : and fo there is no tautology 
in the Apoftle's veryjufl inference. 2dly, Since the 
alTumption of the human nature was long before the 
Apoftle wrote thofe things, he would not fpeak of it 
in the prefent tenfe, as he does here, but in the 
preterperfed, a.? he did v. 14. 3dly, As it vl^ould 
be an uncouth expreffion to fay, the Son of God 
aflumed or took man, if we fuppofe, he only meant, 
that the Son of God afTumed human nature •, and in 
like manner this other expreflion would appear harfh, 
the Son of God did not aflume angels, to denote that 
he did not affume the nature of angels. 4thly, In 
the Scripture ftile £7nx«///3ay££r6a4 fignifies to deliver, by 
laying hold of one : thus Mat 14, 31, and immediate- 
ly Jeftis firetched forth his hand^ and e^rEAapeTo kwa caught 
him : and this fignincation is moft appofite to the 
context. For, in the preceeding vcrfe, the Apoftle 
had faid, that Chrift delivered them^ who^ thro* fear 
of deaths were all their life-time fuhjecl to bondage^ 
alluding, it feems, to the bondage of Egypt. But 
God is reprefented to us in Scripture, as, with a 
ftretched out hand, laying hold on and bringing 
his people out oi Egypt ^ Jer. 31. 32, in the day^ that 
I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of 
Egypt, Which the Apoftle expreffes by faying, in 
the day when I took them by the hand^ to lead them out of 
the land cf Egypt : where we have the fame word 
t'K^xcci^.^cLvic^cn. And in profane authors, it denotes to 
claim fomething as one's property, and fay, accord- 
ing to Virgil^ thcfe are mine. Thus Plato^ XII. de 

legtbuS^ ^''' <^v T°^i Ki>ilyipt.iioq ^, yoe,] iJ,r,^i](; i'mXa.^'^ai ^ if one iS ijt 

pnffefjion of any things and none claims it as his own^ 

2 To 

Chap. 4. Of THE S U R E T Y. 249 

To this anfwers the Hebrew ^^<J• Which makes mc» 
with many learned men, think, that thefe words 
of the Apoftle, whofe genuine fenfe we have been 
enquiring into, rather contain an argument for the 
incarnation of Chrift, than aflert the incarnation 

X.^ Moreover, it may be proved by invincible ar- The fure- 
guments, that it was neceflary our furety (liould be ^y ought 
man. Let us paufe a little here, and fee, whether that\T"' 
we may not poffibly fearch this truth to the bottom, might fa- 
The legal covenant, entered into with the firft man, tisfy the 
is founded on the very nature of God; at leaft ^itV*^^°^"^* 
refpe(5t to the commands of the covenant, and the 
threatnings annexed to them. So that it would be a 
contradiction if thefe precepts of the law of nature 
fhould not be propofed to man, or if man, after 
the violation of them, jlhould be faved without a 
fatisfaclion •, which I now prefuppofe; as having 
proved it before, and ihall further confirm it in the 
fcquel. I therefore proceed: this fatisfaftion can 
be nothing elfe, but the performing the fame pre- 
cepts, and the undergoing the fame penalty, with 
which God had threatened the fi nner. Becaufe, from 
our hypotheHs, it appears, to be unworthy of God, 
to grant life to man, but on condition of his obeying 
thofe precepts ♦, nor pofllble for the truth and juftice 
of God to be fatisfied, unlefs the punilhment, which 
the finner deferved Ibould be infii6led. I add : that 
as thofe precepts were given to man, fo no creature 
but man could perform them. This appears : ift, 
Becaufe the law, which is fuitable to the nature of 
man, requires, that he love God with all his foul, 
and ferve him with all the members of his body ; 
feeing both are God's. None can do this but man, 
whoconfifts of foul and body. 2dly, The fame law 
requires the love of our neighbour ; but none is our 
neighbour but man, who is of the fame blood with 
us. To this purpofe is that cmphatical faying of 


250 Of the person Book 2. 

God to IfraeU If. 58. ^7, that thou hide not thy felf 
from thine ownflejh. And thus our furety ought to 
cherifh us, as one does his own flefh, and confe- 
quently we ought to be of his flefh and of his hones y 
Eph. 5. 30. sdly. It requires alfo, that we lay down 
our lives for our brethren, which, we have fliewn, was 
contained in the royal law of love, and none but 
man can do this. For, who elfe is our brother ? 
Heb. 2. II, or who befides could lay down his life 
for us. No other creature but man could undergo 
the fame fufferings, as hunger, thirft, wearinefs, 
death. It became God to threaten fmning man with 
thefe things : that even the body, which was the in- 
ftrument of (in, might alfo undergo its fhare of the 
punifhment. And after the threatning, the truth of 
God could not but inflid thefe things, either on the 
fmner, or the furety. The dignity of the fufferer 
mio-ht indeed, fufficiently compenfate for the dura* 
tion of the punilhment. But the truth of God ad^ 
mits of no commutation of the fpecies of punifh- 
ment. Wherefore our furety was partaker of flefh 
and bloody that^ through deaths he might deftroy him^ 
that had the povjer of death, Heb. 2. 14. All thefe 
things pnt together, inconteftably prove, that our 
furety ought to be man •, that he might fatlsfy the 
lav/ for us. 
The fame VI. This is what the Apoflle me.-ins, when joining 
truth thefe two together, by an infeparable connexion, 
fhewn Q^l^ ^^ ^^ ;;2^^^ of a woman, made under the law. For, 
from Gal. ^^ jntimatcs, that the principal and immediate fcope 
'^' '^* and end of Chrill's incarnation was, that, in the hu- 
man nature, he might be fubjedl to the law, to which 
it is under obligation : and fo that God, according to 
the fame right, might renew with him the fame co- 
venant, which he had before entered into with the 
firft man-, which he could not have done with an^ 
other created nature, without a contradidion. 

vji. Thm 

Chap. 4. Of the S U R E T Y, 251 

VII. There is this further confideration -. our The 
furety ought to have fuch a nature, in order to '^^^ °^ 
our being united to him, in one body. For, it is rtquireV 
necellary, that the fatisfa^ion of one, be as it this, 
were the fatisfa6lion of all, and the Spirit who fits 

for a holy and unhappy life, fhould flow from him, 
as the headj to us as his members •, andfo, that he 
become the javiour cf tbe hcdy^ Eph. 5, 23. The 
Scriptures frequently call this myftical union, a mar- 
yiage, ■ But it is the inviolable law of marriage, that 
the perfons married be of the fame nature : and they 
two Jh all he one flejljiy Gen. 1. 24, P^/^/ hath taught 
us, that the myllery of the fpiritual marriage of the 
church with Chrifl, lies CQncealed in thei'e words, 
Eph. 5. 31, 32. 

VIII. We obferved, th^t the fecond condition re- The fare- 
quired in the furety was, that he be a righteous ^y ^"g^t 
and HOLY MAN : in all things like unto his brethren^ holv^rnao, 
yet without fin^ Heb. 4. 15, This holinefs required, 

that, from the firft moment of his conception, he 
fhould be free from ^11 guilt and flain of fin of his 
own ; and on the contrary, be endowed with the ori- 
ginal redtitude of the image of God : that moreover, 
thro' the whole covirfe cf his life, he fnould keep him- 
felf from ail fin, and, perfedly fulfil all righteouf- 
nefs : and in fine, conftantly perfevere in that purity 
to the end, y/ithout yielding to any temptation. 

IX. An4 this alfo \% clear from what has been al- Proved by 
ready faid- For, feeing our furety ought to fave us, ieverai 
according to the firft treaty of the covenant, where- ^^^^°""- 
by perfe6t hohnefs was required. of man, it alfo be- 
hoved him to be perfectly holy. And as fin fhut the 

gates of heaven, nqthing but holinefs could fct them 
open again. This the Apoftle urgesj Rom. 5. 19, 
for^ as by one mar^s difohsdi^nce many were madef.nners ; 
Jo. by th^ obedience ofonejkall niany pe made righteous. 
^ut tha,t obedience e?tcludes all fin, And then, how 
cpuld a finnei* fatisfy for others, v/ho cannot fatisfy 
forhimfelf, for by one fin he forfeits his own foul ? 
i?(7r, ^^§ U I^^V (frQm ftiTiong finful i:^^n) that can 

252 Of the person Books; 

engage his heart to approach unto me ? Says God, Jer. 
30. 21. Or, who but one, who is pure from every 
fin, can be our prieft, familiarly to approach to God, 
and offer an acceptable facrifice and prevalent inter* 
ceffion to him ? Such an High-Prieft became us, who 
is holy, harrdefs, undefiled, feparate fromfmners, Heb. 
7. 26. He then can offer himfelf, as a lamb without 
blemijh and without fpot, 1 Pet. i . 1 9, whofe offering 
may be to Go^ for a fweet-fmelling favour, Eph. 5. 2. 
For none elfe, who cannot offer himfelf to God with- 
out fpot, can purge the confcience from dead works, 
Heb. 9. 14. This was formerly fignified by the legal 
purity of the High Prieft, without which, it was fuch 
a crime for any, to intermeddle in holy things, that 
he was to be punifhed by death -, and by the purity 
of the beafts, which were to be without any blemifh. 
And feeing it is well known, that God heareth not 
/inner s, John. 9. ^i, \i\\o{^ prayers are an abomination 
to him, Prov. 28. 9, who elfe. can be the general in- 
terceffor and advocate of all with the father, but he 
who is eminently righteous? 1 John, 2. i. In fine, 
})ow could he, who is himfelf impure, fanBify the 
church, and prefent it to himfelf a glorious church, not 
having fpot or wrinkle, or any fuch thing, but that it 
fhould be holy and without bkmifro, Eph. 5. 26, 27 : 
there cannot be more in the effed:, than there is in the 
caufe. Since then, all thefe things ought to be 
done by the furety, it appears neceffary, th^t he be 
a holy man. 

X. But here the adorable wifdom of our Gqd 
ihines forth : our furety ought not only to be man, 
but alfo taken from among men, that he might be 
to be man, fj^gj-Q^ of man-, for, if his human nature was created 
jj^g^j^**Q^ out of nothing, or out of the earth, he would, Ger- 
man, that tainly be true man, yet not our kinfman, not our 
he might brother. In order to this therefore, it became him, 
^^f^^l.^f. like other children, to be a partaker of flefh and blood, 
Fleb. 2. 14, and to be born of a woman. Gal. 4. 4. 
But it feemed inconfiltent with the unfpotted holineis 




Ch^p. 4. Of THE SURETY. 253 

of the furety, that he fhould be defcended of the 
pofterity of Adam, who aU derive hereditary polu- 
tion from him : for, who can bring a clean thing out of 
an unclean? Job, 14. 4. Here let us adore the un- 
fearchable wifdom of God. Tho' he would have a And the 
furety to be born of a woman, yet fhe was to be a Ton of a ^ 
virgin. For, this, if there was nothing elfe intended, virgin, ia 
was at leafl an evidence of thefe two things: ift, bewithK 
That the furety was not from Adam's covenant, as out iin,^ 
not being born according to the law of nature, and 
confequently not under the imputation of Adam's 
fin. 2dly, Nay, that he could not be fo much as 
considered, as exifting in Adam, when Adam fin- 
ned. Seeing he was not born in virtue of that word, 
whereby God bleffed the ftate of marriage before the 
fall ; encreafe and multiply •, but in virtue of the pro- 
mife, concerning the feed of the woman, which was 
made after the fall. And thus he was created a fe- 
cond Adam, in oppofition to the firit. For^ the Lord 
hath created a new thing in the earthy "^^J jDiDn r\'y;>i 
a woman Jhall compafs a man^ Jer. 31. 22. We are, Jer. 31; 
it feems, to take this in the utmoft fignification, 22, ex- 
the words can admit of. That a woman^ who is only P^^*"**** 
fuch, and without any thing of a woman but the fex, 
fljould compafs^ not by embrace, but by conception. 
(For fuch a compafTing is meant, as is the work of 
God alone, and not the voluntary operation of man.) 
A male \ denoting the more excellent fex: as Rev. 
12. 5, and Jhe brought forth a male child. This then 
is^ new things and a creation altogether divine. On 
this depend the blefTing of the earth, and the fatiat- 
ing the weary foul, whi^h arc promifed in the fol- 
lowing verfes. 

XI. It may here be enquired, whether the mira- whether 
culous nativity from a virgin does, of itfelf, and from the nati- 
the nature of the thing, fecure to the human nature ^'^^Y ^l^^ 
of Chrift immunity from fm: or, whether, i"<^t'<^<^i doM^^of 
it was only appointed by God asafymbol? I (hall here itfelffe- 
prefent the reader for his more accurate meditation, with cure free- 

tJ^^ dom froai 

254 0? tJiE P E R S M Book, a 

fin, or the Words of two great merij whoconceivb differently 
whether it q£ j-j^jg matter. Une of them fpeaks thus * ^hat mi* 
the natm-e "^^(^^^ous nativity from the virgin^ really hears no other 
of a fym- relation to the holinefs of the conception and nativity of 
bol. Chrijl^ hut that of a fymbolj appointed by God^ 

Cloppen- q^Joerehy he was feparated from Jinners : nor could that 
exercit de niiracle of itfelf alone^ namely^ the impregnation of thd 
fanaifica- virgin's womh^ fecure in the leafl an exemption to th^ 
ta origine^^ gj' Chrift from the inheritance of fin t for^ th^ ori- 
rv""^a' ^^'^^ ^f fi^ ^^ ^^^^ derived from the male f ex alone ^ or male 
feed\ nor did the Apojile^ Rom. g^ fo underflaHd bn^ 
man Adam^ as to exclude Evs * which is here the lead- 
Coccei trig error of fome. The other of thefe learned men 
fum. reafons in this manner. Me could he horn of the 
Theol. virgin without any pollution : hecaufe^ what is in the 
^' ^ ' * 1^0 dy of aftnner^ as it is God's creature^ is no wife under 
curfe and pollution^ hut in fo far as it is a part of the 
Jinner^ when he is to he punifJjed, or is the injirument 
of fin ^ or the means of the ordinary propagation of nd* 
ture^ as that fomething fuould he horn refemhling what 
generates. "There might therefor^ he fomething in tht 
virgin s hody^ that was not under a curfe % as the fweats 
anddthcr evacuations from the human hody^ are not under 
curfe or guilt., nor a means of transferring guilt ; hut 
are parts of matter created hy God^ and are no longer any 
part of man, Perhaps^ the fame learned peribn has 
elfewhere expreffed himfelf more clearly ^ as follows : 
He who was horn., net of father and mother^ hut of a vir^ 
gin., was not under guilt and condemnation. For., he only 
received from his mother., what was prepared hy God-, 
that thence the Son of God might take to himfelf the md* 
terialsfor huilding a temple. For tho\ what helongs to 
the finner is, on account of the fmner., to whom it he- 
longs., under the fame condenmation with the finner him- 
felf-, yet, that which is fo contained in the fuhflance of 
thefiinner, as that it cannot he d part of his fiihfiance, hut 
prepared hy God for an extraordinary generation^ is not 
i'.nder condemyiation folely hecaufe the redeemer and re-^ 
deemed partake of flefli in comnioHi And therefore it 


Chap. 4: . Of -THE S U R E T Y. 255 

is rightly f aid to be fandlified, that is ^ prefer ved from 
the common condemnation of the fons of Adam. For^ 
the word fandlified, cannot in that cafejignify purified, 
or delivered from impurity ; as it fignifies^ when applied 
to the other fons of Adam. Which of thefe two opi- 
nions is the more fimple and more folid, we leave to 
the judgment of the prudent reader to determine. 
The words of both feemed however to us, worthy of 
being inferted here. 

XII. Thirdly, It is further required in our furety. The fare* 
that he be true and eternal God, I will help thee^ ^^ ^"S^t 
faith the Lord, ^«nt:'> iL^np l^HJi and thy redeemer, the gq^! ^^"^ 
holy one of Ifrael, If 41. 14., /, even I am Lord^ 

and there is nofaviour hejides me. If 4.^. 11. Salvation 
is not fuch work, that it can be laid, and the Lord 
hath not done all this, Deut 32. 27. It is peculiar to 
the true Saviour to fay of himfelf, what Ifaiah pro- 
phefied, chap. 45. 24, ^«t^^ Viy rj^ npnv iDx >b r\^r.''2 it^ 
furely in the Lord (he faid to me, or concerning me, 
namely, the father, who leareth witnefs of Chrtfl, 
John, 8. 18,) are right coufnefs andjlrength-, even to him 
fhall men come : and the reafons are evidenl:. 

XIII. None but God can reftore us to true liberty. None W 
If any creature could redeem and deliver us, God caii 
v/e fhould become the peculiar property of thatcrea- recover us 
ture. For, he, who fets us free, makes a purchafe ^^J^y^ ^' 
of us for his property and poflefTion, i Cor. 6. 

19, 20. But it is a manifeft contradi6lion, to be 
freed, and to be free, and yet, at the fame time, to 
be the property and fervant of any creature. True 
liberty confifts in fubjedlion to God alone; fo that all 
things are ours, and we belong to God, and Chrift 
himfelf, i Cor. 3. 22, 23. Adam, before the fall, 
was fubjedl to none but God. If, by our deliverance 
from the fall, we were put under the dominion of 
any creature, that would rather be a change of fer- 
vitude than a deliverance. Therefore, our Lord 
fays, if the Son fJjall make you free, ye fhall he free in^ 
deed, John, 8. 36, 

XIV. None 

256 Of the person Books. 

Or give XIV, None but God can give us eternal life ; 
eternal which confifts in the moil intimate union with God ; 
^* nay, in having God for our inheritance, -pofTeirion 

and treafure, and even our portion for ever^ Pf. 73, 
26, But what creature can pofilble beftow God up- 
on any? None but God can give God. He gives 
himfelf. Hence, thefe two are joined, the true God 
and eternal life ^ i John, 5. 20. 
Or make -^^' None but God can give us ^iacrUif power or 
us Sons oi right tohecome the Sons of God ; and even this belongs 
God. to the office of furety, John i. 12. For, who but 
God can beftow the Spirit, by whom we become the 
Sons of God by regeneration \ fo that, of him the 
whole 'raTf)* family in heaven and earthy may he named^ 
Eph,3.i5. Who but God could give us thefe great and 
precious promifes^ by which we might he partakers of the 
divine nature F 2 Pet. i, 4. Whoelfe but God*, who 
alone is Lord of heaven, can bequeath by teftament, 
the heavenly inheritance ? Ana who tut God can 
give us that fpirit, who is fo the fpirit of the father, 
as to be alfo the fpirit of the fon : hy whom we may 
cry Ahha Father^ Gal. 4. 6, and who, heareth witnefs 
tjuith our fpirit^ concerning the futyre inheritance ? 
Rom. 8. 16, 17. 
Or claim XVI. In fine, for man to glory in any one, as 
the ho- his Saviour, and give him the honour of the new 
nour of creation, to refign himfelf to his pleafure, and be- 
Mi^h^m" come his property, and fay to him, thou art lord of 
as our my foul ; is an honour to which no mere crea- 
Saviour. ture can have the leaft claim. In Jehovah fh all all 
the feed of Ifrael be jufiified^ and fh all glory ^ If A- 5- 25. 
My fpirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour^ Luke, i, 
47. Whom we acknowledge to be our faviour, wc 
muft likewife acknowledge to be our judge, pur 
lawgiver and our king. If. 33. 22. A holy foul can 
only thus rejoice in God ; the Lord reigneth^ let the 
eqrth rejoice-^ let the multitude pf ijles be glad, Pf. 

97' I- 


Cfiap. 4. Of the SURETY. 257 

XVII. It appears then, that none, but he who is Whether 
true God, could poffibly be furety ; but the quef- ^^^\ff^ 
tion is, was it abfolutely neccflary, that he fliould beu^Q^j^bg, 
Son of God, and the fecond perfon in the Trinity ? come 
And here we cannot commend the raflinefs of the ^y^yety, not 
fchoolmen, who too boldly meafure the things of ^^ ^ ^. J' 
God by the llandard of their own underflanding. 

No better reafon can be affigned for the Son's under- 
taking the furetifliip, than the ho]y good^plcafure of 
the adorable Trinity. But when it is revealed to us, 
it is our duty to obferve, and proclaim, the wifdom 
and goodnefs of God in this conflltution. 

XVIII. Did not God mod wifely order, that he in this 
who created man, fliould reftore, and, as it were, counfel of 
create him a-new ? That he, who is the perfonal word ^^?^ T^i" 
of God, who commanded light to fhine out of dark- difpiay\f 
nefs, and by whom all things were made, John, i. 3, the high- 
fhould be that great publifher of the word of the eiUvifdom 
Gofpel, whereby God fliines in the hearts of the eled, ^"^ Scotl- 
and new creatures, not yet exifting, are effeftually 
called, and, by that call, brought, as it were, into 
being? Further, as the fecond perfon alone is the 

Son, and our falvation confills in adoption, was it 
not proper, that the Son of God fnould become the 
fon of man, that, having obtained a right of adop- 
tion by him, we might be made his brethren and 
co-heirs ? Moreover, let it be obferved, that the Son 
alone is called the image of the father^ Col. i, 15, 
Heb. I. 3. and by way of eminence, the beloved of 
the father^ Mat. 3. 17. Col. i. 13. Seeing man 
therefore had, by fin, fhamefuUy defaced the image of 
God, which he received in the firlt creation •, and 
.thereby, mod juftly expofed himfelf to the hatred of 
God : was it not worthy of God to reilore that image 
by his own elfential image, in the human nature he 
had alTumed ; in order, by that means, to open a 
way for our return to the favour and love of the fa- 
ther .'' In Bne, could the philanthropy and love of 
the father, be more illuftrioufly difplayed to us, than 
^ Vol. |, S in 

258 Of THE PERSON Books. 

in giving his only begotten Son to us and for us, that 

in him we might behold the father's glory ? Chrift 

himfelf lays this before us, John 3. 16. 
The fure- XIX. The laft condition requifite in the furety is, 
ty to be j.|^^j. ^^ fhould be God-man •, God and man^ at the fame 
God man. . . . ^ - ?• . 7 ^. 7 i 

ttme^ in unity of perjon : one mediator bet-ween God ajid 

man, i Tim. 2. 5. For, as itwas' neceffary, he fhould 
be man^ and alfo God^ and one furety *, it was necdffary, 
he fhould be both thefe in unity of perfon, God mani- 
feftedin the fiejl?^ i. Tim. 3. 16. The word made flejh^ 
John, I. 14. Of the feed of David according to the 
flefh^ in fuch a manner, as at the fame time to be the 
Son of God with power^ Rom. i. 3, 4. Which may 
be further made appear. 
That his XX. Had he been God only, he could neither 
fatisfac- have been fubjed, nor have obeyed, norfuftered: if 
tionmightj^^j.^ j^^^^ his obedience, fubjedion, and fuffering, 
finite va- would not have been of fufficient value, for the re- 
lue. demption of the ele6l. Nay, a mere creature is fo 

bound to fulfil all righteouihefs for itfelf,that its right- 
eoufnefs cannot bejmputed and imparted to others: 
and fhould we fuppofe aman, truly and perfedly holy, 
but yet a mere man, who, according to the law of love, 
offered himfelf even to die for his brother, he him- 
felf would doubtlefs obtain a reward by his righteouf- 
nefs ; but could merit nothing for a guilty perfon, 
unlefs perhaps excmiption from puniihment, at mod. 
And therefore, it behoved our furety to be man, 
that he might be capable to fubmit, obey and fufier ♦, 
and at the fame time, God, that the fubje^lion, obe- 
dience and fufiering, of this perfon God-man, might, 
on account of his infinite dignity, be imputed to 
others, and be fufficient for faving all, to whom it is 
That he XXI. Moreover, a mere creature could not fup- 
might port under the load of divine wrath, fo as to 
bear and remove it, and rife again, when he had done •, who 
the' wrath ^'^^'^'^^-^^ ^^^^ pQwer of thine anger \ even according to 
of God. thy fear ^ fo is thy ivrath^ Ff. 90. 11, fee Nah» i. 6, 


Chap. 4. Of the SURETY. 259 

It was therefore necefTary for our furety to be more 
than man, that, by the infinite power of his God- 
head, he might fupport the affumed human nature, 
and fo, be able to bear the fiercenefs of divine wrath, 
and conquer every kind of death. 

XXII. I fnall not conceal what is objecled to this Whic?i 
argument ; namely, that God could have fo fupport- the fmety 
ed the human nature, though not perfonally united ^^\.^ ^° 
to him.felf, by his divine povv'er, as to have rendered ^^^ ^^^^^^ 
it capable to endure and conquer all manner of for- er. 
rows. I dare not refufe this. But yet that would 

not be fufficient in the prefent cafe. Becaufe, by that 
hypothefis, it would be God himfelf, by the furety, 
who would have vanquifhed his enemies. But it is 
necefTary, that our furety fhould do this by his own 
power, that bis ozvn arm Jloould bring fahation unto 
him^ If 63. 5, and therefore be the mighty one of Jacobs 
If 60. 16, the mighty God^ If 9. 6, himfdi /Ironger 
than the ftrong man^ Luke, 11. 21, 22, having life in 
hifnfelf John, 5. 26, and having power to take his 
l?fe again J John, 10. 18. To which is required the 
exceeding greatne/s of his power ^ Eph. i. 19, and fo 
fnould be declared to be the Son of God with power ^ 
Rom. I. 4. 

XXIII. Thefe are the tremendous myderies of our Thefe 
religion, which were kept fecret fmce the world began ^ myiieries 
hut are now made manifeji^ and, by the fcriptures of the ^^^"°Y^{ 
Prophets', according to the commandment of the everlaft- pj^yof'the 
ing God, made known to all nations for the obedience of z\-,n^i2Xi 
faith, Rom. 16. 25, 26. From hence the diviniry reiigion. 
of the ChriRian religion appears with evidence. What 
penetration of men or angels was capable of devifmg 
things fo myllerious, fo fublime, and fo far furpaf- 

fing the capacity of all created beings .? How ador- 
able do tho v/ifdom and juftice, the hohnefs, the 
truth, the goodnels, and the philanthropy of God, 
difplay themfelves in contriving, giving, and per- 
fecting this means of our falvation ? How caliiiiy 
does confciencc, overwhelmed with the burden of irs 

S 2 fins, 

Of the person Book 2. 

fins, acquiefce in fuch a furety, and in fuch a fure- 
tilhip •, when here at length, apprifed of a method 
of reconciliation, both worthy of God, and fafe for 
man ? Who, on contemplating thefe things in the 
light of the Spirit, would not break out into the 
praifes of the moft holy, the moft righteous, the 
moft true, the moft gracious, and the moft high 
God ? O ! the depth of the wifdom and knowledge 
of God ! O the height of myfteries, which angels de- 
fire to look into ! Glory to the Father, who raifed up, 
accepted and gave us fuch a furety ! Glory to the 
Son, who clothing himfelf in human flefh, fo willing- 
ly, fo patiently, and fo conftantly, performed fuch 
an engagement for us. Glory to the Holy Ghoft, 
the revealer, the witnefs, and the earneft, of fo great 
happinefs for us. All hail! O! Chrift Jefus, true 
and eternal God, and true and holy man, all in one, 
who retains the properties of both natures in the unity 
of thy perfon. Thee we acknowledge, thee we 
v/orfliip, to thee we betake ourfelves, at thy feet we 
fall down, from thy hand alone we look for falvation. 
Thou art the only faviour -, we defire to be thy pe- 
culiar property, we are fo by thy grace, and ftiall 
remain fuch for ever. Let the whole world of thine 
eledl, with us, know, acknowledge and adore thee, 
and thus at length be faved by thee. This is the 
fum of our faith, and hope, and this the top of all 
our wiflies. Amen. 


( 26l ) 


Of the Sureti/Joip and SatisfoBion of Cbrijl. 

I. T T AVING thus fpokenof the perfon of the Chrillcal- 

X~l furety, fo far as the nature of our defign ^^^ °"^ 
requires, now is the time and place, to treat a little ^^q^X'^\ 
more accurately of the fatisfa£lion itfelf, which, by ing to uf ' 
his furetifhip he undertook to give. For he is called in the 
the Surety of the Covenant or Tejiament^ Heb. 7. 22. ^^^^ °^ 
Not only, nor principally, becaufe he engaged to us for enea"g- 
in the name of God^ to fulfil the promifes, contained ing to 
in that teftament, if we obeyed his commands, as Cur- God for 
cellceus^ treading in the footfteps of his mafler Socinus^ "^* 
artfully pretends : but, becaufe he engaged to God 
for uSy to perform all thofe conditions in our 
flead; upon which we were to receive the teftamenta* 
ry inheritance. When Hezekiah^ defired the faving 
fruit of this furetifhip, he prayed, If 38. 14, 
J am opprejfed^ *'^'y^V undertake for me. And Godhim- 
felf, when he gives to his Son all the glory of this 
furetifhip, expreffes himfelf thus: Jer. 30. 2i,/<?r, 
who is this that ^'^V engaged his heart to approach unto 
me ? Saith the Lord, That is, what mortal, nay, 
what creature dares engage, to perform all thofe 
things, which are Incumbent on the prieft, who fhall 
have a right to approach to me for himfelf and his 
people. Our furety therefore, thus engaged to God 
for us. To what purpofe is fuch a furety, who 
fhould only engage to us in the name of God ? If 
Chrift be a mere man, fuch as they reprefent him, 
could his engagement give us a greater affurance of 
the truth of the divine promifes, than if we heard them 
immediately from the mouth of God himfelf ? Was 
it not neceffary that God, who cannot lye, fhould 
firfl of all engage to us, that the man Chriil: would 

S3 be 

262 Of the SuRET isKip and Book i. 

be true in all his fayings, before we could with fure 
confidence rely upon them ? Is it not much better 
and more fafe, to rely upon the oath of the infal- 
lible God, by which he has ahundantly confirmed Jo 
the heirs of promife^ the immutability of his counfel^ 
Heb. 6. 17, than on the declaration of a mere man, 
let him be ever fo true, and faithful? And what 
peculiar excellency would Chrifc have had above 
others in this cafe, to the honour of being the alone 
furety, had he only, by the publication of a faving 
doctrine, which he confirmed by his martyrdom, 
aiTured us of the certainty of the promifes of grace ,: 
feeing the other Prophets and Apoftles of Chrift did 
the very fame, not fcrupling to undergo the mod 
cruel 3eath, in order to feal with their blood the truth 
of God's piomifes, which they had declared? ^¥hat 
can vilify Chriil, or make void his furetiHiip, if 
this does not ? 

Thefatif- IL Chriil therefore is called our furety, becaufe 

faaidii of he engaged to God to make satisfaction for us. 

Chriil, Y/hich fluisfa6lion again is not to be underilood in 
the SocinianiQVi^Q^ as if it only confifled in this ■, that 
Chrifl moft perfedly fulfilled the v/illofGod, and 
fully executed every thing God enjoined him, on ac- 
count of our falvation, and (a in the fulleft manner" 
fatisfied God, and that for us, that is, o?i our account^ 
for our higheft and eternal ^<?<? J: as Crellius^ when 
making the greateft concefTions, would fain put us 
off with thefe fair words : but it confilts in this, 
that Chrift, in our room and Head, did, both by do- 
ing and fuffering, fatisfy divine juflice^ both the le- 
gijloAory^ the retributive^ and vinditlive^ in the moil 
perfedl manner, fulfilling all the righteoufnefs of 
the law, v/hich the law otherwife required of us, 
in order to impunity, and to our having a right to 
eternal life. If Chrift did this, as we are imme- 
diately to ihew he did, nothing hinders, why we 
may not afiirm, he fatisiied for us in the fulleft fenfd 
bfthe word, For, to what purpofe is it fupercili- 


C/iap. 5. SatisfactionoF CHRIST. 263 

ouily to rejed a term fo commodious, becaufe, not 
to be met with on this fubjed in Scripture, if we can ' 
prove the thing, fignified by it ? 

III. We find hisengaging tomake this fatisfadlion, pf. ^o. 
Pr. 40. 6, 7, 8, exprefied in thefe words by Chrift : 6, 7, 8. 
Sacrifice and offering thou didfi not defire^ 7nine ears haft explained, 
thou opened : burnt-offering and Jin- offering thou haft not 
required^ Then [aid /, Lo 1 I come : in the volume of 
the book it is written of me : I delight to do thy will^ 
O my God ; yea^ thy law is within my bozvels or heart. 
Where obferve : ift, The covenant between the 
Lord Chrift and the Father, by virtue of which 
Chrift calls the Father his God. 2dly, That Chrift 
freely, and of his own accord, entered into this cove- 
nant with the Father; fince he compares himfelf to 
a fervant, whofe ears were bored, or digged through, 
in order, voluntarily to ferve his beloved Lord. 
3dly, That by virtue of this covenant, Chrift pre- 
fented himfelf to do the acceptable "fj^i will of his 
God. 4thly, That that will was exprefied by a law, 
which Chrift has within his bowels, or heart, which 
he loves from his foul, and is to keep with all his 
heart. 5thly, That that law requires, not only per- 
fe6l righteoufnefs, in order to obtain a right to eter- 
nal life, but alfo deferved puniihment to be inflidted 
on the finner. For all this was fignified by the fa- 
crifices, gifts, burnt- offerings and fm-ofterings of the 
law. For when the Tinner offered to God beafts or 
corn, which were given to himfelf for food, and was 
careful to have them confuted by fire, as it were in 
his own room, he thereby confelTcd that, on account 
of his fin, he deferved the moft dreadful deftrudion 
and even the eternal flames of hell. 6thly, That 
thefe external ceremonies of facrifices could never, 
without a refpe6l to the thing fignified, pleafe God, 
nor jmrge the confcience from dead works : therefore, 
Chrift offered himfelf, in order to accomplllli that 
will of God, by which we are fanclified, Heb. 10. 
10; both by fulfilling all the righteoufnefs pre- 

S 4 fcribed 

264 Of the S XT R E T I s H I p and Book i} 

fcribed by the the law, and by undergoing the guilE 

of our fins, that he might atone for them as an 

expiatory facrifice. All thefe things are contained 

in the furetifhip of Chrift defcribed by David. 

Chrif^i I^^- Chrift could, without any injury, undertake 

without fuch a furetifnip ; [ft, Becaufe he was the lord of his 

anyiiijui;', q^^^ i;f^^ which, on account of his power over it, 

dertake"' ^^ could engage to lay down for others, John 10. 18, 

thisi I have power to lay it down, sdly, Bc^caufe, being 

God- man in one perfon, he was able to perforra 

what he undertook, by enduring condign puniih- 

ment, by fulfilling a'ij vighteoufnefs, and, in both, 

performing an obedience of fuch value, as to 

be more than equivalent to the obedience of 

all the ele6l. 3dly, Becaufe, by ihat means, he 

gave an inftance of an extraordinary and incompre- 

henfible degree of love, both to the glory of Godj 

and the falvation of men. 4thly, Nor has his human 

nature any reafon to complain, becaufe a creature 

could have no greater glory, than to be hypoftati- 

cally united with a divine perfon, and be fubfervient 

to him for accompliftiing the greateft work, which 

the whole choir of ele6t angels wJL with aftonlfh- 

ment, celebrate through eternity -, efpecially, feeing 

it was afiured, that after its fufferings, Vv'hich were 

indeed the greateft, that could be, yet of a fliort 

dui'ation, that which was made a little lower than the 

angels^ ftiouid obtain a name above every name. 

To pro- V. It was alfo v/orthy of God the Father, both to* 

cure and procure and accept of this fiiretifhip of his Son; 

^^v'^l V t^ecaufe^ in the execution ofrir,there is a manifeftation 

becomino- oi the truth of God^ exa6lly fulfilling every thing he 

God. had promifed in his law to his juftice, and had 

threatned againft fin; and of the goodnefs of God^ 

reconciling to himfelf finful and v/retched man, on 

giving and admitting a proper mediator ; and of 

the juftice o^ God ^ not clearing the guilty, widiout 

a fufficient fatisfa6lion ; nay, accepting a far more 

excellent fatisfuL^lion, than could ever be given by 


Chap. 5. Satisfaction of CHRIST'. ^65 

man himfelf, becaufe of the more excellent obedience 
of Chriil, and his more meritorious fufferings, Rom. 
3, 25 ; and oi the hclinefs of God, not admitting man 
unto a blefled communion with himfelf, unlefsjutti- 
fied by the blood, and fanftified by the Spirit of 
Chrift; in fine, of the all-Jlifficiency oi God, who, as 
what feemed almoft a thing incredible, is, by this 
means, become, without any diminution to his 
perfecftions, the God and falvation of the finner. 
Hence it is, that the Lord Jefus, in the execution of 
his undertaking, profefTes, he manifefted the name, 
that is, the perfecflions of God, John, 17. 6. par- 
ticularly thole, we have juil now mentioned. Pf. 40. 
10,/ have not hid thy right eoufnefs within my heart, 
I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvA»- 
TiON .* / have not concealed thy loving kindness^ 
€ind thy TKVTU^from the great congregation. As then 
nothing can be thought more worthy of God, than 
the manifefting, in the moil illuflrious manner, the 
glory of the divine perfefllons, and thefe perfe6tions 
fhine forth no where with greater luftre, than in the 
fatisfaction of Chrift, it was altogether worthy of 
God to procure and admit his undertaking fuch 
a fatisfaction. 

VI, Nor by the admiOlon of fuch furetifhip, is In it no 
there any abrogation of, or derogation to, the divine abroga- 
law; as little any contradi6lion of, or fubftitution of ^^°"^^' 
another, but only a favourable con{lru6lion put upon nation to* 
it, becaufe the law, as it itood, but only taken in a fa- the divine 
vourable fenfe, was moil fully fatisfied by the Re- ^^v.', but a 
deemer, who was in theclofefl: union with us, when 1^^°'^^^'^^^ 
he paid the due ranfom. Whence the Apoftle tation 
faid, Rom. 8. 4, the right eoufnefs of the law was ful- thereof, 
filled by Chrift. We fhall not improperly conceive 
of the whole, in the following manner: the law de- 
clares, there is no admiffion for any to eternal life, 
but on the account of a moil perfe6l and compleat 
righteoufnefs ; alfo, that every finner ihall undergo 
the penalty of death, and be under' its dominion for • * 


z66 Of the SuR ET isHip and Book 2 * 

ever. However, it is a doubtful matter, not ex- 
plained by the law, whether that perfefl righteouf- 
nefs muft necelTarily be performed by the very per- 
fon to be faved, or, whether a furety may be ad- 
mitted, who ihall perform it in his room. Again, 
it is doubtful, whether it was neceffary the finner 
fnould, in his own perfon, undergo the deferved pu- 
nifliment, or whether he could truly undergo it in 
the perfon of a fponfdr. In fine, it is a matter of 
doubt, Vvhether he, who was to undergo the penal- 
ty, ought to do fo to an infinite degree, with ref- 
pe6l to duration , or whether, that dominion of death, 
could be abolifhed, by the fufficient dignity and 
worth of the perfon, who fliould undergo it, and fo 
death befvvallov/ed up invidory : flricl jufcice would, 
as the words feem to import, at hrfl view, demand 
the former : but the favourable conftru6lion, which, 
according to Ariftotle^ Ethic, lib. 5. c, 10, is an amend- 
mtnt of the law^ where it is deficient.^ en account of its 
univerfaliiy^ admits of the latter, where it can be 
obtained ; as really was, and is, the cafe with Chriil: 
and Chriftians. Thus therefore, that in which 
the law feemed to be defedive from its univerfality, 
comes to be correded •, not as to the intention of 
God the lawgiver, v/hich is altogether invariable, and 
always moft perfed -, but as to the exprefs form of 
the words : almoft in the fame manner, as if a fa- 
ther fhould be admitted to pay an equivalent fine 
for his fon, and inftead of filver, make payment in 
gold. This would be a favourable interpretation of 
the law. 
No injuf- VII. Nor vv'as it unjuil, for Chriil to be puniihed 
tice in for US : feeing Socinus himfclf and Crellitis own, that 
Chriil's ^Y\t moil grievous torments, nay, death itfeif, might 
niTed^fo'r be infiidcd on Chrifr, though moft innocent ; _ which 
us.' alfo appears from the event. For God, in right of 

his dominion, could lay all thofe afBidions on Chriil; 
efpecialiy with the cfftdual confent of the Lord 
Tefus himfelf, v^ho had power over his own life. 
^ The 

Chap.5 SATisFACTiONof CHRIST. 267 

The whole difficulty lies in the formality of thepu- 
nifliment. But as Chriil, moft willingly took upon 
himfelf our tranfgrexTions, and the trefpafTcs we had 
committed againft the divine majefty, and offered 
himfelf as a furety for them; God, as the fupreme 
governor, could juflly exa6l puniQiment of Chrift in 
our room, and actually did fo. And thus ^PiD, 
'^\1ui^b^^ the chaftifcment of our peace that exemplary pu- 
niflmient inflided on Chrift, in which God, by the 
brightefl: example, fhewed his implacable hatred to 
fin, was upon him^ If 53. 5. who brought pardon 
and peace unto us. For "id id was upon him^ here 
is that exemplary punifhment^ in which God's 
wrath againft lin is difcovered, which is well adapted 
to deter others from it. Thus Jer. 30. i4,lDNnD>-)D 
the punifhment of a cruel one^ and Prov. 7. 22. ^'"ik^d^d 
the exemplary punifhment of a fool, and Ez. 5. i^^ 
fo it fhall he a reproach^ and a taunt ^ an inflru^ion 
10)\^ (example) and an aftomfhment, 

VIII. Bur, we certainly take too much upon us, ^l^ichal- 
when we prefume to examine the equity of the di- ? ^PP^^^'s 
vine government, by the ilandard ofourreafon : when event, 
the faift is plain, we are always to vindicate God 
againft the fophiftry of our foolifh reafonings. That 
man is certainly the author of a monftrous, horrible 
and deteftable herefy, and difcovers a profane arro- 
gance, who, like Socinus^ is not afhamed to write as 
follows : As for my part^ indeed^ though fuch a thing 
fhould he found not once^ hut frequently, in the facred 
records^ I woidd not, on that account, helieve it to he fo. 
But modefty fhould teach us rather to fay; "That 
*' truly for my part, though my reafon, which I 
" know is blind and foolifli, and apt to beclamour- 
*' ous againft God, fhould a thoufand times gain-fay 
" it, I would not therefore prefume to call in quef- 
" tion, what I find but once in the facred records ; 
" or, by feeking fome other interpretation, would 
'^ I force, on the words of Scripture, any meaning 
" more confonant to my reafon." When therefore 


5,6d Of the SuR ETi SHIP and Book 2 

Ive fliall have proved from holy writ, that the Lord 

Chrift has made fatisfaflion to the juflice of God, 

and confequently, that there is no injuftice in it : 

according to the maxim, which nature itfelf di6tates, 

that all the ways of God are righteoufnefs and 


Generally IX. No Chriilian quefdons, that Chrifl fulfilled all 

thir ' righteoufnefs. The multitude of the Jews, Mark 7. 

Chriftful- 37, teflified concerning him, he hath done all things 

filled ail well And he declared this truly, as he did every 

nlfs^^^^^' thing elfe, concerning himfelf: for, I do thofe things 

that pic afe him^ John 8. 29. And hence he boldly 

appealed to his enemies, v. 46, ^tvhich cfyouconvinceth 

me of fin? Nay, even to his father himfelf, Pf. 69. 5. 

^^* ^?* ^' God, thou know eft my foolifhnefs, and my fins are not 

^xpame . j^j^ j^y.^^^^ ^j^^^ . p^^. | fyppofe^ t^js Pfalm contains a 

prayer of the Lord Chrill:, as appears from feveral 
parts of it, being often quoted in the New Tefta- 
ment. And thefe words, I think, contain a pro- 
teflation of the Lord Jefus to his father, of his own 
innocence; of which 'Theodorusin Catena, has given 
no improper paraphrafe : V/hether I have been guilty 
of any fault againft them, thou thyfelf knoweft, and 
art my witnefs, I have done nothing. But I think the 
meaning may be more fully expreffed thus : it is 
true, my God, I have taken guilt upon me, and am 
made a curfe : but thou knowxil all my fins, even to 
the {lighted offence, for which I fufter ; that in all 
there is not the leail: fault of mine, by which I have 
violated thy law, fo as to reft ore, what I have taken. 
The truth of this proteflation the father attefts, when 
If. 53. II, he calls Chrifl his righteous fervant, and 
juftified him in the Spirit, i Tim. 3. 16, declaring, 
that as man, he was innocent of every crime falfely 
laid to his charge •, on the contrary, he honoured his 
father by his perfe6l obedience -, and as mediator fo 
diligently executed his office, that he was deficient 

in nothing. 

X. Tis 

Chap. 5. Satisfaction of CHRIST. 269 

X. 'Tis alfo allowed, that the mod holy obedi- Allowed 
ence of Chrift was for our good: becaufe therein ?^^*^ ^^^^ 
we have, ift, A confirmation of his heavenly do6lrine-, jone for 
the works of his mofl perfeft holinefs, no lefs than our good, 
his miracles, being a demonilration that he was a 
preacher of divine truth, fent down from heaven. 
2dly, A living law and moil perfe(ft pattern of holinefs, 
worthy both of God and of the children of God, of 
which we had an exaft delineation in the written law ; 
but its fhining forth in its lively image and native 
light in Chrift and his actions, is fitted to ftir up every 
man to love it, who beholds it with a fpiritual eye. 
Mankind wanted this even to difcern the unfpotted 
image of the divine holinefs in one of their brethren ; 
which at length they obtained in Chrift, who left 
us an example y that we Jhould follow his fieps. i Pet. 2. 
21. 3dly, A pointing out of the way to heaven: 
Chrift teaching us not only by his words, but his 
actions, that without holinefs no onefhall fee the Lord^ 
Heb. 12. 14. 

XL But we muft proceed a ftep further, and af- Butitls 
firm, that the obedience of Chrift was accomphfhed moreover 
by him in our room^ in order thereby to obtain for us fP ^^ ^^" 
a right to eternal life. The law, which God will thaTitwas 
have fecured inviolable, admits noae to glory, but done in 
on condition of perfe6l obedience, which none was o"^ ^°°"J» 
ever pofTefled of but Chrift, v/ho beftows it freely on 
his own people. This is what the Apoftle declares, 
Rom. 5. 16, but the free gift of J efus Cbrifi is of many 
offences unto jujlification: that is, tho' we want thofe 
works, for which the reward may be due ; nay, 
tho' for fo many fins, we may have deferved an 
eternal curfe; neverthelefs, there is fomething fuf- 
ficient, not only for abolifhing many offences, but 
likewife to be the meritorious caufe of righteoufnefs ; 
namely, the obedience of one ; and it becomes ours 
by gratuitous gift. More clearly ftill, v. 19, for as 
by one marCs obedience many were made [conltituted] 
fmnerSy fo by the obedience of one pall many be mad$ 


270 Of the S UR E Ti SHIP and Book 2; 

[conftitutcd] right ecus. The former one man was 
Adam^ the root and federal head of mankind. By 
his difobedience, all mankind, as belonging to him, 
was involved in the guilt of the curfe : and as he 
fiiftained the perfon of all, what he did amifs, is ac- 
counted as done by all. ^he other is the one man 
Chrifl, who neither finned in, and with Adam, nor 
had the dominion of fin and death palTed upon him, 
and who is worthy to be both lord and head, a fe- 
cond Adam, and the origin and fource of the inhe- 
ritance to be devolved on his brethren. He is pof- 
fefied of an obedience^ even to the v/hole law of God, 
which enjoined him to have a perfe6l love for the 
glory of his father, and for the falvation of his bre- 
thern. By that obedience, the collective body of thofe, 
who belong to him, are confti tut ed righteous -, that is, 
are judged to have a right to eternal life, no lefs 
than if every one had performed that obedience in 
his own perfon. 
Thatobe- XII. Nor fiiould it be thought ft:range, that the 
dience of obedience of Chrifl is fufficient to acquire to all 
Chrillfuf- ^ j.jg|^^ ^Q eternal life-, even though it became him 
redeem- ^^ man^ to yield obedience for himfelf. For, we are 
ing all the here to confider the dignity of the ^perfon obeying; 
elea, be- who being man in fuch a manner, as, at the fame 
caufe of^ time to be the eternal and infinite God, he is much 
ty of hfr" iTJO^e excellent than all the eled, taken together ^ 
perfon, and therefore his obedience is defervedly eftecmed of 
fuch value, as may be imputed to all, for obtaining a 
right to a bleifed immortality. And, altho' the di- 
vinity, in the abftrad, did not obey \ yet he, who 
did, is God; and thus the divinity of the perfon con- 
Nor is it tributes very much to the dignity of the obedience. 
any bar, It is certain, that, as man^ he owed obedience for 
that as himfelf'^ but fince he became on our account, 
alfo owed ^^ alfo performed that obedience in our room, 
itforhim- Moreover, as man, he was not necefiTarily under the 
^-if» law, as prefcrihing the condition of happiucfs ♦, becaufe, 

if vv-e fet aiide the confideration of the liuetifnip un- 

Chap. 5. Satisfaction of CHRIST. 271 

dertaken for us, he would have enjoyed all manner 
of happinefs, from the firft moment of his incarnation, 
on account of the union of the humanity with the 
Godhead, as we have more fully fl:iewn, chap. III. 

§. 13' 14- 

XIII. It would like wife be falfe to infer from this, Nor does 
that " if Chrift performed obedience for us, v/e our- it hence 
^'felves are under no necefHty of obeying-, becaufe no follow, 
" demand can be made on the principal debtor, for are^under 
*' what the furety has performed in his room." Our no necef- 
obedience may be confidered, either as it is tbe^^^ypfo- 
Duty ol the rational creature, v/ith refpecl: to his fo- ^^)'^"§* 
vereign Lord ; or, as it is a condition of acquiring 

a right to eternal life : in the latter refpedt Chrift - 
accomplifhed it for us, and therefore, under that re- 
lation, it neither is, nor can be required of us, as if 
for want of perfedl obedience, v/e could be excluded 
from eternal life. But in the former refped:, we, by 
all means owe obedience, and the obligation to it is 
rather increafed than diminiHied by this inftance o£ 
Chrift's love. For, what more proper, than by thisr 
to friew our gratitude, and declare, not fo much by 
v^'ords as adions, that v/e acknowledge him for our 
lord, who has purchafed us for himfelf ? And in fine, 
that as adopted fons we decline no obedience to our 
heavenly Father, v/hom his natural fon and of the 
fame fubitance v/ith himfelf, fo cheerfully obeyed. 

XIV. But befides, Chrift fatisfied the v^ndiBroe ChrifialfQ 
juftice oiGod^ not only for our goo d^ but alfo, in our ^^}'^^^}\ 
room^ by enduring thofe m.oft dreadful fufferings, ?!]fticeb 
both in foul and body, v/hich we had deferved, and lufFering, 
from which, he, by undergoing them, did fo de- 
liver us, that they could not with the wrath and 

curfe of God, as the proper puniflim.ent of our fin, be 
infli6led on us. If there is any point in our divinity 
accurately proved, and folidly defended againft the 
exceptions of the Socinians, by illuflrious perfons 
in the church, it is certainly, thisj whicii I choofe 
not to repeat, defiring the reader lc fetch t\v:^ argu- 

272 Of Christ's Book 2* 

nients from a Grotius^ a Junius^ a l^urretine, a Hoorn- 
heck^ an Ejfenius, and the like renowned heroes \ 
which will baffle all the efforts of the adverfaries, 
properly to anfwer. 


What fufferifigs of Chrijl are fatisfaSory. 

One con- J -j-^ U T it is really to be lamented, that, in 
Chrift*^s ^^ -13 ^^^^^ ^"^ days, a new qneilion fhould be 
fatisfadto- ftarted among the orthodox-, namely, which of the 
ry fufFer- fu ffe rings of Ch rift ought to be deemed fatisfa(5lory 
mgs were -j^ ^^^^ room. There is one in particular, who 
dunnV^' feems to acknov/ledge none of the fufferings of Chrift 
the three to be fatisfaftory for us, but thofe which Chrift un- 
Jiours of derwent during the three hours of the folar darknefs, 
darknefs. v^hile he was upon the crofs, and before he expired; 
excluding from the number of fatisfaclory fufferings, 
that agony and horrour, which he endured in the 
garden of f Olivet the night in which he was ap- 
prehended, and that blood which he Ihed before, 
and when he was crucified, and after he expired on 
the crofs. He had not, fays he, commenced his 
fatisfadory anions, when, by a word, he levelled 
his enemies with the ground, cured Malchus^ and 
promifed paradife to the thief: no expiation was yet 
made when an angel camie to ftrengthen him. Nay, 
he afHrms, that Chrift did not fuffer corporal death 
as our furety, and in our room, and that confe- 
quently it belongs not to the fatisfadion, which he 
made to thejuftice of God, if indeed, he then fully 
fatisfied God, when he died. But in cafe Chrift 

t This was the garden pf Qethfemam^ which lay at the foot of 
t^z mount of Qli'veu 


Chap. S SATlSFACtdR? Sufferings. ^,"3 

fhould feem to have fuffered all thefe things in valnj 
the learned perfcn concludes, that they were done> 
in order to I'atisfy the veracity of God, which had 
foretold that thus xtfiould be, and to fulfil the types by 
which they were prefigured in the Old Teftament: 
diftinguifhing, moreover, between 'ccnv:j7chig and 
'cojnpenj a n77g pun\(hmtnzs, between 'X'ar-I'ik- {u^tnngs 
"^nd judiciary. He calls thofe compenfatingandjudi- 
ciary, which Chrift endured during the three hours 
'of darknefs; the ethers only convincing and war-like 
fufferings*, having this tendency, that Chriil might 
learn to become a merciful High Pried. 

II. But it will be worthwhile to trace the hypo- The 
thefes of thi.^ very learned perfon from the foundation •, ground 6f 
"which he has done hihifdf very accurately, in a letter ^^}^ °pi*. , 
to a friend, publlfhed after the firfl and fecorid ^di- "^^j" "^°^^ 
tions of my work. For he maintains: ill. That plained; 
when God threatened man, if he finned, with death, 
he meant that death, which our firft parents incurred 
ion the very day they finned, and which Chrift the 
furety urider~v;ent in the room and ftead of fome, 
and which the damrled themfelves, who are w'ithoUt 
a furety, fhall fuffer and be forced to undergo for 
themfelves. But that is /i>^ death of the whole man-, 
becaufe the fubje6l of it is man, made up of foul and 
body united ; and confifts not only in' the privation of 
the fenfe of God's favour and, of communion with 
him, and of a joyful delight in the enjoyment of 
him •, but is alfo attended with all the torture and 
racking pain, which the almighty wrath of God can 
inflict. 2 dly. Our firfl: parents underwent that 
death immediately upon their fin: for in the coal 
(jf the fame day, in which they finned, whcrl 
drawing towards the eve«ing, they heard the voice 
of the Lord continually walking in the garden. It 
-was not that articulate voice, which Adam was be- 
fore accuftomed to hear, and was afterwards pleafed 
with its found: but fuch as was heard at 6V/mz, £.y. 
ig. 1 6, 17, and defcribed P/» 29 and ^-j. 18, iq. 
6 VoL.L r The 

Of C H R I S T's Book 2; 

The voice of thunder and lightening, a token of 
God's powerful wrath, which the guilty creature 
could neither bear nor avoid, which made Adam and 
Eve hide themfelves in the thickeft of the trees of 
the garden, juft as the damned will defire to do. 
Rev. 6, 15. 3dly. While our firll: parents endured 
this threatned death, fatisfaclion was made to the 
veracity of God, but not to his juflice, demanding a 
plenary and fufficient compenfation. But, on ac- 
count of the mediatorial covenant between the father 
andfon, there intervened the long-fufFering of God, 
or a defering of his wrath, which removed that 
death from man, and defered it to the day of wrath 
and the lad judgement. 4thly, Chrift the furety, in 
the fuUnefs of time, underwent this fame death of 
the whole man, in foul and body united, while on 
the crofs he was forfaken of God, and, at the fame 
time, had the fenfation of his mod: dreadful wrath, 
who, while demanding payment of him, was pleafed 
to bruife him : a bruiiing not infli6led by men, but 
immediately by God, who punifhed him with af- 
flidion and imprifonment, which will be the punifh- 
ment of the damned-, as it was of Chrift, who is faid 
to be n^ij/ri and ^\'^V afflidted and in prifon If. 53 
4, 8. 5thly Men were not able to behold this dread- 
ful part of his punifhment ; for a moft horrid, and 
outward darknefs concealed Chrift from every 
eye. His whole m,an fufFered this death, till divine 
juftice was fatisfied -, and it fufficiently appeared to 
have been fatisfied, when God removed the dark- 
nefs, that the creature, who had before a6led as an 
enemy againft him, on whom God was taking ven- 
geance, might again refrefti him, and when he like- 
wife comforted him with fjch a fenfe of his paternal 
love, as now to be able to call God his father, and 
commend his fpirit unto his hands, &c. 6thly, 
Moreover, he felt and properly bore this death on 
the crofs, when he cried out. My God! why haft thou 
forfaken me ? He dreaded this death in the garden, 


Chap. 6 SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 275 

as he faw it coming upon him, and this therefore is 
called the AntepaJJion \ and he was delivered from it, 
when he faid, // is fmified. ythly. The mediator 
Chrift was bound, by his covenant engagement, to 
this alone, and neither to fpiritual death, which fup- 
pofes a want of reciltude, nor to corporal death. 
For, when he was made knovv^n in the firft Gofpel- 
promife. Gen. 3. 15, no mention v;as yet made of 
corporal death, till verfe 19. He therefore could not 
be bound ;o that, by any vicarious title. The 
Apoille tells us, what his corporal death was, Heb, 
10. 20. When the blood of the facrifice was flied 
for fin, atonement was made : but in order to pre- 
fent it to God, the pried carried the blood, which 
procured the atonement, into the holy of holies, the 
vail, which denoted feparation by fin, being made 
to give way. In like mianneralfo, when Cnrift com- 
pleated his death, or endured the whole load of an- 
guifh and wrath, having obtained eternal redemap- 
tion, which he teftified by his faying, it is finijlndy 
he was to carry his blood, or foul, into the heavenly 
fanduary. The vail ftanding in the way was his 
human nature, which, upon taking upon him the 
fins of the eledl, kept him at a diftance from 
God •, but after fatisfadion made, that vail was rent 
afunder, by the feparation of foul and body, and con- 
veyed his fpirit, by an open way, to the prefence of 
God. And thus the corporal death of Chrift belongs 
not to the meritorious^ (which may be done by the 
alone death of man, not feparated with refpecH: to his 
efifential parts) but to the reprefenting fatisfa^ion. 
Thus far this learned perfon. And v/ho can deny, 
but thefe things are ingenioufly devifed, and learnedly 
conne6ted? But whether they are as folid, as they 
are uncommon, I imagine I may, with the confent 
of the lovers of truth, modeftly enquire. 

III. I remember to have learned, in the commu- There- 
nion of the reformed church, to the following effe<fl : ceived 
ift, That the death, wherewith God threatned man ^"'^"'^^ 

T I for°^^^^"- 

Of C H R I S T's Bookl. 

for fin, comprizes in its whole extent all that mifery, 
which, by the juileft dilpleafure of God, has followed 
upon fin, and to which the finner man is obnoxious 
all his life, and whofe principal part confifls in the 
want of the favour of God, and in the keeneft fenfe 
of the divine curfe, to be chiefly inflidted, when it 
fhall fo pleafe God. 2dly, That Chrift, by the in- 
terpofition of his engagements for the eled, took 
upon himfelf all that curfe, which man was liable 
to, on account of fin ; hence it was, that, in order to 
the payment of the debt he engaged for, he led a 
life, in the afTumed human nature, fubjed: to many 
vicifTitudes of mifery, jufl like the life of a human 
finner. 3dly, That, as God ufes much forbearance 
with refped to fmners, and moderates the bitternefs of 
life v/ith fome fweetnefs of patience, till the day of 
vengeance, and of the retribution of his righteous 
judgment, when the whole weight of the curfe fhall 
light upon the condemned fmner \ fb alfo Chrifl, 
when in the form of a fervant, had not always a fenfe 
of the painful effe6ls of the fms, that were laid upon 
him, but fometimes rejoiced in an eminent mixture 
of favour •, till the hour and power of darknefs came, 
when, being called to the bar, he had eyery thing 
dreadful to undergo. 4thly. That as the death, 
v/hich confifls in the feparation of foul and body, is 
infli6led on, the finner man, as the fad effect of the 
wrath of God, *, fo in like manner Chrift underwent 
.the fame death, that, in this refped alfo, making 
fatisfadion to divine juflice, he might remove all the 
curfe of that death from the eledt. 5thly, In fine, 
that as all thofe miferies, taken together, are what 
fm deferves -, fo Chrifl, who, by his engagement, 
took upon himfelf all the debt of the eled, did, by 
all thefe miferies, to which he was fubjeft all Jiis life, 
fatisfy divine jurtice ; fo, that taken all together, 
they conititute the ranfom, which was due for our 
fins. This, if I miflake not, is the common opi- 
nion of our divines, which our Catechifm has alfo cx- 


Chap. 6. SATISFACTORY SuFFERi.vGs. 277 

prefTed, queji. 37; namely, that all the fufferings 
which Chrift endured both in foul, and body, thro' 
the whole courfe of his life, conflitute his one and 
perfefl fatisfa6lion ; tho' it be certain, that thofe 
were the moil grievous fufferings, with which he 
encountred on the lad night and day ; and that what 
he bore in his body, were far exceeded by thofe 
that opprelTed his foul : Juft as the whole of Chrift's 
mod holy obedience is imputed to us for righteouf- 
nefs, tho* he gave an eminent demonftration of it, 
when he was obedient to his father to the deaths even 
the death of the crofs \ which confided in a voluntary 
fubmilTion of foul, rather than in any thing he endur- 
ed in the members of the body, directed by his holy 
foul. Which we prove from Scripture in the fol- 
lowino; manner. 

IV. i?:^ When the Scripture fpeaks of the fa- Thefcrip. 
tisfadlion of Chrid, it afcribes it to the fufferings of ture a- 
Chrid in general, as Ifa. 53. 4, ftirely he hath born^^^]^^^ 
cur griefs and carried our forrows ; that is, he hath tfon to^" 
fuffered all the pains and forrows due to us for fin : chrift's 
and that not only for our good, but in our dead. TufFerings, 
For, V. 5, he was wounded for our tranfgreffons^ he ^"^^"^^^^« 
<was hruifed for our iniquities-^ fo that thefe fms were ^^^ ^-^^ 
the meritorious caufe of the griefs and anguidi of 

Chrid ; becaufe the Lord U V'^^r^ made them to light 
or rufh upon him, v. 6. and for thefe he was affli^ed, 
V. 7, when the iniquity of us all ti'JJ '-ji^as cxailed by 
God, as judge and avenger. But that affliction even 
then lay upon him, and our iniquity was exaded of 
him, when he was brought as a lamb to theflaughter, 
and as a fJoe'p before her fhearers, was dumb : which 
certainly happened before the three hours of darkncfs. 
V. 7. He therefore gives too great fcope to his 
fancy, who redrains the things, which are affirmed 
of the affli(flions, griefs and anguilli of Chrid in ge- 
neral, to the three hours fufferings. 

V. Add what the Apodle writes, Heb. 2. 10, for Heb.2.10 
it became him, to make the captain of their falvation 
perfe5l (to confecrate) through fufferings. So that 

T 3 thofe 

2jS Of C H R I S T's Book 2. 

thofe fufFerings, which Chrift endured, (and who 
fhall pretend to except any, the Apoftle fpeaking in 
fuch general terms?) were requifite, in order to 
Chrift's being a perfect faviour to us, and a facrifice 
confecrated and acceptable to God : for this the 
t£;\£Wk or perfe5iing of Chrift, fignifies ; the perforn-i- 
ing of all thofe things, to which he bound himfelf 
by his furetifhip, and eipecially of thofe required to 
the full accomplifhment of his facerdotal expiation. 
And the Apoftle applies the fuffcrings of Chrift to 
this perfe6ting, or confecrating. Whence Chryfoftom 
concludes well : Wherefore the fufferings are the per- 
feeing and the caufe of falvation. Nay, the facred 
writer had here in view all thofe fufferings, by which 
he learned obedience y for, being made perfect by them^ 
he became the author of eternal falvation unto all them 
that obey him^ Heb. 5. 8, 9. But he learned obe- 
dience not only by his three hours fufferings, but in 
general by all his fuffering •, from which he learned 
and experienced, the full extent of that obedience, 
to which he voluntary fubmitted : nay, indeed, he 
principally learned obedience from, his foi-egoing fuf- 
ferings, for, by thefe, as by certain principles, he 
was trained up to undergo thofe that were extremely 
painful. And thus, the caufe of our falvation Is 
afcribed to all the fufferings, which Chrift endured 
in the days of his fiefh. 
2. I Pet. VI. Peter^ i Pet. 2. 21, fpeaks the fame language-, 
^^* ChrijV^'^^^'^v ^^^?^i^<^'' fuffered for us. To fuffer here de- 

notes to be in affliction : for, all thofe fufferings are 
here intended, in which Chrift has left us an ex- 
ample of patience. Thefe fufferings he affirms to be 
for us., that is, undergone as well in our ftead., as for 
our good. For^ this is ordinarily the fignification of 
the word lin^ : as in Euripides in Alccfle., f" ^''^''^x' ^'^^p "^^ 
^'a.c^p?, j}y E7W -^rpi o-S, die nct for this man., as little fiall 
I for thee\ which is to be underftood in no other 
fenfe, but that of fubftitution •, as the fubjcd: of the 
tragedy, exibiting the wife dying in the room of 

2 her 

Chap.6. SATISFACTORY Suffer^incs. 27$ 

her hufband, plainly lliews. In the fame manner, 
Demofthenes in Corona^ f^ys, ^<^f^<^<^^ rha^, i^uxkov ^e iyu tSG' 
t-TTcp a-H iroina-ia, ajk thefe^ or rather I fioall do it for you. 
And that this is the true meaning of Feter^ we 
conclude hence, that in chap. III. 18, he fays, 
Chrifl fuffered/(?r 7?;/^ ; namely, that he might be 
the 'propitiation for our ftns^ i John, 4. 10. But the 
fufFerings, which Chrifl: underwent in our room, 
I imagine, may be faid to be fatisfadlory. 

VII. In fine, as the likenefs of ftnfiil flefh, or the Rom. 8.3. 
forrowful and contemptible condition of Chrift, runs 
parallel v/ith the whole courfe of his life, and he 

took it upon him for fin ; fo that God did therefore 
condemn fin^ and declare, it had no manner of right 
over believers, either to condemn them, or reign 
over them. Rom. 8. 3, it is manifefl:, that the Scrip- 
ture afcribes the fatisfa(5lion of Chrifl: to the whole 
of his humili ition -, confequently they don't take the 
Scriptures for their guide, who confine it to the fuf- 
ferings only of thofe three hours. 

VIII. 2dly, The Scriptures fo exprefsly declare, The cor- 
that Chrifl's death, even his corporal death, is to be P^^^J^ 
efteemed a part of his fatisfadlion, that it is aftonifliing cr/ift^alfc 
how any one could deny it. Thus If 53. 10, when fatisfac- 
thou fh alt make his foul (yj\\tx\ his foul fhall make itfelf) ^ory. 
Cui^^K an offering for fin \ which Chrifl: himfelf. Mat. ■^^•^3- J'^' 
20. 28, calls, to give his life a ranfom for man)\ and 

he fais, John, 10. 15, I lay down^ny life for thefheep. 
But to give his life^ is to die a corporal death, which 
the refurreftion puts an end to. For, thus Chrifl: 
explains it, v. 17, / lay down my life, that I may take 
it again. And John fais, chap. 19. 30, when de- 
fcribing the corporal death of Chrifl:, he gave tip the 
ghofl. The argument will fl:ill be fl:ronoer, if we 
confider, that here an allufion is made to that typi- 
ical fatisfadion, which was effeded by fliedding the 
blood of the via:im, fo feparated from the bod'y, as 
to be accompanie4 with death. But the blood is 

T 4 given 

Of CHRIST'S Book 3. 

given for the life. And therefore, a true fatisfac-r 
tion was made by the feparation of the foul from the 
body of Chrifl, in order to keep up the refemblance 
between the type and antitype. 
;o. IX. Add what Paul vv rites Fleb. lo. 20. hy a nev^ 
and living ivay^ which he hath confgcrated for us thro* 
thevail^ that is to fay ^ his flefh % the flelh of Chrift 
was doiibtlefs the vail, which hindred our accefs. 
For, while it flill continued entire, it was an indica- 
tion that fin was not yet aboUflied, nor the curfe 
rerrjoved. It was therefore necelfary, that the vaU ~ 
or flefh of Chrift iliould be rent, which v;as done, 
y/hen the fpirit quitted the flefli : For then the body 
Ceafing to be a iyPcem of organs, became a heap of 
^ufty particles, foon to return to dull, uniefs a fpeedy 
refurredion prevented it. And thus a new way was 
confecrated for us, that is, compleat liberty purr 
chafed, and hiU right to the heavenly f^n^luary. 
This Vv^as fignified and fealed by that rending of the 
vail in the temple, at the very indant of Chrift's 
death, Mat. 27. 51. FIcnce the body of Chriil is 
f^id tQ be broken for us, i Cor. 11. 24. It is not 
improperly obferved by the learned perlbn, that, up- 
on fliedding the blood of thit iacrifice, expiation was 
made, whipli w-as p/terwards to be prefented to God 
by bringing the blood into the holy of holies. But 
i wifh he v/ould confider, wjiat I have jull hinted, 
the feparation of the foul of Chriitfrom the body an- 
fwered to the fhedding of the blood, which is the 
rending of the vail, and breaking of the body, as 
the bringing the foul into heaven, to prefent to God 
the fatisfaution made by death, anfwers to the intrq- 
du^liqn of the blood into the holy of holies. 

X. And v/hat is more c^^ident than that pafTage, 
I Pet, 3, I p, Chrifi hath fuff ere d once for fins ^ being put to 
death intheflefh^ that is, in the body : where the death 
qf the body is f^rt forth as a part of thofe fufferings, 
which Chriil endured for fins, and Col. i. 21, 22. 


Chap.6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 2?i 

he hath reconciled ycu in the body of his flejh through 
death'. Rom. 5. 10. We "jo ere reconciled to God by the 
death of his f on: Heb. 9. i;;, that by means of death 
for the redemption of the trcnfgreffions that izere tinder 
the firfi teftatnent^ they which are called might receive 
the promife of eternal inheritance. And what death 
does Paul here mean ? Doubtlefs that, which mufb 
intervene for the confirmation of the teftament, 
V. 16, 17, which certainly is the death of the body : 
Rom. 8. 34, Who is he that condernneth ? It is Chrijl 
that died. To explain all this, in fuch a manner, as 
by death not to tinderftand what, in every language, 
the death of a man fignlftes •, namely, the feparation 
of foul and body, is harfli and, nnreafonable. 

XL 3dly, Befides, both Ifaiah and Peter affirm, that To the 
burhealinc; is, in a more eipecial manner, ov/ino-to the ^^'P^^of 


llripes of Chrift, as a part oi hisfufferings, Ifaiahsj.g. ^^^^ ^^^ 
I Pet. 2. 24,'while they fay, by^ or with., hisfiripes we healing. 
are healed. For, by that cruel fcourging, whereby 
the v^hcle body of the Lord Jefus was fo mangled, 
as, in a manner to become one continued (tripe, 
together with hi? other fufferings, he merited, that we 
fhould be delivered from the fufferings of Satan, and 
the (Irolves of divine vengeance. And when we fur- 
ther contemplate the fufferings of Chrift, and, amono- 
them, that cruel fcourging, whereby the Lord Jefus 
was made a fpeclacle to men and angels, we then un- 
derdand, v/hat the holineis of God is, what God 
requires, in order to the remiffion of fins, what the 
finner muff undergo, if he would make fatisfadion 
to God and to his holinefs, v/hat a dreadful thing fin 
is, and how miuch, in fine, v/e are indebted to 
Chrifi:, for enduring fo much for us. And this healing 
from fin is ours, if we dread the wrath of God, are 
in love with his holinefs, and make returns of love 
to Chrifl:. And thus it appears, tho' we fay we are 
healed by the fi:ripes of Chrill, as by an example ; 
yet, there is in the fcourging o'c Qhnil, a demonflration 
9/ ^l-'^ jt^ftic? of Cod^ that vfc may know it; and, by 



282 Of C H R I S T's Books. 

knowing it with due afFedlion, be rcftored to the 
likcnefs of God. In thefe flripes there is )yo)bm ^dtd, 
an exemplary punijhment i?nngmg peace to us : as we 
lately fhev/ed, that word imports. 
The ab- XII. 4thly, Nothing can appear more abfiird 
furdity ofthan to exclude from the fatisfaftory fufferings of 
^S Chrifl, by way of eminence that forrow of his foul, 
the fufter- ^^^^ great trouble and heavinefs, that horror and 
Gethfe- amazement, that exceeding great forrow, even into 
mane, death, thofe clots of bloody fweat, thofe prayers and 
from ^ fupphcations, with tears and flrong cries, the refult 
^dsfac- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ agony ; which the Hoiy Ghoft fo circum- 
tion.'* ftantially defcribes. This exceeding trouble and 
agony did not arife only from the fympathy of the 
foul with the body, nor from the mere horror of 
impending death: it was fomething elfe, that af- 
fiided the foul of Chrift ; namely, his bearing the 
fins, not of one, but of all the eled:: he had beheld 
the aweful tribunal of God, before which he was 
prefently to appear, in order to pay, what he took 
not away: he faw the judge himfelf armed with all 
the terrors of his incomprehenfible vengeance, the 
law brandifhing all the thunders of its curfes, the 
devil and all the powers of darknefs, with all the 
gates of hell juft ready to pour in upon his foul: in a 
word, hefawjuftice itfelf, in all its inexorable rigour, 
to which he was now to make full fatisfadion : he 
faw the face of his deareft father, without darting a 
fmgle ray of favour upon him, but rather burning 
with hot jealoufy in all the terrors of his wrath 
againil the fins of mankind, which he had undertaken 
to atone for. And whitherfoever he turned, not the 
lead glimpfe of relief appeared for him, either in 
heaven, or on earth, till, with refolution and con- 
flancy he had acquitted himfclf in the combat. 
Thele, thefe are the things, v/hich, not without 
reafon, ftruck Chrift with terror and amazement, 
and forced from him his groans, his fighs and his 
tears. And if all this was not for the expiation 


Chap. 6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 283 

and fatisfa(5lion for our fins, what reafon can be 
afljgned, why the other fufFerings of Chrift, within 
the three hours of darknefs, lliould be accounted 

XIII. He certainly forms too (lender a judgment J° ^onfu 
of them, who affirms, that thofe horrors, and this as^aVor?. 
anguifti, were, in comparifon of the more grievous tafteorthe 
tortures, which Chrift endured, on the crofs itfelf, pains of 
only to be deemed an antepaffion^ or a kind of 5^^ ^'"^^^» 
prelibation or foretafle. But neither do the fcrip- ^^^^^^^ ^ 
tures, which reprelent tlefc things with fuch a flow view, 
of words, nor our expofitors on Heb, 5. 7, fpeak in 
this manner, tho' a certain perfon perverts their 
words to that purpofe. And it would be difficult to 
point out, what the foul of Chrift endured on the 
crofs itfelf, which could fo vaftly exceed thefe 
horrors. There, he complained of forrow, here he 
was not filent; there he bore the curfe due to us, 
here he almoft funk under it; there he complained ^ 

of being forfaken of his father, here he almoft 
fainted away on taking the moft bitter cup of 
wrath: nay, greater figns of confternation could 
fcarce be obferved on the crofs, than what ap- 
peared here. We ftiallprefently reply to what we read 
about the comforting angel. It muft indeed have 
been an exceeding great diftrefs, at the firft onfet of 
which, refolution and conftancy itfelf began to he 
amazed^ in heavincfs^ and exceeding forrowful even unto 
deaths that made him offer prayers and fupplications 
to him, who could preferve him from death, with 
ftrong cries and tears ; that made him ftruggle with 
fo much agony, as rendered the appearance of a 
comforting angel neceffary, and made his fweat 
trickle down his body, like clots of blood falling 
to the ground : this difcovered a commotion of the 
fpirits and blood, as we fcarce, if ever, meet with a 
fimilar inftance in hiftory. Let us therefore beware, 
that we take not upon us, with too much confidence, 
to determine, v^'hat fuficrings of Chrift, and in what 


2S4 Of C H R I S T's Book2i 

degree, fome were more grievous than others : let us 
rather prize all of them, and acknowledge their pro- 
per weight and fatisfaftory value. This is far more 
iliitabie to the glory of Chrift, and to the fmceritj 
of our faith. 
Chrifl's XIV. f^thly, and lailly. Chriil endured all thofe 
fuiFerings, fufferings, either as a furety, or in fome other refped. 
T'^ .^^A^'Ifasa furety, we have what we plead for: for he 
be' all fa- engaged to fatisfy divine juftice, not only for our 
tisf^aory. good, but in our room, by undergoing the punifn- 
nient of our fins, the guilt cf which he voluntarily 
took upon himfelf. This is a fundamental point 
among the orthodox : nor will the learned perfon, 
whofe opinion we have taken in pieces, deny it. If 
we ieclude the confideration of a furetliliip, Chrift 
can be no othervvife confidcred than as innocent and 
perfccllv holy. But it does not leem to be very con- 
litlent with the juPcice of God, that an innocent 
perfon, as fuch, ihouid be pupiilied, to the fneddlng 
of his blcod, to cruel and inexprelTible agony of foul, 
in a word, to death itfelf. Or, Qiouid God, at any 
time, be pleafed to expofe an innocent creature to 
fuch dreadful tortures, in order to ihew his incon- 
teflable! authority ; it is not likely, !}e would choofe 
to give fjch a proof of it, in the perfon of his only be- 
loved f)n, who fully acknowledges the right or au- 
thority of the father. And then, of what ufe were 
thole fuficrings of Chrid, if not undergone in our 
room-? Was it, in order to confirm his docblne ? Or, 
to^ivea pattern of patience, and iliew us the way by 
which, thro' llraits and difficukies, vv^e might reach to 
things noble and divine ? Or was it, that being madG 
i merciful High Fried, he might readily afford af- 
fiffance to the tempted ? Or, was it to fulfil the truth 
cf the prophefies, and anfwer the fignification of the 
tvpes ^ But all thefe particulars, the blafphemous So- 
emus, with his followers, will eafily admit. And if 
we here ftop fhort, we allow no greater' value to the 
fuifci-ings of Chriiljthan what has been done by thefq 


Chap. 5. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 287 

worft perverters of our religion, and of the hope and 
confolation of believers. 

XV. But the very learned perfon takes a far differ- The fuf- 
entcourfe, whofe obfervations, which lately tame to ^"^^^^ of 
hand on account oftheir late publication, delerve {^/^L'^iif^ 
a particular hearing. Seeing the finner man, fays he, tinguifhed 
was, according to what God had threatned, become from thofe 
liable to death, till he had fatisfied divine juftice, °^ thrift. 
Gen. 2. 17, and was brought into that condition by ^eJ^'cr. 
the devil, who conquered man, and thereby became 
his lord, 2 Pet. 2. 19, under whofe dominion and 
captivity man afterwards lived. Now, in order 
to deliver, and perfedlly reflore him, it was neceffary, 
becaufe he could do neither of thefe things himfelf, 
both that another Jhotild undergo and conquer/?r bim 
the deaths which he defcrved^ and that another Jhotdd 
refcue him from the power of the devil^ and deliver him 
by force and military prowefs. The former re-^ 
quires a furef)\ who, taking guilt upon himfelf in 
man's name, fhould willingly and patiently undergo 
thejuft penalty from the hands of the mod righteous 
judge to his full fatisfadion. The latter calls for a 
■\ Redeemer^ who, by a jufl claim, may refcue flaves 
out of the hands of an unjuft tyrant, fuch as is he 
who, by fraud and violence, acquires a dominion ; 
and, by oppofition and refiftance, injures the inno- 
cent. For both thefe purpofes God appointed his 
own Son, whom, by an eternal covenant, he chofcto 
the mediatorial office ; and revealed in his word, that 
he fhould be the valiant conqueror of the fcrpent,- and 
the deliverer of fome men, Gen. 3. 15, alfo, a vica- 
rious fur ety^ and afterwards a facrifice, which was 
pointed out by clothing our firft parents with fkins, 
V. 21. The fufferings of Chrifl therefore are two- 
fold ; One, judicial^ which he endured as furety^ 

f The word fignifies an Avenger, or Deliverer: but the word 
rendered Redeemer in ijcripture, ukes in all thefe. 


286 Of C H R I S T's Book 2. 

juftlyonthc part of God, for the debts of others, 
which he had undertaken to pay, and which beino- 
done, a reconciliation is the confeqiience : the other, 
warlike^ which he endured as deliverer or redeemer, 
injuilly from the hands of his enemies, Satan and his 
inftruments, becaufe he will bring to falvation thofe 
whom he redeems by his ranfom. Both thefe kinds 
of fufferings belong to the perfe^iing of Chriil. 
A diftinc- XVI. In this difcourfe of the very learned perfon, 
fuffic"e'\ ^v^^y thing favours of learning, much alfo is genu- 
lyfolid. ine and folid, which I heartily approve. For, it is 
certain, that Chrift is not only our furety, but alio 
our deliverer; what merits our confiderationhere is 
only this, whether, v/hen Chrifl, by h\s judicial (uf- 
ferings 3.s furety, fully fatisfied divine juftice, other 
fufferings are alfo requifite, by which, as Redeemer, 
he might overcome Satan, and bring the redeemed 
to heaven by his ranfom. To me the matter ap- 
pears in this light; namely, as all the fufferings of 
men arife from the demerit of their fins, no matter 
whether immediately inflifled by God, or by means 
of Satan and his infaum.ents, Jer. 2. 15, 16, 17 ; fo, 
in like manner, all the fiifferings of Chrift arofe from 
the demerit of our fins : and when he had fatisfied 
divine juftice for thefe, he merited for his own de- 
liverance, not only from the wrath of God, but alfo 
from the tyranny of the devil ; but, in order to deliver 
his redeemed from thefe, there is no occafion for fuf- 
ferings of another kind, but only for his power and 
authority. It is fufficient for this, that he is the 
mighty God, If 9. 6, the mighty one of Jacob, If 60. 
16, ftronger than the ftrong inan, Luke, 11. 21, 22. 
I own Chrifl had to ftruggle with the devil, which 
* he could not do without fufferings : but even this 
very thing was owing to the demerit of our fins. 
For, when man had fufi^ered himfelf to be overcome 
by Satan, and when God had, by a juft fentence, 
delivered him up as a (lave to his tyranny ; it was ne- 
celfary that Chriil, as man's furety, ihpuld be ex- 


Chap. 6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 287 

pofed to and harrafled by the devil, that, in that 
refpecfh alfo, he might fatisfy divine jullice : nor 
could the devil and his inftruments ever have been 
able to give any vexation to Chrifl, had he not been 
charged with the guilt of our crimes, and by God 
the moft righteous judge expoled to injuries from 
them. Ads 2. 23. But we are to fpeak more at 
large of this prefently. 

XVII. And thus v/e are come to the examination The dif- 
of thofe diilindions, by which the learned perfon ^^"'^iori 
explains and maintains his caufe : namely, he diftin- com ^en- 
guiflies between compenfating and convincing 'punijh- fadng and 
ments^ between judicious and warlike fufferings. The convinc- 
meaning of the diftindions, if I rightly take them, ^^'^ 
is this-, compenfating punifhment is that, whereby ^"^"^^ggj^^ 
fatisfadion is made to divine juftice, of which Rom. plained. 
2. 5, 6, 8, 9, and called the wrath to come^ Mat. 3. 7, 
I Thef. I. 10. Co?rjincing punifiment is that, which 
is only inflided, in order thereby to convince man 
of his fin, tho' by undergoing it, no fatisfaclion is 
made to divine juftice, nor any guilt removed, buc 
flill remains to be further avenged. Such puniHi- 
ment the Scriptures call Tir:^^ mnnn convidions of 
wrath furious rebukes^ Ezek. 5. 15. ofthefeit is faid, 
Pf. 50. 21, inai^^ / will convince^ reprove thce^ and 
fet them in order before thine eyes. Judiciary fuffer- Judiciary 
ings are thofe which are inflided by God, as an im- and war- 
partial judge, for a compenfation,orfati£fadion, to his ^^' 
juftice, and in which there is wrath ; and thus they 
are the fame with compenfating punifbments. War- 
like fufferings are thofe, to which Chrift was ex- 
pofed, when confliding with the devil, who perfe- 
cuted him immediately upon his birth by means of 
Herod^ afterwards tempted him in the wildernefs, 
and many ways reviled and male- treated him by the 
enraged minifters of his malice, according to what 
God fays. Gen. 3. 15. And I will put enmity, &c. 
In thefe, with refped to Chrift, there was no wrath 


S88 Of CHRIS T^s Book2i 

of Gbd; but rather tended to grace and glory^ 
as when one fuffers for righteoufiiefs fake, i Pec? 

4- 14- 
Paternal XVIII. To this we reply as follov/s : No doubtj 
chaiHfe- a diftindtion is to be made between the calamities, 
^•2^^ whereby God brings believers and his eled:, to the 
frVm the knowledge and fenfe of their fins, and which fpririg 
punifh- from love, and are called Heb. 12. 6, fatherly chaf- 
_ment of ^ tifements ; and the caL-imities, v/hich are inflided on 
judge. ^YiQ wicked, who are under the v/rath and curfe of 
God. But to make fome of the punifhments of the 
wicked only convincing, and others compenfating^ 
has neither the countenance of Script,ure nor rea- 
-All the XIX. The. Scripture, indeed, fpeaks of /^^ wr^/y^ to come^v^\v[Q\\^ doubtlefs, is compenfating •, but the^r 
dirwick- ^^^^ frequently mention a prefent wrath and curie, 
cd,eveninPf. s^. 8, and Pf. 59. 25, compare 2 ThelT. 2. i6\ 
this life, John 3. 36, the wrath of God ahideth on him. 
compen- -wj^erefore unregenerate fmrters are called, Eph. 2. 3, 
"^* opv>j? children of zvrath^ not only becaufe they are 
liable to .the wrath to come, but alfo on account of 
the wrath and curfe of God actually hanging ovet 
them, while they are not tranflated unto the king- 
dom of his dear fon. For the wrath of God is re- 
Z'ealed fro?n heaven againfl all ungodlinefs and iinright- 
eoufnefs of men^ Rorn. i. 18. Which wrath of God 
againft the wicked, being very different from that, 
vnt\\ which he is laid to be angry againft the fins of 
his own children, no reafon can be affigned, why it 
may not be deemed compenfating, as it^ is the be- 
ginning of the eternal curfe, from vfhich it differ:* 
not in elTence, but only in degree. 
And raU ^^- ^-^^' ^^'^'^^ ^'^^^ prcfent wrath is a judiciary 
kd in punifhmenr, inflicted by the righteous fentence of 
.scripture God, on the wicked. The obftinatc unbeliever 
j'^'-'^- y,o% xEKprav /J condemned already^ John 3. 18. God, in 
"''''^'' puniihing the wicked in this fife, rim^) ^h2 cd>d.i>u^ 



executes judg7nents in anger and in fury ^ Ezek. ^. 15. 
As in Egypti he executed a^^^J ti^^'iDtvj great judgments^ 
Ex. 6. 6. and 7. 4. Thatall may know, V"^^^'-^ cd^ddil* 
b»n7K that /^^/V^ God tbat jndgeth in the earthy Pf. 58. 
I T. Bur, vvhy may not a judiciary punilhment be alfo 
deemed compenfating ? 

XXI. And then thofe i3uniil)ments of the wicked, Wratn 
called in Scripture riinain, rebukes^ are fometimes andcom- 
fo defcribed, as that they muft be cbmpen latino;, penratiori 
For, whatelfe is a compenfating puniQiment, but the InJ^ti^g'^'' 
Vengeance of an offended God, on thofe that defpife wicked„ 
him, in order to manifed his hatred againO: them ? 

But all this is contained in thofe convincing rebukes, 
which the 'Lord denounces againft the Pbiliflines^ 
Ezek. 25. 17, And I will execute great v en gf. an ce 
upon thera with furious rebukes-, and they jh all 
know that t ar,i the Lord^ when I Jhall lay my yen gz- 
ANCE upon them. 

XXII. Convincing or rebuking punifhments are Compeh- 
alfo no lefs compenfating. Who Ihalldeny that it is fating pu^ 
a compenfating punilhment, when. God confumes "i^^e^ts 
the wicked in his fury .^ For that, in the higheft de- conviiTc^ 
gree, convinces them of their guilt. Ff 59. 13. ing. 
confume them in wrath^ confume them^ that they maj not 

he \ and let them know^ that God ruleth in Jacobs unto 
the ends of the earth. And furely nothing can con- 
vince the wicked more of the heinoufnefs of their 
fins, than a punilhment heightened to the greateft 
degree, as a compenfating punilhment is, and in 
which there is a moft evident demonitration of the 
wrath of God. Defervedly therefore we reject that 
diftindion, which has not any foundation in Scrip- 
ture, and whofe parts are contrary to the rules of 
found logick. 

XXIli.Buttho' v/e fhould admit thatdiflinclion in Punillt^ 
general, hov/ is it applicable to the fuflttrings of^aents 

Chrift.? Here, I own I do not fully underfland the ";^^"^?>' 
, - - ' . ^- L r ' convince 

learned author's meaning. To what purpoic, is i^,^ j^^^i 

this diftinclion of convincing and compenfating pu- ncTplact 

7 VaL. I. U ntlhmcnts? i« <^^ri^-- 

df CHRIS T's Book^. 

nirfimcnts? Is it, that as the punifhments, which 
the wicked endure in this life, are only convincing; 
and a connpenfating punifhment will at length be 
inflicted, at the day of wrath and judgment: fo alfo 
the fufferings, which Chrili underwent during the 
whole time of his life, anfwer to thofe convincing 
punifhments, and the three hours fufferings, to the 
compenfating punifhment? But what neceflity to 
exact convincing punifhments of Ghrift, feeing he 
both perfeflly owned, and voluntarily confefTed, the 
guilt of thofe fins, he had taken upon him, and mofl 
willingly performed every thing, by which he might 
expiate that guilt ? Was it perhaps with this view, 
that, from a fight of the fufferings of Chrift, be- 
lievers mierht be convinced of their fins ? But that 


cannot be done more efFeclually,- than when they 
confider them as punifhments due to their fins, and 
as a fatisfadion for them. As therefore no punifh- 
ments of Chrift can be faid to be merely convinc- 
ing, it remains, that all of them are compenfat-* 
ing or fatisfa^ory j which is what we contend 

XXIV. The diflinflion' between judiciary and 
warlike fufferings is no lefs impertinent. For, Chrift 
incurred no fufferings but by the fentence of God 
the judge. When Chrift was affii5led^ the iniquity cf 
us all ^^^i was exatled^ Is. 53. 7. But that was the 
exadion of the judge. When Satan, with his in- 
fernal powers, affauked Chrift, then was the power of 
darknefs, Luke 22. 53, God, in confequence of a 
determinate fentence, permitted the prince of dark-' 
nefs to harrafs Chriil. And Chrift, in preparing 
himfelf for that confliiSt, had in view that fentence, 
or commandment of God, as he himfelf fpeaks,^'^^^ 
14. 31. 

XXV. What elfe is that very word of God, from 
v.'hich the original of the warlike fufferings is derived, 
than the fentence of God the judge, againft the fer- 
pent, who was to be deftroyed by Chrift,. and againft 


C/iap.6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings; 291 

Chrift's human nature, in which he trod the earth, Chrifland 
which was to be harafTed and flain by the ferpent ? ^^^ ^^^" 
I would fain know, if what is foretold concerning ^^" * 
the bruifing of his heel, does not alfo compnfe 
thofe fufFerings of Chriil, which are judiciary. If 
not, the fird gofpel promiie does not explain the 
method of obtaining falvation by the fatisfadion of 
a Mediator : And, if the words contain an enig- 
matical fummary of our belief, we muft then be ob- 
liged to believe, that they fignify lefs than they 
can, or, is proper that they fhould ; but if, as is cer- 
tainly right, we allow, that the fatisfadory fuffer- 
ings of Chrift, are comprehended in thefe words, 
it is wrong to build this new diflindion upon 

XXVI. Let us dwell a little longer on this medita- Chrift ex- 
tion. Whatever power the devil has to harrafs wick- P^^^^^ ^^ - 
ed men, before they are dragged to eternal death, ^^^^^^"^^^ 
he has it by the righteous fentence of the judge, f vii, only* 
Peter mentions the confequence of this, 2 Pet. 2.19. by the 
Theeledt themfeives, as finners, were alfo fubjedto Sentence 
that power, and, on that account ''are truly faid to °^^^° ^ 
be not only the prey of the mighty^ but If 49. 24,''^ "^ ' 
are likewife called, lawful captives^ he having a right 

over them by the fentence of the fupreme judge. 
But as Jefus the furety came in their room, fo, in 
virtue of the fame fentence, he became futjed to the 
buffetings of Satan. And by this means all he fuffer- 
ed from the devil, was in the moil: proper fenfe ju- 

XXVII. It is no objection to this truth, that thofe No ob- 

conflidts with Satan proved glorious to Chrifl, as ^f'^^^?' 

having endured them, becaufe of the jullice, and for Jo^b^t^ 

with the 
• ^ — — „-«..___ ^g^.j 

t The Apoftle, in the laft quoted text, fpeaks nothing, as Tap- ^[°^ 
prehend, of Satan's power, but only of the fervants of corruption, ^ ^ 
and of their bondage, and therefore, inftead of faying what the ^° 
author, in his fhort way of exprefiion, vjhich Petsr has exprejjcdt 
I have rendered it as above. 

U 2 advancing 

T proved 
lac- ^1 . 
^ _'-ious 

to Chriil: 

Of C H R I S T*s 

Book 1 

are al fo 

ments tor 
the oppo- 
fite opi- 


advancing the glory of God. For, all Chrifl's fuf- 
ferings, even thofe which, according to this new 
hypothecs, we (hall call judiciary, if the caufe and 
event be confidered, were highly glorious to him. 
He never more glorioufly difplayed his love to 
God and man, he never undertook a more excellent 
work, which the whole choir of angels beheld 
with greater applaufe, and God the Father himfelf 
was never more pleafed with it, than when, hanging 
on the crofs, he refolutely ftruggled with the hor. 
rors of eternal death. But if we confider this thing as an 
evil, contrary to nature, which is earneftly bent upon 
its own advantage, certainly, in thefe harralTings of 
Satan, there was the wrath of God againft fm, which 
Chrifl had taken upon himfelf. 

XXVIII. And, why (hould not thofe fufferings 
be called warlike, which, according to this hypo- 
thefis, are judiciary ? For, who will deny, that 
Chrifl, when hanging on the crofs, was, as it were, 
wreftling with the infernal powers, and the horrors 
of eternal death ? Indeed, Paul teftifies, that Chrift 
had xhtn fpoiled principalities and powers^ made a Jhew 
of them openly ^triumphing over them in the crofs^QoX. 2. 
1 5. But who can refufe, that there was firfl: a con- 
fiidl before fuch a noble triumph and viflory ? From 
all thefe things we conclude, that the diftindlion of 
puniihments into convincing and compenfating, 
and of fufferings into warlike and judiciary, is both 
unfcriptural, antifcripturaland irrational. 

XXIX. Let us now come to the arguments of the 
oppofue fide, as far as they have come to our know- 
ledge. Some of them ate general againft all the fuf- 
ferings of Chrift, and others more fpecial againft 
fome parts of his fufferings. The general are partly 
taken from Scripture, partly from the Apoftle's 
Creed, and partly from the Catechifm. 

XXX. From Scripture they argue in the follow- 
ing manner: ift, That the (in of the whole earth 
fhall be removed in one day, according to Zech. 3. 9. 
And Paul feveral times affirms, that the one offering 



ofChrlfl:, once made on the crofs, was that expia- 
tory facrifice, by which all the eled are perfeded, 
Heb. 9. 28. and 10. 10, 12, 14: and therefore the 
preceeding fufFerings of Chrifh were not fatisfadtory. 
:?dly. Further, that Chrift, from the beginning of 
his life, was neither a prieft, who could oiler an ex- 
piatory facrifice, nor a facrifice, which could be offer- 
ed, Is^ot a prieft, becaufe he could not lawfully 
be one before the thirtieth year of his age : not a, 
facrifice, as a lamb could not be fuch before the fe- 
venth day. But the truth of the types ought to ap- 
pear in Chrift. 3dly, Moreover, that Chrill thro' 
the whole of his life, except for a few hours, was 
in the favour of God, Luke, 2. 52, increafed in fa- 
vour with God: Mat. 3. 17, was declared to be the 
beloved Son of God, Mat. 17. 2, was glorified in the 
mount: Luke 10. 21, rejoiced in fpirit. But at the 
time, in which he was in the favour of God, and re- 
joiced, he did not bear the wrath of God. 

XXXI. From the Creed it is obferved, that pro- From the 
feiTngour faith concerning the fatisfaftory fufterings Apoftle's 
ofChrift, we do not barely fay, that he fuffered, but ^^^^^• 
that he fuffered under Pontius Pilate^ words never to 

be disjoined, to teach us, that only thofe fufferings 
v/ere fatisfadtory, which he endured under Pilate. 

XXXII. From the \_Heidelberg] Chatechifm are From the 
quoted queflions, 31, 6j^ 70, 75, 80, where the im- ^^}^' 
petration of our falvation is referred to the one offer- "*• 
jng of Chrifl, once made on the crofs. But as to 

what is alledged to the contrary, from quefl. -^j^ 
where it is laid, that for the whole time of his life 
U'hich he lived upon earthy efpecially at the end thereof 
he fujiained the wrath of God againfi the fin of all man* 
kind^ both in body and foul •, they anfwer, that, to fuftain 
the wrath of God, there, cannot fignify, to feel the 
v/rath of God, but to be bound to endure it. They 
illuftrate and prove this explication by quefb. 84^ 
where it is declared, concerning unbelievers and hypo- 

V 3 cri;e«„ 

^94 Of G H R I S T*s/ Book 2; 

c rites, that the wrath of God and eternal damnation do 
lie on them fo long as they go on in their fins: which 
cannot be underilood of a compenfatingpunifhment, 
tmlefs we would fuppofc, that the wicked, by fuffer- 
ing on earth, make latisfadion to divine jufliCe, 
which is abfurd. It therefore follows, that we ex- 
plain this of their being obnoxious to divine wrath, 
and eternal damnation. Since in the fame {tn^t^ our 
Lord declares, John. 3. 36, he that believeth not the 
Son^ the vjrath of God ahideth on himy that is, he is 
obnoxious to wrath. 
Sins can. XXXIII. To thefe arguments we humbly reply, 
celled, as follows : and to the first we fay, that all Chrift's 
rttemiol fiifferings together, ought 10 be efleemed one full 
farthing accomplifhment of that facerdotal office, which our 
was paid. Lord undertook, in order to expiate our fins, which 
was at lafl fully compleated, when Chriil, dying on 
the crofs, offered himfelf to the Father for a fvveet 
fmelling favour: then the utmoft farthing was paid : 
this being done, God declared, he was fatisfied to 
the full, and on that day he blotted out the fins of 
the whole earth, and crofifed them out of his booko 
But from this it cannot be inferred, that the pre- 
ceding fufi'erings of Chrift were not fatisfadory \ but 
that then only the fatisfadion was completed ; of 
which completion this was the fruit, that on that very- 
day, the fins of all theeledt were blotted out. And 
Expiation this is the mind of God in Zachariah. But what 
^f \^k ^' -^^^^ ^^ often fpeaks of the one offering, by which 
ihecrofr ^^ ^^^ perfeded, is to be undcrfiood in the fame 
of Chriljf, fenfe: namely, fince the fufferings of Chriil, when 
as bein^ on-the crofs, were the moil grievous, and the com- 
the comV piement of the whole, therefore, the Scriptures com- 
his^7uff"er- rrionly afcribe the expiation of our fins to the crofs 
i'ngs. - of Chrift •, becaufe, without that, his foregoing fuffer- 
ings had not been fufficient, as the payment of the 
utmoft farthing compleats the fatisfaftion, which is 
' immediately followed by teariqg the hand writing, 

and giving adifchargc. 


Chap. 6 SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 295 

.XXXIV. To thefecondvjt reply: That here are Chrlfl, 
many things afTerted, which we can by no means yield ^ °"^ . 
to. id. It is not true, that Chriit was not a prieft of hislifc, 
from the beginning of his life. For, from the be- a prieljt. 
ginning of his life, he was the Cbrijt, that is, the 
Lord's anointed, no lefs to the faeti^ dotal than to his 
other offices. And fince, when he lay in the manger, 
he was faluted King by tiie wife men, and, when twelve 
years old, he fhewed himfelf a Prophet amidft the doc- 
tors ; who will after all this, prefume to deprive him 
of the honour of his priejlhood? And as it belonged to 
the priefts to ft and in the houfe of the Lordy Pf 134. i ; 
was there not fome difplay of his facerdotal office in , 
that apology to his parents, wift ye not that J muft be 
about my father's hufinefs. Luke, 2. 49. Nay, even 
before his incarnation, he exibited fome prelude of 
his facerdotal funflion by his intercefijon for the 
church, Zech. i. 12, 13. We own, indeed, that 
Chrift was publickly inaugurated in the 30th year 
of his age to his mediatorial office : but we can no 
more infer from that, that Chrift was not a pricft, 
than that he was not mediator, before that time 

XXXV. I cannot but here fubjoin the very folid Cloppcn- 
reafoning of the celebrated Cloppenhurg^ from his \*a, 
Difputat. de vita Chrift i privata, §. 15, 16. It could ' 

not he^ hut that^ in the daily practice of piety ^ and the 
obedience due to Gcd^ which he performed in the days of 
his flefh^ Chrift^ who knew his un^ion from a child^ (as 
appears from Luke 2. /\^) fhould offer prayers and fup- 
fUcationsfor thefalvation of the churchy whofe king and 
Jdviour he was born: compare Luke ^ 2. 11, with Heb, 
5. 7. And there is no reafon^ why we may not extend the 
words of the Apoftle to all the days ofhisfiefh^ and all the 
fufferings he endured from his infancy ; becaufe^ by thefe 
he learned obedience : and fo it was altogether the con» 
ftant appre-nticefhip or novitiate of the mediatorial office 
of Chrift^ who walked from a child with Gcd : wherein 
he from day to day fulfilled^ by a pcrfevering obedience^ 
y4 th^ 

Igg Of C H R I S T*s Books. 

the work which the father had given hir/i for the redemp" 
tion of the churchy which vjas to he fully compkaied by 
crowning his whole obedience with the offering up of him- 
felf afacrifice^ when hejhould be fuhlickly called thereto,, 
John, 17.4, A6l:s, 2. 23. 
Chrift XXXVI. 2dly, Neither is It true, that Chrift 

from t e Hot a fftcrifice from the beginning; of his life, 

beginning 7,1- rr - " . i^ i r 

pf hislife^ For,, tho his ofienng was compicated on the crois, 
g f^crifice. and by his death, yet he was even before that, ths 
lamb cfGody that takeihaway theji'ri of the world ^^ohvi i , 
29. The iniquities of us all were laid upon hirn •, and 
\% was for no other caufe, that he took upon hiip the 
.form of a fervant, and the likenefs of finful flelh, and, 
tho' he was rich, yet, for our fakes, became poor 3; 
and in fine,v;as expofed from his very infancy, to 
griefs, forro'vvs and perfecutions. All rhefe calami- 
tics proceeded from this, that, as both prieft and 
facrifice, he took our fms upon himfjlf. in order to 
|heir being at lail fully aboliilied by his aear.h. 
The con-. XXXVIJ. 3dly, TheprQof of this paradoxical af- 
trary not ferpon, taken from the types of the Old Teftamentj 
Xhtlyxy^ is, in many refpeds defe6tive. For, i. There is no 
'^ * * folid foundation for that hypothefis, that all the 
circumftances of the types ought, in the fame man- 
ner, to be found in the antitype. For then, it would 
follow, that Chrift mull have beepflain at a year old, 
a^'cording to the type of the pafcal lamb. 2. It is 
aifo a ralh airerticn, that none could a6t as a prieft 
before his 30th year. There is no fuch command in 
iacred v/ritings. The Levites, indeed, were, by the 
"^ annal law, not admitted before their 25th year. 
Numb. 8. 24, nor before their 30th year, to the full 
exercife of their funiftion^ Numb. 4. 3. But indeed, 
I find no whicre among the Rabbins, fays Scldcn^ de 
fuccejjion, (id Pontificcih^ '^hra'cr. lib. l, <". 4, that th^ 

^ The author feeins to refer to x\\t iaw, which debarred c^ad|'* 
^^^ei from an oinc;?, tiij jlich i^ jig*;, Cic, dc l-fgg« 3. 3, 


Chap. 6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 297 

years of the Levites^ as Levites, indicated the legal age 
of the friefls. And I very much wonder^ great men 
pjould admit of this^ even while they ftmrply criticife 
upon others. It is the conftant tradition of the He- 
brews, that a prieft is fit for his office at his 13th 
year, after his years of puberty, tho' he is not bound 
to take his turn with the reft, before his 20th year. 
See Ouiram de facrific. lib. i. c. 5. §. 3. Jofephus re- 
lates of Ariflobtdtts^ that when a young man^ and cut 
of his 1 1th year^ he by the law^ afcended the altar to 
officiate. 'Tis aftonifhing, the very learned peribn 
did not attend to thefe things, which, from his fl<:ill 
in the Hebrev/ ritual, he could not be ignorant of. 
3. If this argument is to be urged, it would thence 
follow, that Chrift could have been a facrifice after 
the 7th day from his birth, and immediately upon 
his 30th year, be a prieft •, which is contrary to what 
is llippofed in the fcntiment we here oppofe. 

XXXVIII. To the 3d, we reply, ift. That the in what 
queftion is not, whether Chrift did, all his life long, Tenfe 
io endure the wrath of God, as in the mean time ^'^"^ ^^' 
to be favoured with no confolation, or joy of the com- ^^,^^^1^ ^^ 
fcdrting fpirit : none will affirm this. But the queftion GoJ, all 
is, whether all thofe fuffrrings, which Chrift at any his lite. 
time endured, and all that form of a fervant, which 
he afTumed, belong to the perfedlion of his fatisfac- 
tion ? A thing that cannot be overthrown by fome 
fhining intervals of joy, now and then. 2cily, To y^rj^-^^j^ j^^ 
be the beloved Son of God, and at the fame time to could 
fuffer the wrath of God, are not fuch contrary things, bear, and 
as that they cannot ftand together. For, as Son, j^Q^^^^^g^j' 
as the holy one, while obeying the father in all j^f qq^^ 
things, he was always the beloved ; and indeed, moft 
of all, when obedient even to the death of the crofs : 
for, that was To pleafing to the fadier, that on ac- 
count of it, he railed him to the higheft pitch of 
e:^altation, Phil, 2, 9; tho*, as charged with our fins, 
h^fclt the wath of God, burning, notagainft him^ 


298 Of C H R I S T's Boofea* 

•feif, but againft our fins, which he took upon hiknr 
felf. Who can doubt, that Chrifl, even hanging 
on the crofs, was in the highefl love and favour of 
God, fo far as he v/as fon, tho' at the fame time 
he was made a curfe for our fins ? 3dly, It has never 
been proved, that it was a thing improper and in- 
confiftent, for Chrid to have fome mitigation granted 
him, while he fatisfied for our lins, by mean§ of fome 
rays of confolation, at intervals, fhining in upon 
him, by which he might be animated refolutely to 
acquit himfelf in the confiid. Nor is it credible, 
that he had always the fenfation of divine wrath, 
or that it was always equally intenfe, even on the 
very crofs itfelf •, or, that he was as much prefled 
down by his agonies, when he made a promife of 
Paradife to the thief, and fpoke fo affedionately with 
his mother and John, as when he complained, that 
he was forfaken of God. See that kind addrefs of 
God the Father to Chrift, when defpifed hy every onCy 
and aihore4 hy the nation^ and a fervant of rulers^ 

If. 49- 7- 
Ylie XXXIX. What is argued from the Creed, fcarce 

Greed de- deferves any anfv/er. For, when Chrift is faid to 
nies not j^^^e fuffered under Pontius Pilate, it v^ras with no 
f ^^^^.wl""^^'^^ intention, as to diftinguifh the fatisfa6lory fuffer- 
Chrii'to' ings of Chrift from thofe which are not: a fidion, I 
befatif- imagine, that none ever thought of: but ftmply to 
faaory. fpeclfy the time, in which Chrift compleated his fuf- 
terings, and the perfon, by wliofe authority, he was 
condemned to the crofs. Nor will the maintainer 
of this paradox al?irm, that ail the fufferings, which 
Chrift endured under Pilate, or by his authority, 
were fatisfodory -, for, if the fatisfadtion muft be 
reftricled to th;^ three hours of darknefs, then, both 
the fcourging, and thofe indignities, which Chrift 
fuffered in the pretorium, and his condemnation, 
ray, his very crucifixion and deat,h muft be ex- 

XL. It 

Chap. 6. SATISFACTORY Sufferings. 299 

XL. It is certain a violence is*dont the Catechifm, The Ca- 
which refers the impetration of our falvation to the ^^^^'"^ 
one offering of Chrill, with no other defign, than ^^^^ 
what Paul does, wliofe mt-aning I have ahxady ex- 
plained. The words of qucfl. XXXVII. appe;ir to 
be perverted and mifinterpreted. id, Becaufe it is 
an anfwer to this queftion. PVhat helievejl thou^ ivhen 
thou fay eft \ he suffered ? But that expreflion he 
fuffercd^ does not fignify the bare fufception of guilt, 
but the enduring of forrows. 2dly, If to endure the 
'wrath of God does not there fignify to feel it, but 
only to take its guilt upon himfelf, or be expofed to 
it, it would follow, that even at the clofe of his life 
he did not feel the wrath of God. For, in the fame 
fenfe, the Catechifm afiirms that very thing of the 
whole of Chrift's life, and of the clofe thereof. 3dly, 
Vrf.nus is a more faithful interpreter of the Catechifm, 
•when h^wviteSy under the appellation of fuffering^ are 
underftood^ all the infirmities^ miferieSy griefs^ racking 
tortures of foul and hody^ to whichy on our account^ 
Chrift was obnoxious ^ from his nativity to his laft breathy 
^c. 4thlyf 'Tis in vain to feek for any pretence to 
this forced fenfe from queftion 84, and John, 3. 36. 
For, it is not an obnojfioufnefs to the v/rathofGod 
that alone hangs over unbelievers and hypocrites -, 
but they are really in a ftate of wrath and curie ; and 
that curfe, which they are now under, is the be- 
ginning and a part of thofe pains, which they (hall 
fuffer for ever. 

XLI. The more fpecial arguments or exceptions. More fpf, 
either regard the death of Chrift, or his agonies in ^'^'^^^''o^- 
the garden, or are taken from the bcgining and end ''"^'^^^* 
of the folar eclipfe ; which I fhall fet in fuch a light, 
as at the fame time to refute them. 

XLII. If any fliall fay, that the Scripture, when That 
afcribing our redemption to the death of Chrift, means ^eath of 
by that death thofe very intenfe pains of eternal death, ^jji^^?'. 
which Chrifr endured both in foul and body toge- ^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
thcr, when he; complained, that he was forfaken of figmfies, 

God ; 


Of C H R I S T's Book 2. 

not only God ; I anfwer, that indeed they are not, on any ac- 
the pains count, to be fecluded from the compafs or extent of 
deatTw ^h^ w^^*^ death ; but the death of Chrift is not to be 
alio the confined to them, fo as to exclude the death of the 
death of body, or the feparation of foul and body. For, 
the body, p^^^y fpeaks exprefsly of his being put to death in the 
flejl:>y 1 Pet. 3. 18, and the whole Scripture afcribes our 
ranfom to that death ; from which Chrift arofe by his 
refurredion : and in fine, Paul makes the facrifice, 
which Chrill offered, to confiftin a death, which is likC' 
to that which is appointed for all men once to un- 
dergo, Heb. 9. 27, and which, verfe 26, i:5 a facrifice, 
and was (hadowed forth by the flaying of the legal 
facrifices. And we have already mentioned feverai 
places, which cannot, without manifeft violence, be 
fo explained, as to exclude the death of the body 
from being included in his death. 
Ift what XLIII. If you objed, that Chrift had before fald, 
isnfe it isfiniped^ I aniwer, it ought to be underftood of 
Chriil ^ hisiinilhing all thofe things, which he was to fufter, 
^f'\ ^y^ and do in life, lb that nothing remained, but to con- 
^^^ ^ * elude the whole by a pious death. Juft as Fanl 
faid, 2 Tim. 4. 7, / have finifhed my courfe. And 
Chrift himfelf, John, 17. 4, I havefinijhed the work ^ 
which thou gav eft me to do. Whence one would ab- 
furdly infer, that there remained for Chrift, on fay- 
ing this, nothing further to be done or fuffered ; 
when he was ftill to be made perfedt by his laft fuf- 
ferings. The meaning is evident; namely, that 
Chrift, in dilcharging his office, had perfedly per- 
formed all he v/as^thus far to perform. 

XLIV. If you infrft upon it, that his death was 
^cntir ^'^^^ ^"^ gentle, without the appearance of any pains 
leathnot of eternal death, having already undergone thefe. 
wuhoiu a I anfwer-, it was a gentle death indeed, in fo far as 
cuiie. ^\^^ faith of Chrift, now vidorious over all tempta- 
tions, was well apprized, that he had furmounted the 
greateft pains, and was fecure about his refurredion 
and the promifed reward j but yet he died a curfed 


Chap.6. SATISFACTORY Suffei^ings. 301 

death, infiifted by the wrath of God againfl fin, and 
the curfe of it was typically figured by his hangino- 
on the tree, which flill continued in and after death. 
For, while he hung on the tree, fo far he was doubtlefs 
under the curfe, according to Gal. 3. 13. By which 
is fignified, that his puniHiment ought to be taken 
as holding forth guilt, and the curfe of God. 

XLV. But, fay you, believers are ftill to die ; and The 
therefore Chrill did not fat-isfy for them by his death. ^^^}^ ^^ 
I anfwer, the Catechumens have been taught to an- "^1^^^"^ 
fwer this objedlion from J qitefi, 42, of the Heidelberg m^ent^"" 
Catechifm. By the death of Chrift, death hath gainft the 
ceafed to be, what it was before, the punifhment in- ^atisfafto- 
fii(5led by an offended judge, and the entrance into '^^l^j^^.^, 
the fecond death, and is become the extermination of 
fin, and the way to eternal life ; and at the lafl: day 
it fhall be altogether abolifhed. And if you go on 
to argue in this manner, I fhall eafily make it appear 
from your own hypothefis, that even that very an- 
guifh of Chrift, when he complained of his being 
forfaken of God, was not fatisfadory for us ; for be- 
lievers themfelves often complain of fpiritual defer- 
tion : But Zion /aid, mn> on?y the Lord hath forfaken 
mey If. 49. 14. Where we have the very fame 
word, which the Lord Jefus ufes Pf. 22. 2. And 
Zion fays fo truly, with refpedl to the fenfe of grace, 
and the influence of fpiritual confolation. The dif- 
ference between the defertion, whereby Chrift was 
forfaken of his father, and that of believers, confifts 
in this, that, in the former, there was the wrath and 
curfe of God, and the /d?r^;7^/ nature of pun ifhmenr, 
which are not in the latter ; neither are thefe in 
their death. 

t C^ But fince Chrift died for us, why muft we alfodie? 
A. Our death is not a fatisfaflion for fin, but the abolifhing of 
fin, and our paffage into everlafting life. 

XLVI. What 

302 Of C H R I S T's^ Book 2^ 

Thebeing XLVI. What is objefled to our argument, taken 
llrength- f^Q^ j.}^g agonies of Chrift in Gethfema7ie^ is very in- 
angel, no ^o^^ift^nt- They fay, that thefe fafferings were not 
objedllon fatisfadlory, becaufe then, an angel appeared to com- 
to the fuf fort him j whereas, a good angel could not have 
the"arden ^^^^ ^^^^' ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ grievous fm againO God, 
being fa- if Chrift was then actually making fatisfadion •, ef- 
tisfad-ory. pecially as he was to tread this wine-prefs alone, 
and it was foretold, that, while making fatisfadion, he 
ihould be deprived of all confolation, Pf 69. 20, 
there is none to take pity, comforters I found none ; for, 
J ft. That angel did not tread the wine-prefs together 
with the Lord Jefus ; nor bear any part of his fuffer- 
ings, nor, by any natural influence, did he afTift 
Chrrft in carrying that burden. He ftrengthned 
Chrift only in a moral fenfe, by fetting before him 
the glorious iffue of the conflicl he had undertaken, 
and by other arguments to the like purpofe. 2dly, 
There is no reafon, why fome fmall fhare of comfort 
fhould not be adminiftered to Chrift, while in the 
ad of making fatisfadtion ; efpecially if with a view 
to preferve him for more, and not fewer fufferings* 
The words of Pf. 69, are not to be taken in 
fuch a general fenfe, as to exclude all manner of con- 
folation and pity \ for, a great company of people and 
of women bewailed him, Luke, 23. 27, asdid alfo all 
the people that came together to that fight, and fmote 
upon their hreafis, v. 48, and the beloved difciple 
John, and above all his pious mother, whofe foul 
then a fword pierced, Luke, 2.35. Nor is there any 
thing in the words of the Pfalm, which obliges us to 
confine thefe things to the three hours darknefs. It 
treats of that time, in which they gave him gall for his 
meat, and in his thirfi gave him vinegar to drink, v. 21, 
which was not done during the darknefs. 3dly, It 
cannot be inferred, that God the Father, in fending 
that angel, had not then either begun to ad, or, at 
that time, ceafed to aft, as a ftrift and impartial 
judge •, any more than it can be inferred, that the 
difpolition of Chrift's enemies was foftened to pity, 



when they laid the crofs on Simon of Cyrene^ in order 
to carry it after him. For, both was done with a 
view, lead ChriO: finking under his prefent pains, 
ihould efcape thofe that were to enfue. 4thly, We 
fhall by this be better able to form a judgement of 
the incredible load of anguifh, with which that 
mighty lion of the tribe of Judah was lb prefTed 
down, that he appeared almoft ready to fink under 
it, unlefs he was, in fome manner at leaft, encouraged. 
5thly, Nor, on any pretence, can that angel be ac- 
cufed of any fin, in ftrengthning Chrifx, while fatif- 
fying for us ♦, fince, by that confolation, he neither 
intended to rob Cbrift of his glory, to whom alone 
the praife of fatisfying remains entire ; nor to op- 
pofe the decree of God ; for he animated Chrift to 
execute that with refolution ; nor to put any bar in 
the way of our lalvation, for he encouraged our Lord 
to acquire the right to that by conftancy in his fuf- 

XLVII. To pretend to infer from the beginning The folar 
and end of the folar eclipfe, durino; the paifion of ^"^'P^^ 

^L •/- i 1 • • ' 1 r 1 • > • r V- • • nothing to 

Chrift, the beginning and end of his fatisfartion, is ^j^^ p^g. 
a cabbaliftical fancy, founded neither on Scripture, fent pur- 
lior folid reafon. I do not deny, that,- in that dark- P^fe. 
nefs, there was a kind of type of the very thick 
darknefs, with which the greatly diftrefled foul of 
the Lord Jefus was then overwhelmed, without a 
fingle ray of confolation breaking in upon him, but 
what his unfliaken faith, grounded on the inviolable 
promifes of his father, and not ftaggering as to the 
certainty of the future reward, darted in at 'times 
upon his trembling foul. But the queflion is not, 
whether Chrift was then adually fatisfying ! This 
v;e all allow : the queftion is, whether then only ? 

XLVIII. But let us now conclude this debate ; Concla- 
v;hich has fo much difquieted the mind of this very ^^°"' 
learned perfon, as his friends wanted the world ihould 
k«ow from letters, publilhcd after his death. But 



Of the E F P IC A C Y of Books, 

God and my confcience are my witnefles, that 
nothing but the love of truth, which is only to 
be derived from, and defended by the Scriptures, 
obliged me to enter upon this fubjefl. I know not 
in what I can be blamed, unlefs in the liberty I 
have taken to difTent from the author. But if, by 
taking a wrong patb^ I have ftrayed from the truths 
how acceptable will the kind admonition be ! How 
readily Ihall I own and corredt the error! I heartily 
wifli, we could generally endeavour to pleafeourfelves 
lefs, in order to pleafe God more. I ever had a ve- 
neration for this learned perfon, tho', after our dif- 
pute, I found he was much difgufled. But I thought 
this fhould be no hindrance to my profiting by his 
learned commentaries, which I own I did •, with a 
jufl commendation of the author, as my other writ- 
ings abundantly teftify. 


Of the f Efficacy of Chrijl's SatisfaBm, 

Chrift by I. KT^ H E efficacy of Chrift's fatisfa6lion is twofoldi, 

liis fatif- J[ ^he Jirft regards Chrift himfelf ; the other ^ 

fadlionob-^^^ f/^^. Chrift, by his fatisfadion, obtained for 

H^huo^ himfelf^ as Mediator, a right to all the eled : which 

all the the father willingly and defervedly beftows upon 

elecl. }^|ni, V{,2.^, JJk ofme^ andlfloallgive thee the Heathen 

for thiyie inheritance^ and the utlermoft parts of the 

earth for thypoffeffion. This is Chriffs vhvt^, work 'with 

his God, that he Jhoiihl not only he his fervant^ to ra:fe up 

the tribes of Jacob ^ a?id to reft ore the preferred of 

Ifrael', hut that he fJoould he given for alight to tkc 

Gentiles, that he might he God's falvation unto the end 

of the earth. If 49 "4, 6. It appears alfo, from that 

promife. If. 53. 10, // his foul fh all make it f elf an 

f I have rendered this Efficacy, rather than Effea, as that ex- 
preffesali the cffeds of Chriit's fatisfaaion, treated of in this chap. 


Chap. 7- CHRIST'S Satisfactio!«t. 30^ 

offervi^ for f.n, he Jh all fee his feed. And thus we 
become his inheritance, Eph.i. 11, his peculiar trea- 
fure^ Pr. 135. 4, his peculiar people^ Tit. 2. 14, and 
I i^et. 2. 9. 

II. Beiides, it is not pofTible, but Chrill (hould Which 
exercife that right, which he acquired at ib dear a nght he 
rate. For when, according to the determinatecoun- f'^^^ot 
felofGod, the tinr»e of the gracious vifitation oi ^^^^^^^* 
every one of the iA^di is come, he adually delivers 
them, as his property, by an outftretched arm. And 
why (hould he not? Seeing he can eafily e(fe6l it 
by the power of his fpirir, turning and incHning 
their heart. Is it credible, he fnould fuffer thofe, 
who are his lawful right, to be, and to remain the 
(laves of Satan? Is it worthy of Chrift, that he fhould 
not be adually glorified in the fandihcation and hap- 
pinefs of thofe, for whom he underwent fo much 
infamy? Or (liculd fuffer any of thofe to periCh, 
whom he purchafed for his own pofieffion by his 
precious blood? Chrift himfelfhath taught us thus 
to reafon, John 10. 16, And other foeep I have ^ "Sjhick 
are not of this fold 5 them alfo I mufi brings and they 
Jhall hear^my voice. Becaufe thefe fheep were of 
right his property, it therefore became him, adually 
to lay hold of them as his own, and bring them into 
his fold. Nor can the right of Chriil be made 
ineffectual, or remain without a6lual p^ffeffion •, 
elpecially, as he was not promifed by the father a 
bare right, but alfo a poiiefFion by right, upon his 
making fatisfaftion j as the; places above quoted 

III. The Lord Jefus obtained for the ele5f^ by his He ob. 
fatisfailion, an immumty from all mifery^ and a right tained for 
to eternal life^ to be applied unto them in effedlual f^^^ ^^^^' 

IT ^ ' ' r r^-r ' r • immunity 

calling, regeneration, fandification, conlervation, f>on^ ^lii 
and glorification, as the Scripture declares. Thus fery,anda 
Mat. 26. 28, this is my hlcod of the NenjuTefiament, '^\g^^^o 
which is fhed for yyiany for the remijfion of fins. Gal. i. 4, ^'^ ^^^^" 
he gave him f elf for our fins y that he might deliver us from 
7 \Oh,l X this 

3C(5 6f the E F F I C A G Y of Book 2. 

this prefent evil worlds accordifig to the will of God and 
our Father. Tit. 2. 14, gave him/elf for tiSy that he 
might redeem us from all iniquity^ and purify unto hint- 
f elf a peculiar people, zealous of good works, Eph. 5. 
25, 26, 27, Chriji loved the churchy and gave himfelf 
for it^ that he might fan5lify it., that he might prefent 
it to himfelf a glorious., &c. In a word, this is that 
faithful faying.^ and worthy of all accept ation^ that Chrifi 
Jefus came into the world to javejinners. i Tim. i. 15. 
By thefe and many other paflages to the fame pur- 
pofe, which it would be needlefs to mention here, 
it evidently appears, that the etfe6\ of Chrifl's fatif- 
fadion was not a bare poffibility of the remiffton of our 
fins, and of our reconciliation with God, but an 
adlual remiffion and reconciliation^ an abolition of the 
dominion of fm, and at length falvation itfelf: and 
it is not pofTible, the eled fhould have no Ihare in 
this, unlefs Chrift Ihould be deemed to have fatif- 
fied for them to no purpofe. It is certainly in- 
cumbent on us, never to weaken the force of the 
words of the Holy Ghofl ; efpecially in thofe places 
and exprefiions of Scripture, where the fubjedt of 
our falvation is treated of ; nor to detrad in any- 
thing, from the value of the fatisfadion of our 
The fatif- "• IV. This truth alfo appears from thofe places of 
fadion of Scripture, in which the fatisfadion of Chrift is eall- 
V'^"5 ed «7ro?;uToa;^^s a redemption, made by the payment of 
faid to be^'^'^'f'^^ ranfom, or a*T^^l.7|;8 a price or redemption. Por, 
a redemp- the proximate effed of redemption, andofthepay- 
^'on. ment of a ranfom, is the fetting the captive at liberty, 

and not a bare polTibiUty of liberty. It is neither 
cuftomary, nor equitable, that, after paying the 
price, it (hould ftill' remain un<;ertain, whether the 
captive is to be fet free or not. A true redeemer 
procures the reftitution- of liberty to the miferable 
captive, where ever good faith and an agreement 
are of force. One may polTibly be upon terms about 
the price, tho' uncertain of the event, buc it is neither 


Chip. 7. CHRIST'S SAtisfactiopt. 307 

prudent nor juft, to make any paymenr, before what 
is ftipulated, be made fure and firm. The Scripture 
itfclf declares, that the proximate effedl of redemption 
is the adlual remiilionof fins, and rcltoration to liberty^ 
Rom. ^. 2^^ j lift ified freely by his grace^ through the 
redemption that is in thrift Jefus. Eph. i. 7. In'-Jjhom 
we have redemption through his bloody the forgivenefs cf 
Jins^ according to the riches of his grace \ and Col. i. 14. 
to the famcpurpofe: in like manner, Heb. 9. 12, by 
his own blood obtained eternal redemption for us •, the 
fruit or efi^edof which is eternal liberty and falva- 

V. Of the like nature are thofe phrafes, by which 4"^ ^^" 
the elecl are faid to be bought ijcith a i)rice. pur- Y-\^^^ , 
chajed with bloody redeemed by thrift s jubje5lion to purchafed 
the law : as i Cor, 6. 20, ye are bought with a price, by Chriih 
Acis., 20. 28, to feed the church 0} God^ which he hath 
purchafed with his own blood. Gal. 4. 4, 5. made under 

the law., to redeem them that were under the law. But, 
whoever makes a purchafe of any thing, has an un- 
quelVionable right to it, and it not only may, but 
adually does become his property, in virtue of his 
purchafe, upon paying down the price. And here- 
in ccmfiit our liberty and falvation, that we are no 
longer our own, nor the property of fin, nor of Satan, 
but the property ofChrift. Whence it appears, that 
the cffc6t of Chrift's fatisfadion is not a bare pofl"ibi- 
lity of our falvation, but falvation itfeif. 

VI. A right to all the benefits of the covenant of A right to 
grace is purchafed at once to all the eledt by the death ^^^^^^ ^y 
ofChrilt, fo far as, that confiftently with the truth "^etefta- 
and juilice of God, and with the covenant he enter- ment par- 
ed into with his Son, he canno: condemn any oF the chafed at 
eled, or exclude them from partaking m his falva- ?"^" J^Ji 
tion ; nay, on the Contrary, he has declared, that byChriil'5 
fatisfai^lion being now made by his Son. and ac- death, 
ceptea by him.feif, there is nothing for the eledt cither 

to fufferor do, in order to acquire either impunity, or a 

X 2 right 

p$ Cf the E F F I C A C Y of Book 2. 

right to life ; but only, that each of them, In their 
appointed order and time, enjoy the right purchafed 
for them by Chrifl:, and the inheritance arifing from 
it. And this is what the Apoille fays, 2 Cor. 5. 19, 
God was in Chrifl reconciling the world to himfelf^ not 
imputing their trefpqffes unto them. That is, feeing 
God accepted of the offering of his fon, when he 
gave himfelfup to death for his people, he received, 
at the fam.e time, into favour, not only the preferved 
of Ifrael, but all nations, and all families of the earth, 
which, in other refpcvSts, lay in wickednefs, and were 
liable to the wrath of God, declaring that fatisfadtion 
was now made to him for their fms, and that thefe 
could no longer be imputed to them for condemna- 
tion, nor for excluding from his faving grace. 
2:ech.3 9, VII. We have a further proof of thi^, Zech. 3. 9, 
explained, y^^ hehold the ft one., which I have laid before Jojhua: 
upon one ft one ftj all he /even eyes •, behold I will engrave 
the graving thereof, faith the Lord of Hofts., and I will 
remove the iniquity of that land in one day. Theftone 
here is doubtefs^theLord Jelbs Chrifl, as Dan. 2. 34, 
Pf. 118. 22, on which the church is built, on which 
it is founded, and by which it is fupported. It is 
laid before Joiliua and his companions the priefts, as 
architeds, to lay it for the foundation of faith, ac- 
knowledge it as the corner-ftone, and build thereon 
both themfelves, and other believers. This flone 
is h\.^tone: for., other foundation can no man lay., than^ 
that is laid^ which is Jefiis Chrift, i £or. 3 . 1 1 . Up- 
on this flone there zx<t feven eyes., either of God the 
Father, viewing it with care, and pleafure, or of 
the church iiniverfal, looking to it by faith. Its 
graviyigs engraved by God, reprefent thofe very clear 
indications or charaflers ; by which he may, and 
ought to be diflinguiflied, as one given by the 
Father to be a faviour ; aTong thefe characters were 
thofe rntferings, by which he was to be made perfe6t. 
Thefe things being done, to fhew that all the figns 


Chap. 7. CHRIST'S Satisfactiok. 3C9 

of the Medlah were in him, God declares that, he 
would remove iheiniqidty of all that Z^;/^, (clearly figni- 
fying the whole world, according to the Synecdoche 
juft explained) in one day at once, in the lail day of 
Chrifl's paiTion : And thus, by Chriit's fatisfadion we 
are taught, that deliverance from fin, and all the 
happy effe^ls o' that immunity, vrerc purchafed at 
once for all the eledt in general. 

VIII. It is however certain, that true faving be- Hence the 
nefits are bellowed on none of the eie6t, before ef- elea,eveu 
feclual calling, and a6tual union to Chrift by a lively ^^^pJ'e 
feith : neverchelefs, Chriil did, by his fatisfa(5lion, feaual ' 
purchafe for all the elecfl at once, a right to thofe calling, 
benefits, that they might have and enjoy them, inhaveibve- 
their appointed time. Nay, before adual conver- j"^^ P"^^" 
fion, and the pofTeflion of faving bleflings ; they are btfy^ ^he 
favoured with no contemptible privileges above the reprobate* 
reprobate, in virtue of the right which Chrift pur- 
chafed for them. Such as, ift. That they are in a 
(late of reconciliation andjuftilication *.a(5lively con- 
fidered, Chrift having made fatisfa^tion for them, as 
we fee from 2 Cor. 5. 19. That is, that God con- 
fiders tliem, as perfons for whom his Son has fatis- 
fied, and purchr.fed a right to eternal life. 2dly, Tliat 
God loves them with a peculiar love of benevolence, 
according to the deer, e of ele6t:ion •, which love of 
benevolence v/ill, at the appointed time, certainly 
iflue in a love of complacency. For, as it was from 
a love of benevolence, that Chrift was given to be 
their faviour-, fo, fatisfaftion being made, God, in 
confequence of the fame love, will form them, fo as 
he may delervcdiy acquiefce in them, as fit objedls of 
his lov^e of complacency. May we not refer to this, 
what God lays, Jer. 31.3, / have loved thee "joith an 
cverlafting lovc^ therefore with lovivg-kindnefs have I 

* See the lafl Sed. of this Chap, where this is furthei ex- 
plained , 

X 3 djrr^n 

Of the E F F I C A C Y of Book 2. 

drawn thee? ^dly, To this alfo it is owing, that they 
have the me^ns of falvation, the preaching of the 
Gofpel, &c. with fome internal illumination, and 
fome incitement to good, tho' not yet laving : and 
yet for this end, that, in their appointed time, they 
may be effeflnally converted by thofe means. 4thiy, 
From all this it llkewife follows, that God preierves 
them, while living under the means of falvation, 
from the fm againlt the Holy Ghoft -, from which 
there is no converfion. fthly, and laftly. They 
have the Spir-t, rendering thofe means efFe6lual, to 
their adlual and compleat regeneration, and to unite 
them to Chrift by working faith in them, that they 
may enjoy benefits truly laving. 

IX. As matters ftand thus, we may eafily gather, 
' what judgment we are to forrn of the notions of 
Arminius and his followers, on this point. Armi- 
nius propofes his fentiments in Examine pr^edeftin. 
Perkins, p. y ^., 76. as follows : " Let us add to all 
thefe things, by way of conclufion, the proper and 
iminediate effed of the death and pafTion of Chrift. 
But it is not an aftual removal of fin from this or that 
particular perfon,nor a6lual remifiion of fins, nor juf- 
tification, nor the adtual redemption of this, or that 
perfon, which none can have without faith and the 
fpirit of Chrift. But the reconciliation of God, the 
impetration of remiflion, juftification ^nd redemption 
from God : hence God now may, notwithftanding 
hisjuftice, which is fatisfied, forgive the fins of men, 
and beftow the fpirit of grace upon them : tho' he 
was really inclined before, from his own mercy, (for 
from that he gave Chrift to be the fayiourof the world) 
to confer thefe things on finners, yet hisjuftice pre- 
vented the atlual communication of them. However, 
God ftill has a right to beftow thofe beriefits on whoni 
he pleafes, and on what conditions he thinks proper 
to prefcribe. But, on the contrary, if we agree to 
fuch a method of mediation, as you, Pin^kins, feqm 

"" ■ ■ ■■ ■'""•■ tQ 

Chap. 7. CHRIST'S SArrsFAcTfON. 3j; 

to approve of; namely, that the fins of all the ele£t 
were adually removed from them, and laid upon 
Chrift, who, having fuffered for them, did actually 
deliver them from punifhment •, and that obedience 
was required of him, who accordingly performed ir, 
and thereby merited eternal life, not for himfelf, 
but for them •, and that juft, as if we ourfelves had • 
appointed this mediator m our room, and by him 
had paid onr debts to God ; nay, we mull now 
likewile believe, that, according to the very rigour 
of God's juftice and law, impunity and eternal life, 
are due to the eledt, and that they may demand 
thofe benefits from God, in right of payment and 
purchafe made, and yet God have no manner of 
right to demand of them faith in Chrifi, and con- 
verfion to God. But all the abfurdities of this opi- 
nion cannot eafily be exprefix?d. I will confute it only 
by one argument, but a very cogent one, and 
taken from the writings of the Apofllcs. The right- 
eoufnefs wrought out by Chrift is not ours, as 
wrought out, but as imputed to us by faith, fo 
that faith itfelf is faid to be imputed to us for right- 
eoufnefs, Rom. 4. 5." Thus far Arnmius^ whofe 
very words almoft we have exhibited, omitting only 
thofe, which are not to the purpofe in hand. His 
followers have things of the like nature, in their 
Bcripta Synodalia. adding, that the impetration is fuch, 
that, from the nature of the things tt may remmn entire^ 
and be every way ferfe^^ thd" there ^iv^rs none to apply 
it to^ or none to enjoy the benefit of it. 

X. There are many things in this difcourfe, which which are 
are confiftent neither with fcholafi:ic accuracy, neither 
nor with the other tenets of the remonUrants, nor accurate, 
with theological truth : which we are now to fi:icw 
in order, ill, Arminius does not fpeak accurately, 
in faying, that the proper cff'e6t of the death and 
pafilon of Chrifi. is not the actual remiflion of fins, 
nor jufiification, nor a6lual redemption of this or 
ttiat perfonj &c. but the impetration of rcniilfign, 

X 4 julli-' 

Of the E F F I C AC Y of Book 2 

juftlfieation and redemption ffom God. For the 
members of thisdiftin6lion are not properly oppofed: 
to adlual remiflion, and to adtual juftihcation, is not 
oppofed the inipetratlon of reinifiion and of juilinca- 
tion; bat a pollible remiffion, and a polTibie jiifti- 
iication. And thus Arminius ought to haveexpreffed 
himfeif, in order to fpeak accurately and fairly. 2diy, 
Nor is it an accitrate way of fpeaking, to fay, that 
the effecft of the paflion and death of Chrift is im- 
jyetration of remiffion andof jitftificaticn* He ought to 
fay, it is remiflion and juftification itfelf, whatever 
that be. For, fo Arminius himfeif hath taught us 
to fpeak with accuracy, p. 72. A difiinofion may be 
made between the aB^ by which recoyiciliaticn is obtained^ 
and the effe^i of that a^^ which is reconciliation, Th^ 
ciol impetraiing reconciliation^ is the offering zvhich Cfriji 
made on the crofs: the cffeB is the reconciliation itfelf 
And fo he ought to have faid here 1 in the death and 
paffion of Chriil, the impetrating a6l is that volun- 
tary fufception of all kinds of fufferings, which he 
undertook both from his love to C^od and mrn. 
The eife6l is reminlon and juftification. The im- 
petrating a6l is the fatisfa^lion or Chrifi. The 
effed is immunity from debt. In this manner Armi^ 
nius fpoke, before he had degenerated to woi fe opi- 
nions, Btfput. privat. XXXV. §. 7. ne effe^fs of 
the pfiejlly office are reconciliation with God, tmpetration 
cf eternal redemption^ remiffton of fins, the fpirit of 
grace and eternal life sdly, Nor, has that exprefTion 
a jufi meaning, at leaft it is not accurate, that by 
the pafTion of Chrift, God canforgi've fins : as if fome 
new, fome greater and more extenlTve power of God^ 
was the effe(5t of the fufferings of Chrift. The power 
of God is infinite, and altogether incapable of in- 
creafe. And then wliat is impccrated from any one^ 
ought previoufly to be in his power. The remon- 
ftrants have m.ore accurately exprcffed their fenti*- 
ments in their Synodalia^ in thefe words •, the eff'c^l of 
recGnciliation or propitiation, is the impctration of divine 

2 ' gr^^ce^ 

Chap. 7* CHRIST'S Satisfaction;. 313 

grace^ that is rejlitutmi to fiich a ftate^ &c. S© that 
a change in our ftate, and not an encreale of God's 
power, is the efFe6l of the fatisfad:ion of Chrift:. 

XI. Befides, Arminius is in this difcourfe confifl- Norag??o 
ent, neither with himfetf^ nor with his adherents. Not v»'ith the 
W\x.\\ himfelf : for, his whole defio;n is to fhew, that ^''^^^?^." 
the proper and immediate ettect or the death of^emon- 
Chrill:, is only a DOiTibility of rcmifTion of fm ; and flrants, 
yet he afferts, that the proper effed of the death of 
Chrift is the reconciliation of God, and the impctra- 

tion of remiffion, juftilication, &c. But how do 
thofe things agree, feeing a poflibility of remiffion of 
fins may confifl with a perpetual enmity between 
God and men ? What kind of reconciliation is 
that, when an eternal enmity may notwithi'tandmg 
fubfift ? What fort of impetration of remiffion, if, 
neverthelefs, it be poffible, that nns may never be 
pardoned ? Nor, does Arminius here better agree 
with x}^^ hypothefes of his followers ; who exprefsly 
deny, that God cannot, on account of his vindic- 
tive jullice, remit fins without a previous faticfac- 
tion. I now omit mentioning the laboured dif aita- 
tio-i ot Vorftius on thii- head againft SiWandus Lubber- 
tus. Thus the remonilrants profefs, in exprefs 
terms, in their apology, p. 466, drawn up in t' e 
name of all: that to fupDcfe the vindi^fi-ve jiiftice of 
God to be fc effrntid to him^ that^ in virtue of it^ he is 
hound and neceffitated to funifJofins^ is highly ahfurd and 
unworthy of God. 

XII. From this alfo we may, by a very evident Nay, 
confequence, infer, that the death and fufferings of "^''!^^^. 
Chnfl were in vain, and without arty fruit or erfedl : ^j^^ ^^^-^ 
xyhich I thiLs demonftrate ; if there is in God, even ofChriil's 
before, and exclulive of the fatisfadion of Chriil:, ap^fiioD. 
power of remitting fins, notwithflanding his vindic- 
tivejuiiice, Chrifb has therefore done nothing, by fuf- 
fering and dying, in order to the exigence of furh a 
pov/er in God. But the remonilrants (Irenuoully 
declare and maintain, tliat God can, without fatil- 


31:4 Of the E F F I C A C Y of Book ^: 

fkdbion, and without the violation of his elTential 
jj^ftice, let fins go unpunifhed, and that the contrary- 
is highly ablurd : Chrift therefore procured nothing 
by his death. For, what he is faid to have obtained 
by it, did already exifl without it. God could have 
faved us without the fatisfa^ion of Chrift: hut did not 
chufe to do it^ fays Corvtnus^ in his Cenfura Anatom. 
Molinai^ p. 436. 
J\nd con- XIII. In a word, this aflertion of Arminius is in- 
g^^'jL^j.p confiftent with theological truth. For, ift, The 
Scripture no where declares, that the fruit of Chrift's 
death is a poflibility of the remiffion of fins : Nor does 
Arminius produce any pafTage of Scripture to that 
purpole. But to fpeak of the fruit of Chrift's death 
without Scripture is untheological. 2dly, Nay, the 
Scripture afierts the contrary, as we have at large 
fliewn §. 3, 4, 5. 3dly, It is alfo contrary toallrca- 
fon to fay, that the proper effe6l of Chrift's moft per* 
feft fatisfadlion was, that God might let the captive 
go free, yet, fo that the captive might always re- 
main in prifon and be liable to pay the debt. How 
abfurd ! that God lliould receive full iatisfaftion by 
the death of his fon, for the fins of any particular per- 
fon, and yet, notwithftanding this plenary fatisfac- 
tion of Chrift, that man is to be fent to eternal fire, 
there tofatisfy, in his own peribn, for thotevery fins, 
which Chrift had fully fatisfied for already ? 4thly, 
Such a bare pofTibility of remiffion, which, from the 
nature of the thing, may never become actual, over^ 
turns the unchangeable covenant between the Father 
and the Son ; the fum of which Arminius himfelf has 
well expreffed in his oration de Sacerdotio Chrifti^ p- M • 
God required of Chrift^ that he fhould make his foul an 
offering for fm^ give his flefh for the life of the worlds 
pay the price of redemption for the fins and captivity of 
mankind: and promifed^ if he did fo^ that he fnoiild fes 
his feed^ and become an eternal prieft. The prieft ac- 
cepted this condition^ &c. Chrift, relying on this in- 
fallible proip.ife, did v/illinglvgivp himfcif up to death, 


C^ap. 7- CHRIST'S Satisfactipn. 515 

^ut from this aflertion of Arminius and the remon- 
ftrants, it was pofTible, that Chrift, after having 
paid the ranfom, fhoiild fee no feed, be a king 
without any kingdorn of grace, an everlalling father 
without any children, a bridegroom without a bride, 
a head without a body. All which are moft abomi- 

XIV. Arminius^ however, defends his opinion by I'nipofn- 
three arguments. The firft is this: God has full right ^q\^^^^ 
to impart thofe benefits^ to whom he thinks proper^ and fhould not 
on what conditions be is pleafed to prefcribe. Whence give grace 
it follows, that Chrift has not merited the bcftovving ^^"^ g^^^y 
thofe benefits a6lually upon any one -, for, this is J-^/^^^^^ 
the tendency of thefe words of Arminius. I anfwer : chrift 
I ft. We deny, that God may not Impart thofe died, 
benefits, which Chrift has merited, to thofe, for 
whom he died. God might indeed appoint the 
perlbns Chrift was to die for; but this appointment 
being once fettled, God is not at hbercy not to give 
that grace and glory, which was purchafed by the 
death of Chrift to thole for whom he died. 2dly, paith alfo. 
Arminius is further miftaken, when he fays, that God ana re- 
had a full right to impart thofe benefits, on what p^^i-'^^ce 
conditions he pleafed to prefcribe, fuppofing, that ^^ff,^^ ^* 
the performance of thefe conditions, namely faith from the 
and repentance, or the gr^.ce neceffary to the perfor- merit of 
mance of them, was not among; thofe blefling:s which ^^'^^^^' 
Chrift had merited for us by his pafTion. For, it 
was acrreed in that covenant between the father 
and the fon, by which Chrill gave himfelf up to 
death, phat all adult performs lliould, in the w :y of 
faith and repentance, come to the faving enjoyment 
of the other ble (Fin gs of it: nor can any other condi- 
tions be nov/ fettled by agreement. B.^fides, it was 
alfo fixed, that the father ftjould, from the con- 
fideration of Chrift's merit, grant the fpirit of grace 
for faith and repentance, to thofe for whom Chrift 
had died, as wc hive already feen Arminius himfelf 
prthodoxiy reckoning the Spirit of grace among the 

3i6 Of the EFFICACY of Book2; 

effects of the facerdctal office of Clirift. For, feeing 

God hath blejfed us with allfpiritual bkjjmgs in Chjiji^ 

Eph. I. 3, that is, through and for the merits of 

Chrift, and the gift of faith is one of the mod excel- 

And not lent of thefebleiTings, PhiL i. 29, that likevvife mufl 

pre-requi- certainly come to us on account of his merits. 3dly, 

ilte con- jsj^;^ is it agreeable to Scripture language, to fay, that 

ditionsto fjj'^i-j-^ ^Pij repentance are requifite conditions, before 
all com- *^^^ ^, _, .^,, ,^ . 1 

munica- any effeds ot Chriits death are communicated to a 
tion of perfon. Certainly, they are not required previous to 
Chnfl's Q^^j. regeneration and viviHcation from the death of 
merits. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ deliverance from this prefent evil world, 
which are reckoned among the effeds of ChritTs 
death by Paul, Eph. 2. 5, and Gal. i. 4. We may 
therefore fay, if you will, that thefe are conditions 
reauifite for applying to our confciences that conlb- 
lation, purchafedby the death of Chrift, yet, in fuch- 
a manner, as it is from the merit of Chrift, that the 
grace, that is powerfully i?nd abundandy effedual to 
perform thofe conditions, muft flow. 
The eka XV. Jrminius's fecond argument is this. If the 
'^^?^7 ^^y aBual remiffion of fins, &c. hz the effeci of Chriji's death, 
the Lbg "^^ «2^/ ^^^^ ^^^^^"-^^ ^^^^' according to 'the very rigour 
benefits in of God's juftice and law, hcth an eternal life and an 
right of immunity from punifJomenty are due to the elc5l, and 
Chnil's ^^^^ therefore they are entitled to ajk thofe benefits of 
payment. ^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 'payment end pur chafe made \ with- 
out God's having any right to require of them faith 
in Chrift and converfiion to God. I ani wer : i ft. We are 
■wholly of opinion, that one, who is renewed, may 
come'boidly to the throne of grace, andafk for thofe 
hlefTings, at God's hand, in r! -ht of the p.-yment and 
purchase made by Chrift. For, why ftiould we not 
venture to afk of God, that he would perform for us 
what he was pleafed to make bimfelf a debtor to his 
fon and to his merits ? This i^ the ^rayp^I^, or bold- 
nefs of our faith, to exped t\vt crown of righteouf- 
nefs from God, as a merciful and gracious giver, in 
refpedof our unworthinefs but as a jqft judge, ia 


Chap. 7- CHRIST'S Satisfaction. 317 

refped to the merits of Chriil, 2 Tim. 4. 8. 2dly, 
'Tis an invidious refictSlion of Jrminius, to fay, wi/h- 
cut God's having any right to require of us faith in 
Chrift^ and converfion to himfelf. For, it is impoQi- 
ble, for any, who approach to, and aflc thofe blef- 
fings, from God, not to perform thofe duties. For, 
how can any afk thofe benefits of God m the name of 
Chrift, and without'converfion to the Father and the 
Son? 3dly, But to fpeak plainly. If we admit of God re- 
Chrifl's fatisfaclion, and of the ratification of the cove- quires not 
nant of grace, and Nev/ Tcftament, then God can, f^O^l-^'.^" 
by no right, require faith and converfion from the „^J^^ 'j!|!^^^ 
eiecl, as conditions of the covenant of grace, in thcpentance, 
fenfe of Arminius and the remonflrants j namely, ill, 23 condi- 
To be performed by us, without grace working them ^;°f ^ °^ 
in us fupernaturally, effedually and invincibly, venant'of 
2dly, As, by fome gracious appointment of God, grace, in 
coming in the place of that perfed obedience to the ^^^ Armi- 
law, which the covenant of works required, por^ "*^" ^^"^^^ 
in this manner, Annijiius exphins thefe things ^ that, 
inftead of perfe6t obedience, w^hich the covenant of 
works required, the a6t of faith fucceeds, in the 
covenant of grace ; to be, in God's gracious account, 
imputed to us for righteoufnefs, that is, to be our 
claim of right to afk eternal life. But the nature of 
the covenant of grace admits of no fuch conditions, 
however framed, on which to build a right to life 
eternal, either from the juftice, or the gracious efti- 
mation of God, And thus far Arminius concludes 
well, if the Mediator has fo fatisfied for us, as if we 
ourfelves had by him paid our debts, no condition 
can, by any right, be required of us, whichj in any 
refpcdl, can be reckoned inftead of payment. The 
whole glory of our right to ete«;nal life, muft be 
purely afcribed to the alone merit of our Lord ; and, 
on no pretence, be transferred to any one of our 

XVI. There is ftill one argument, which Armi- The 
nius imagines to be very cog'-^nc. "Thr? ri^htcofifnefs^n'yhtsrMU 

3l8 Of the E F F I C A C Y .'of Book ii 

Chriil is fays he, wrought out hy Chrift, is not ours^ as wrought 
ours, as It ^^^^^ to as imputed to us hy faith. I anfwer-, id, 
formed'for ^^^^ ^o^s Arminius infer from this ? Does he con- 
us. elude, that, be fides the fatisfadion of Chrift, faith 

is alfo neceifary to falvation ? And what then ? There- 
fore Chrift did not obtain for us the adual remifiion 
of fins. We deny the confequence. For, faith is not 
conlidered as impetrating, but as applying the im- 
petrated remiflion. And as the prefuppofed object 
of faving faith is remiffion, already impetrated for all 
the eled by Chrift, it muft certainly be the proper 
efFed of the death of Chrift-. 2diy, This righteouf- 
nefs of Chrift, was really his, as it was wrought out 
hy him\ and it is ours^ as it was wrought owifor usi 
therefore, in a found fenfe, even ours before faith, be- 
ing the meritorious caufe of that grace, v/hich is 
efteclual to produce faith in us. It is ours, I fay, in 
refpedt of rights becaufe, both in the decree of God 
the Fatlier, and the purpofe of the Son, it was 
wrought out for us, and in the appointed time to be 
certainly applied to us. Tho' it was not yet ours by 
pojfej/ion, as to our a6lual tranflation from a ftate of 
wrath, to a ftate of grace, and our acknowledgment 
and fenfe of fo great a benefit vouchfafed unto us : 
-f- The diftindion between a6cive and paftive juftr- 
fication is well known. The former is that fentence 
of God, by which he declares his having received 
fatisfaftion from Chrift, and pronounces, that ail the 
eiedt are made free from guilt and obligation to pu- 
niihment, even before their faith, fo far as never to 

t Others diftingufli the j unification of the eleft, into that which 
39 decretive, virtual and aduaL The firltis God's eternal purpofe 
to jaltify finners in time, by the righteoufnefs of Chriil; but 
God's eternal purpofe to juftify the cled is one thing, and the 
execution of it another. There was alio a i//y/A'c?/juftification, up- 
on Chriil*s having made fatisfaftion : and juflification is adual, 
when the eled {inner is enabled to believe in Son or God, and by 
faith is united to him. See book 111. chap, Viil. §. 57, i^c. 

Cli5p. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfactio:^ 319 

exacl of them any payment, ^he latter is the ac- 
knowledgment and lenfe of that moft {sNtct fentencei 
intimated to the confcicnce by the Holy Spirit, and 
fiducialiy apprehended by each of the eledl. The one 
preceeds faith, at leafb as to that general article, 
which we juft propoled •, the other follows \t. And 
thus we have defended the value and efficacy of 
ChriiVs fatisfadlion againft the cavils oi Arminius, 


Of the NeceJ/ity of Chrijl's Satisfoaion. 

I. T T A V I N G explained, from Scripture, the va- The con- 

XJ_ lue and efficacy of the fatisfadion of our troverfy 
Lord Jefus Chrift, to the glory of God, and forthe^^^^^' 
confolation of the ele(5i:, It will not be unieafonable 
to treat of the neceffity of this fatisfadtion ; feeing 
what we have ihewn, §.21. from the apology of 
the Remonftrants, naturally leads to this. And here 
we chufe not to ftate thecontroverfy in the manner, we 
obferve, the otherv;ife great Chamierus has done in his 
Pancratia ; namely, whether God could not^ hy an a^ 
of lis abfohite power ^ grant remiffion of fin ^ without any 
fatisfaulion. We are not willing to enter into any 
difpute, about the abfolute power of God; firxe the 
confideration of that feems not to fuit this prefenc 
controverfy. For this debate is not to be explained, 
and finally determined from the attribute of the 
power of God, but from thofe of his holinefs, juilice 
and the like. Some, when they confider the power of 
God alone, affirm every thing about it : not reflefl- 
ing, that God can do nothing but confirtently with 
his juftice, holinefs, veracity, wifdom, immutability, 
in a word, with all his other perfections. The 
ld.\^^yQX Papinian ff. lib, 28. •f//. 7. Leg, £5, has laid 


320 Of the NECESSITY of Book 2; 

well concerning a good man : that we are to believe, 
that he NEITHER does, nor can do, any thing pre- 
judicial to pieiy^ reputation^ modefty-, and in general^ 
that is contrary to good manners. 1 his certainly, ought 
much more to be affirmed of the Great God •, that 
whatever is not a difplay of, or whatever throws a 
flur on, any perfedlion, or on the glory of God, can- 
not be the work of God. Origen has judicioufiy 
pleaded this caufe againft Celfus^ lib. 3. p. 154. Ac^ 
cording to us God, indeed, can do all things, confiftently 
with his Deity, wifdcm, and goodnefs. But Celjus (not 
undeftanding^ how God may he f aid to do all things) 
affirms^ he cannot will any thing imjuji^ granting he can 
do what is fo, but not will it. But we fay, that as 
what is capable of imparting its natural fweetnefs to 
ether things, cannot imhitter any thing, becaufe that 
would he contrary to its nature : nor as what naturally 
enlightens, can, asfuch, darken : fo fteither can God a^ 
injtiflly. For, the pov/er of acting injustly is 
CONTRARY TO HIS VERY Deity, and to cvcry 'power 
that can he afcrihed to God. And therefore, we think 
it very unbecoming, on every queftion about the 
mOil facred right of God, to appeal to his abfolute 
power. We would rather tiate the controverfy thus : 
namely, whether God's requiring Chriil to giv€ him 
fatisfaclion, before he reftore Tinners to his fa- 
vour, was owing to the mere good pleafure of the 
divine will: or v;hether, the effential holinefs, the 
juftice, and the like perfe(5lions of God, which he can- 
not pofTibly part with, required a fatisfaftion to be 
made } We judge the laft of thefe to be more true 
and fafe. 

II. In the preceeding book, cap. V. §. 19, feq, 
we proved at large, that the very nature and im- 
mutable right of God, could not let fm go unpu- 
niilied : which vv^e may now lay down as a founda- 
tion. At prefent, we will fubjoin other arguments 
more nearly relating fo the latisfa^ion of Chrift itlelf. 

III. And 

Chap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaction. 321 

III, And/r/?, we may certainly form r.o contemp- ^^^ot cre- 
tible argument from tbe events and afofieriori. For, as ^i^|^»'^a^ 
God does not ncedlefsly multiply beings ; what pro- fl'ou]^ ^r. 
bable realbn can be afilgned, why, witiiout any nc- bitrarily 
cciTity, he ihould make his beloved Son, in whom ^"^ ^^'^^^- 
he was wtII pleafed, a curfe for us ? Let us infifr a ^"^'^^^ 
little on this thought. The infmire wifdom of God expofch'ls 
contrived the admirable union of the human nature moil be- 
with one of the divine perfons : fo that God himfelf ^^^^^ ^^'^ 
might be laid to obey, to fufri-r, to die, in a word, ^nluini. 
to make fatisfadlion : that perfon was holj^ hannlefs '^ 

and undefiled^ the man of God's delight, his only be- 
gotten and only beloved fon. Him the moil affec- 
tionate Father, expofed to the greateil reproaches, 
to the mod cruel fufferings, and to an accurfed 
death, as a ranfom for the redemption of finners. 
Thefe fufferings were, a long time before,predlcled in 
various obfcure ways, and alfo prefigured by the 
whole train of facrlfices, appointed by Mofes. Fie 
permitted the world, after fo many other crimes, 
to be ftalned with the guilt of deicide (from the viev/ 
of which the very fun Ihrunk back and withdrev/ his 
rays,) a crime, indeed, truly inexpiable, and in the 
guilt of which the whole Jev/ifh nation is involved. 
Would not ail this, to fpeak with reverence, feem a 
kind offolemn farce, if God, by afingle breath, could 
difpel all our fins as a cloud ? Is it not contrary to 
the goodnefs, the wifdom, and the holinefs of God, 
without any neceflity, and, to fpeak fo, in a mere arbi- 
trary way, to proceed in this manner ? If he could 
have reached his end in a direcft and compendious 
way, why did he take fuch a wide and perplexed 
compafs ? 

IV. I would not have any reply here, that God Nf^tilone, 

a61:ed in this manner, in order to manifeil, that his ^^''/"^^y^is 
.,,.., , . , unlimited 

mhnite right or autnority over the creature was ^\^\^^ ^^,^^ 
fuch, that he might infli'5l the mod grievous torments any ciea- 
even on the innocent. If God could claim that right ^"^'^• 
and authority if he pleafed -, yet iuielv, he fcarce, 
7 Vol. L y if 

322 Of theNECESSITYof Books, 

if ever, has made ufe of it. And if at any time 
he has, it was in fufferings of a far more gentle, and 
miid x-iature, than what Chrift Jefus our Lord under- 
went. In a word, if, for the difplay of that right, 
he might at times in Aid fuch grievous torments, yet 
he would withhold his hand from his mod beloved 
and only Son, in whom, he i'o clearly teililied, that 
he was we'l p'eafed. 
Nor with V. To infill upon ir, that the whole of this 
a vievv' to affair was otherwiie ordered by the arbitrary will of 
eftabliih Qq^^ f^y confirming the faving dodtrine of Chriil, 
^r^r^A'' by this exemplary marrvrdom, is contrary both to 
doarine reafon. Scripture and experience, i^or, God had 
by his many other means, of a far more eafy nature, by 
death. which he could confirm the doftrine of falvation, 
than by the dreadful paliion of his beloved Son. And 
the Scripture fnews us, that this was done by Chrift's 
miracles accompanying his mod effedual preaching: 
and the native demonftration of the truth, Ihewed the 
divinity of his dodrine. By thefe things he ap- 
proved himfelf to John's Difciples, Mat. ii. 5, and 
even to the whole multitude, Luke 7. 16^, and John 
6. 14, and laftly, we gather both from Scripture and 
experience, that the crofs of ChriR: was imio thejezvs 
a fiiimhUng-hlock^ and unto the Greeks foolifonefs^ 1 Cor, 
I. 23. 
Nor only ^^I- ^^^ ^'^'^ we to fay, it was neceffary we fhould 
to teach us be taught in lb laborious a manner, or even by the 
rhat tiho' very example of the Son of God, that it is through 
.iifhculties jyiany tribulations, we are to enter into the kingdom 
to diV^^^ ^^ heaven. For, if nodiing elfe was intended, we might 
crown. have been fufFiciently taught all this, bytheexaiv^.ples 
of odier martyrs. And then further, there is fcarceone 
in a thoufand of thole, who are faved, who, in the 
way to falvation, fecluding the curfe of God, have 
])een called to lufter, fo many dreadful and great 
indignities as Chrift did. Why then were we all to 
be tauglit, by the example of the Son of God, that 
the gate of heaven is, on no other terms open, but 



Ghap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaction: 32^ 

by pafllng through thofe hard fufferings? Unlefs wd 
fay, that fatisfadtion v/as made to the juftice of God 
by the fufferings of thrift, and that in no othei* 
way fatisfa6lion could be made thereto^ there can 
no other juft, holy and wife reafon, and worthy of 
God, be ever afUgned for them. Certainly, for my 
Own pare I never remember to have heard of any. 

VII. If any affirm, that no fatisfa(5tion was necef- Nor In 11 
fary on account of the juftice of God, but that he to beaf^ 
exacted it on account of fome other perfedions, J^/^^^ ^^-'^t 
namely, to declare his power and will to punifh fin, e/fatiT"'' 
which he might fuffer to go unpunifhed. I anfwer, faftion b^ 
fuch power and will are fcarcely to be called per- l^is Son, 
fedions in God; feeing Chrift, Mat. 5. 45, 48 reckons J^jg "^^ ^f '*=^ 
God's mercy, long-luffering, and bounty towards and power 
men, even the unjuft, among his perfedlions. Which to punifh' 
would certaihly Idc moft laudable, if God could, at ^i"> ""-. 
pleafure, let fm go unpunifhed, and if that impunity ^^^^^^^^. 
was no ways inconfifientwith his m oft holy nature and 

law, which is the tranfcript of that nature. Nay, if 
God can, confiftent with his higheft glory, noc 
punifli fin^ it might be queried whether he can con- 
fiftent with this, infiidl punifhmeht at all: becaufe, 
in that cafe, he feems to afllitl the finner without 
a reafon, and ill treat the work of his hands. But 
to do any thing without a reafon, can on no account bd 
for the honour of God. 

VIII. Perhaps, fome will judge it the fafeft courfe^ Nor ai-e . 
hot to intrude into the depths of the unfearchable wif- )^'^ ^" ^^~ 
dom, and infinite power of God, and to fay, God, ^'^^^^ ^^^ 
indeed, was pleafed for wife and good reafons^ tho' bereafons 
knov/n to himfelf alone, on no other terms, to fet tho' un- 
tis at liberty, but by the fatisfa6lion of his Son : but ^^^^^ ^^ 
yet could, in a far different way, bring us to lalvation, 

nay, and redeem us by a word or fign. And indeed, 
the great Auguftine formerly fpoke in this ftrain, 
de Agene Chriftiano : God could have done all things^ had 
he fo willed : hut did mt^ and that for wife reafons^ tho* 
Unknown and incomprehen/tble to us: hut tho' he had 

Y 2 ds>i4 

24 Of theNECESSITY of Books. 

done otherwife^ yet he would equally have difpleafed your 
folly. And again, de'Trinitate lib. 13. c. 10. Let us 
maintain., that this method^ by which God fees proper to 
deliver us^ by a mediator between God and man, the man 
Chrijl Jefus^ isperfe^ly good and for the honour of God: 
hut alfo., let us acknowledge, that God was at no lofsfor 
another pojfble method, as all things are equally fubje5i to 
his pozver : but yet none was more adapted to deliver us 
from cur mifery, neither was any 7tecef[ary. I am cer- 
tainly much pleafed with that extreme modefty, by 
which we dare not determine any thing rafhly con- 
cerning the reafons and ends of the adions of God % 
and judge inconfiderately about his ways, becaufe 
therc'cjis that in them, the reafons whereof our igno- 
rance cannot unfold ♦, nay, which feems, to our pre- 
fumptuous folly, to be againll reafon. But when we are 
able to know and give fuch reafons for the divine con- 
du6V, as tend to fet the glory of his adorable jufticCj 
wifdom, holinefs and goodnefs in the cleareft light ; 
it is no longer modefty, but rather tends to darken 
the glory of the perfedlions of God, not to acknov/- 
leo-e them •, which is the cafe here. The reafon, why 
God, willing to fave elect fmners, chofe to do it 
by the fatisfadion of his Son, is, becaufe, in his 
wifdom, he faw no other way, by which fatisfa6i:ion 
could be made to his effential holinefs and juftice. 
And by affirming this, v/e derogate nothing from the 
power of God, who doubtlefs cannot but acl agree- 
ably to his holinefs and juftice : and we admirably 
proclaim his wifdom, which found a means, which 
appeared impofiible to every created underftanding, 
whereby fatisfa6lion might be made to his juftice; 
and the ftnner, confiftently with his holinefs, be 
faved. In order the more clearly to iliuftrate, and, 
at the fame time, the m.ore firmly to eftablifh all this, 
let us attentively confidcr, what the Scripture de- 
clares concerning, the impulfive and final caufe of 
2;iving Chrift. 

IX. The 

Chap. 8, CHRIST'S Satisfaction. 325 

IX. The facred writers, on fcvcral occafions, incnl- If the gly- 
cate, that God's not Iparing his own proper fon, but, ^I!f P^ 
giving him to us, and dehvering him up to death unneceffa- 
for us, was the efre6l of his unfpeakable love to ry for our 
mankind, John 3. 16, Rom. 5. 8, 1 John 4. 10. f^^vation. 
But if we could be faved any other way, than by the ^'^^''^ ^^, 
fufferings of the Son of God, the love of God would dlfphy of 
not fliine with fuch luflre in that method. For, love the great- 
is truly great, and inexpreiTible to the laft degree, ^f^^®^^^- 
when implacable judice having demanded the pu- ^^^^ ^°^^' 
nifhment of mankind, Goa's love to man and free 
purpofe of falvation, have neverthelefs prevailed, by 
finding out, for that end, in the treafures of divine wif- 
dom, an amazing m.ethod of reconriiingjurtic with 
mercy; but it was fuch, as could have no effedl, with- 
out giving up the moft beloved Son to the moft cruel 
torments for us. But if, without any prejudice to 
juftice, our falvation could be procured many other 
ways than this, and even by a fingle word or nod, 
what great ardency of love v/as there in his giving 
the Son ? It would, certainly, have been an inllance 
of a very fmgular and notable mercy, to have for- 
given our fins. But to have effedted this by the death 
of his fon, when, without any urgent necelTity, 
with equal advantage he could have fcattered our 
fms, fome other more compendious way, by a nod 
or fign, as fome affirm, why ^s that urged by Chrifl 
and his Apollles, as an argument of fuch inconceiv- 
able love? 

X. The Apoflle declares, that the end of Chrift's Norintbe 
fiitisfaclion was a declaration- of the righteoufnefs ^/ blood of 
God, Rom. 3. 25. JVhcm God hath fet forth to be a ^!|J^^ 
propitiation {propitiatory, mercy-fsat) through faith ^'^ be a proof 
his blood, E*? iv^ii^iv T:r>q h\y.aioam<; aire to declare his r/^Z?/- of thejuf- 
eoufncfs. God fet forth his Son, both to himfelf de-^iceof 
lighting in him. If. 42. i, as having appointed him, ^°"* 
in his eternal counfel, to be the Mediator, and view- 
ing him as thus appointed ; and to us, placeing him 

■ ^ ^ 7 3 i^ 

t§ Of the NECESSITY of Book 2, 

in open view, and fetting him on a throne of 
grace and glory, in the fight of aih He fet him 
forth as a propitiation (propitiatory mercy-feat) •, 
where the Apoille alludes to the cover laid upon the 
ark of the covenant, called nnD2 uKaar-^^iov the propi- 
tiatory mercy-jeat : fignifying that, by which God was 
reconciled to man, in which he dwells and reds, and 
from which he gives gracious anfwers. Moreover, 
it is not called the propitiatory, mercy-feat, unlefs it 
be fprinkled with blood, to be applied to us ly faith. 
That is, Chrift reconciled iis to the Father onlv by 
fufftrings. In the tabernacle was *^'i^ti' ^ZDin niDD ^ 
mercy feat in the blcod of the goat., that is, fprinkled 
v/ith the blood of the goat. Lev. 16. 15. So that 
here nothing did avail but the blood of him,who is fet 
forth to be a propitiation, unlefs we would here tranf- 
late *^ar'/9piovj an atcfiement; an appellation given to 
Chrifl, becaufe he is the fachike to be offered for fm : 
which, coming in the room of the guilty, was to 
bear their punifnment, and noi only merit their free- 
dom from punifhmenr, but reconcile God, who before 
was offended, fitisfaftion being made to vindictive 
juftice by this vicarious puniOiment. But, to vs^hat 
purpofe was all this ? ^0 declare the righteoufnefs of 
G^d., ^'« ^^'''^ '^^^'^'^^ for the remijfion of fw' that are paft^ 
thrd^' the forhearanc^ of God. God had fo paflfed by, 
and net punifhed the fins of believers in former times;, 
that, notwithftanding thefe, he called them to enter 
Upon the heavenly inheritance. Bui; it wasneceffary 
to il:iew, that this v/as done without any mjury to the 
juilice of God. Now it is evident, that no fatisfici- 
tion was made to divine juftice, either by the repent- 
ance of believers, or the typical pomp, of facribces, 
or by the blood fprinkled on the golden mercy -feat. 
It was therefore neceifary, that the righteoufnels of 
God fbould be manifeded in the propitiation and 
blood of Chrift -, by vvhich was plainly 'fnewn, that 
ppdj agreeably to his juftice, fuifers not the fins of 
' " ^ any 

Chap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaction. 327 

any to go unpunllhed. But if God, without injury to 
his juftice, without any difficulty and trouble, and 
without a fatisfaction, can pardon fins ; the whole 
appears to have been an empty fliew,and*by no means 
worthy of God, without any neceOity, to appear with 
fuch terrible raajefty in tlie mo^ cruel death of his 
moft beloved Son. Which being fo horrid to think of ; 
we conclude, from this difcourfe of Paul, that it was 
not pofllble, but God muft punilli (in ; unlefs he in- 
tended to fet forth Chrift as a propitiation, and fo 
declare his righteoufnef* : Becaufe not to punifli fin, 
without a propitiatory atonement, would be a dif- 
approbation of divine iuftice. For, when juftice is 
not manifeiled, it is difapproved of-, efpecially in 
this grand work of our falvation. For fo God him- 
felf fpeaks, If 56. i. My falvation is near to come^ 
and my righteoufnefs to be revealed. 

XI. Some perhaps will fay, that the right eoufnefs of By which 
God here means, as in other places, his veracity and isnothere 
conftancy in performing his promifes; the Apoftle ^""^^^^^g 
only intending, that God therefore fet forth his Son veracity of 
to be a propitiatcn, in order to fulfil his prophecies God, 
and promifes, and thus fhewed himfelf juft, that is, 
faithful. B.'t it isquiteotherwife, for the righteouf- 
nefs of God here denotes that re6titude, by which, 
according to his lav/,byinfli(5llngcondignpunirhment, 
he difcovers the demerit of fm and his hatred to it, 
and how unbecoming it is for him to have fellowfliip 
with the fmner, at the expence of his own glory. 
And that this is the meaning is plain, becaufe the 
Apoftle being to explain, in what manner God, 
without any injury to his juftice, had foreborn fmners, 
and pafled by their fms-, moft beautifully fliews, that 
all regard was paid to the honour of divine juftice, 
in the propitiation, by Chrift's blood, to be made and 
revealed in due time. For, it was in virtue ofthis, that 
the fms of the believers in paft times were forgiven. 
But the other explication, does not remove this dif- 
ficulty juft mentioned. The defign of the whole is 

Y 4 to 

328 Of the NECESSI T Y of Book 2, 

to fliew, that God is jufl, whenjuftifying the finner 

for the merits of Chrift. 

If without XII. It likewife def<?rves our confideration, v/hat 

any atone- ^l^g Apoftle has exprefsly faid, and often repeated, 

could be that the legal facrifices could never abolifh the guilt 

removed, of fin, Pleb. 10. I, 4, 11. But why might not a 

why not thing fo eafily to be removed without atonement, 

il dices ^^^ expiated by the death of legal facrifices ? And it 

* is to be carefully obferved, that the Apoille denies 

this, from a coniideration of the nature of the thing. 

It is faid they could not do it, not becaufe it feemed 

otherwifeto God •, but becaufe fm is of a nature, that 

no blood of bulls or of Goats can wafh out its 

flain ; which the light of nature itfclf will readily 

yield to, as a thing certain. And indeed, the church 

of the Old Telrament profelTed, that their fins could 

not be expiated by any blood of calves or rams, not 

tho' multiplied to thoufands; by any libations of oil, 

tho' ten thoufand rivers thereof were poured out; 

nay, not by the death of their firit born, Mich. 6, 

From the X-tU-I: And we mud not omit the Apoftle's inference, 

inability thereby, from the inability of legal facrifices to make 

^crifces fatisfadtion, he concludes the necellity of the alone 

to make facrifice of Chrift. For, after he had faid, il is not 

atone- poffible^ that the Mood of hulls and of goats fhould take 

inent, the ^^^^ ^^^ . }-jg immediately fubjoins, wherefore when 

infers die '^^ ^ometh into the worlds he faith ^ &c. adding, he 

nece^^liy' taketh away the fir fl \ namely, the offering of beafts -, 

of Chrift's that he may efiahlifh the fecond -, namely, the offering 

facrifice. q^^\^q body of Chrift. But that inference would not 

hold, could there be fome third way, of expatiation. 

Or if no fatisfa6tion was neceffary. But nov/ the 

Apoftle argues, by fuppofing it a thing granted by 

the Jews, that fms cannot be forgiven without a 

proper atonement-, but as this could not be effeded, 

by the legal victims, it certainly follows, that it is to be 

fought foi; in the offering of Chrift, without which, 

■ '' ■ ' ,z ' ■ - '' the 

Chap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaation: 320 

the flain of fin remains for ever indelible. Thejuft- 
nefs of this inference of the Apoftle arifes from the 
nature of God, and of the thing itfelf : for, if we are 
to infer the neceffity of the offering of Chriil from 
the free and arbitrary good pleafure of the divine will, 
the Apoflle's reafoning would have been to no pur- 
pofe, the good pleafure of God only was to be in- 
fifted upon. 

XIV. In like manner, the fame Apoftle argues, And/rom 
Rom. 3. 19, 20, 21, &c. Where he lays it down ^^e inabi- 
as a fundamental truth, that the whole world is fub- ^^l ^^J^^ 
je6l to condemnation before God. Whence he in- thenecef-' 
fers, that none can be juilined by the v/crks of the ^ity ofjuf- 
law. And from that concludes, that we can bejufti- ^^^^^^^°P 
fiedno other way, but by the blood of Chrift, which ^^ ^^"^' 
is,doiibtlefs, a very trifling way of arguing, if God, by 

his mercy alone, by his bare nod, can take a way fin, 
and adjudge the finner to life. For, the Jews would 
very readily anfwer, that there is another far more 
compendious way of juftificacion, in the infinite mer- 
cy of God, and in the mofl: free a6t: of his power, 
without expofing the Melnah to reproach. A.nd, to 
mention it once more, we are not to have recourfe 
to the moft free difpofition of the divine will, as if 
that was the alone caufe of this nccefllty. For, if 
the Apoftle makes any fuch fuppofition, there is an 
end of all further reafoning. He would have gained 
his point, juft by mentioning that difpofition. And 
if he does not fuppofe this, his argument is of no 
force. Which is far from being the cafe. 

XV. Wc muft not here omit that expreftion of And cuts 
the Apoftle, by which he. cuts off thofe, who have ^^' ^^^ 
finned againft the Holy Ghoft, from all hope of fai^ ^/pespi 
vation, by this argument; becauie, having rejected for whom 
Ch rift's expiation, ^bere remaineth no more facrifice for no facri-'* 
fm^ Heb. 10. 26. For, when he would intimate, ^ce^«- 
thac there was no hope of pardon, he afferted, that ™^"^* 
^ihere remained no more facrifice, laying it down as 


1^" Of the NECESSITY of Book 2. 

an undoubted truth, that the offering of a facrifice 
neceiTarily goes before pardon. If this was not the 
cafe, why might not man, who wanted a facrifice, 
hope for pardon, without any fatisfadion, from the 
infinite mercy of God r 
Heb. 6 6. XVI. 1 o the fame purpofe is, what the Apoftle 
explained. ^^^^^ lieb. 6. 6. tt zs impoffibk lo renew thofs again 
upJd repeyttance^ who crucify tc themjehes the Son of God 
cifrefj^ and 'put him to an open fharae. Which laft 
words are v..riou(ly explained by divines. But doubt- 
lefs, are intended to give a reafon, why thofe, who 
have made the crucifixion of Chriil of no ufe to 
themfelves, are excluded from all hopes of falvation : 
becaufe, without that, it is impoflible to obtain fal- 
vation. The /ery learned Mofes /Imyraldus^ in Def- 
J)utat. de -peccato in fpiritum fauElum^ §. 40, thus ex- 
pounds it ; namely, fince thofe apoftates have no 
further in'ierell in the facrifice already offered, be- 
caufe they have rejefted it, and therefore, if they 
would be faved, they muft look out for another. 
And becaufe none could offer a true expiatory facri- 
fice, be fides that of Chrift alone ; if they will be 
faved, it is neceffary they give up Chrift to be cru- 
cified afrefh, and again expofed to open fname. But 
it is impious to defign fuch a thing, which, on no 
account, can be obtained of God, Rom. 6. 9, 10. If 
this expofition be admitted, it prefents us v/ith a very 
ftrong argument for our opinion : bccauie it fup- 
pofes fuch an abfolute necelTity for the iatisfaclion of 
Chrifr, that if what he has already done, be of no 
avail, a new fatisfadion muQ: be made, before ever 
the finner can have any hopes of mercy. 
This opi- XVII. Moreover, our fentiment tends to difplay 
nion dif- the glory of the divine perfe6lions. It fets off his 
plays the ^^//;;^y}^ by reafon of which, he can, in no re fped, 
fhe^divine become like a finner, or, without due fatisfaftion, 
perfec- allow him to have communion with himfclf, and the 
tions. inhabitation of his fpirit. It exalts tbejufice of God, 


•:> J, 

Chap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaction. .ji* 

which is implacably inclined to puniOi fin. It pre- 
fervcs inviolable ^be wajejiy of God, which, as zealous 
for his honour, can fuffer no contempt, to be put 
upon it, as all fm does, to go unpunilhed. It glo- 
rifies the unfearchable zvifdom of God, which found 
out a way, above the reach of all created under- 
f.anding, by which juftice and mercy might be hap- 
pily reconciled, and the honour of them both main- 
tained pure. In a word, it magnifies the inclli- 
mable grace and love of our God, who, when there 
were no other means of ourfalvation, fpared not his 
own fon, but gave up him for us all. And who 
would not heartily embrace an opinion, that dif- 
plavs, in fuch an eminent manner, the glory of 
God ? 

XVIII. Nor is it lefs fubfervient to the promotion Andfervea 
of piety. It tcacheth us to tremble before the ma- '° ^^^'^ 
jeily of the moft high God, who, from his being ty. 
God, cannot clear the guilty. It heightens the 
horror of fin, which it becomes us to believe is of fo 
atrocious a nature, that nothing fhort of the blood of 

a moft holy, and truly divine facrifice, could wafh 
it away. It fets before us the unfpotted holinefs of 
God, for our pattern, that, like him, we may enter- 
tain a mortal hatred to fin, and have no manner of 
fellowfhip with it. In a word, it inflames our hearts, 
wiih the moft deferved returns of love, willingly to 
devote ourfelves to his fervice, who, out of pure 
grace, delivered up his fon for us unto death, with- 
out which we fhould have remained miferable thro' 
eternity. And thus our opinion is that true do6lrine, 
which is according to godlinefs. 

XIX. And it does not derogate in the leaft, from Derogates 
any of the divine perfedions : not from his abfolute "q^j^^!^^^ 
pozaer-, becaufe, doubtlefs, God cannot deny him- of the di- 
lelf and his own perfections ; nor, by his atflions, vine per- 
teftify fin not to be contrary to his nature •, nor ever feftions. 
behave, as if he took pleafure in it, by communi- 
cating himfdf to the finner-, not from his moft/r^<? 

ivitl i 

Ofthe NECESSITY of Book 2, 

will-^ as God neither wills, nor can will any thing, 
but what tends to his glory, which requires, his ap- 
pearing as unlike the fmner as pofTible. Seneca 
ipoke well, (lueft. Nat. lib, i. God is not herehy kfs 
free^ or kfs pozverfid : forheishisownnecessity. 
Nor does it derogate from the liberty of thofe ac- 
tipns of God, which are called ^i extra, or without 
him. For, tho' he is, by no necefllty of nature, 
conilrained to external operations, confidered in the 
grofs, or together : yet, fuppofing the exiflence of 
one operation without him, many others necefTarily 
follow. For inftance, God was at liberty to create 
a world out of nothing: but having done it, it be- 
cam.e neceflary, that he Ihould govern the fame, in a 
way agreeable to his juftice, holinefs, wifdom and 
goodnefs. In like manner, here God was at liberty 
to permit fin •, but then having permitted it, his eiTen- 
tial juftice requires it to be punifhed. He was alfo 
at liberty to fave fome finners i yet, having declared 
his will with refpe^t to this, there was a necelTity for 
a fuitable fatisfadlion to intervene, on account of 
thofe immutable divine perfedions, which he cannot, 
in any of his adions, difavow. As little does this 
derogate from the wife counfelof God, in ordering the 
punifhment of it, as to the time, the degree, and the 
perfons. For tho' we don't think, that God infiidls 
puniihment from his nature, in fuch a manner, as fire 
burns ftho', even in this refpecl, he compares him- 
feif to fire. If 27. 4, and Deut. 4. 24,) yet his na- 
ture i? a ftrong reafon, why he orders and infiids pu- 
iiiflimentin a mofl wife manner. Now the nature of 
God requires, that he fo difplay the glory of hi^ 
juftice, as he may likewife manlfed the riches of hi? 
grace. Nor does it derogate from the infinite goodnefs 
of God, as if, by that he could grant repentance to 
the finner, and fo receive him into favour, without 
any fatisfaftion. For, the beflowingof the fpiritof 
regeneration, is an effecl of the highell love. But 
that God fliould fo much love a finner, continuing 


Chap. 8. CHRIST'S Satisfaction. 333 

ilill impenitent, without the confideration of a fa- 
tisfadion, is a conc]u(5t inconfiftent with his other 
perfedtions, as we have ah^eady lb frequently fliewn. 
God cannot but take his fpirit from him, who mak- 
eth a mock of him. It is not becoming to grant re- 
pentance by means of the iame fpiritj^'without the 
intervention of the facrifice of the priefl, whereby 
fin may be expiated. 

XX. Seeing therefore both the nature, and ac- '^iie con- 
tions of God, and the reafonings of the facred writers, ^'"''°.^ 
teach us the neceffity of a fatisfadlion : fmce by that '^°"^"* 
doclrine the eminent perfections of God are placed 

in the moft fhining light : feeing the right obfervance 
thereof tends very much to promote piety : And as 
thereby there is no derogation made from any of the 
divine perfeftions ; we conclude, it is the fafeil courfe 
foberiy to embrace it. 

XXI. Yet we mud obferve, when fpeaking in ge- Its. due 
neral of the neceflity of a fatisfa(5lion, or of fuch a Hmita- 
puniihment of fin, wherein the righteous and holy ^^°"' 
God may be juflified and fanclined, wefetno bounds 

to the time, the degree, or the fpecial manner of the 
puaifnment. The hiflory of the life and death 
of Chrifl, makes it very evident^ that difpcnfa- 
tions, and mitigations, at leafb a compenfation by 
an equivalent, took place here, and confequently 
could jufcly take place. And who will afiert, or, if 
he fhould prefume to fay fo, can plainly prove, that 
it was impoffible that Chrift, in order to make fa- 
tisfa6lion, fhould undertake and fubmit to fufferings, 
fewer in number, fhorter in duration, lefs intenfe in 
quantity, as to the parts of the body, and faculties of 
the foul, the moments and periods of his life fpent 
here upon earth ? And here let that faying o^ PanU 
Rom. 12. 3, be ever a rule to us-, not to thiyik more 
highly tlan we oicght to thinks hut to think fcberly, 

G H A F. 

( 3M ) 


Of the Perfons for whom Chrijl engaged and 

-Chriftfa- I. "T^ T E fhould have no certainty of all tliofe 
tisfied on- y y things, which it is proper for us to know^ 
thofcwho ^^^ ^h^ glory of our Lord Chrifl, and our own con- 
are faved. folation, concerning this furetifhip and fatisfadlion, 
did it not alfo appear, for whomhe fatisfied, accord- 
ing to his covenant-engagement. The iblution of 
this queiiion is indeed of very gre^t moment, but 
it does not appear fo very difficult, if we only care- 
fully attend to the nature of Chrift's furetifhip and fa- 
tisfa6lion, which we have already explained, proved 
and defended. For, fince Chrifl did, by his en- 
gagement, undertake to cancel all the debt of thofe 
perfons, for v/hom he engaged, as if it was his own, 
by fuffering what was meet, and to fulfil all righteouf- 
nefs in their room •, and fince he has mod fully per- 
formed this by his fatisfadion, as much as if the 
fmners themfelves had endured all the punifhment 
due to their fins, and had accomplifhed all righteouf-- 
nefs : the confequcnce is, that he has engaged and 
fatisfied for thofe, and thofe only, who are adually 
faved from their fins; as is evident to reaion. For 
ChriiL neither engaged, nor fatisfied, but for thofe, 
whofe perfon he fufiiained. Which Armmius himfelf, 
Adverfiis Perkinfum^Y'- l^-> fi'^^^kly owns. Moreover, 
that any of thofe, whofe perlbn Chrill fuflained, and 
for whom he fatisfied as their furety, fliould be ob- 
liged to fatisfy for the fame debt, by eternal death, 
is mofl inconfiflent with, and contrary to, the faith- 
fulnefs and juitice of God. Nor can we, on any ac- 
count, think it poffible, that any one fliould in earn- 
eft plead, that Chriit died for all and every one in 


Ch^p; 9. For whom CHRIST Satisf i ed. ',^24 

particular, till he has weakened the force of that 
expreffion, io die for any cne^ by which, as we lately- 
made appear againft the Socinians, is denoted a fub- 
flitution in the place of another. But it is worth 
while diftinLtly to fet forth the true doctrine in thefc 
following pofitions. 

II. We therefore conclude: ifl, That the obe- (.}^j.j^, 
dience and fufferings ofChrift, confidered in them- bcdiencc' 
felves, are, on account of the infinite dignity of the Tufficicnt 
perfon, of that value, as to have been fufficient for ^^^ ^^ving 
redeeming not only all and every man in particular, ^jn^^^^^u'j 
but many myriads befides, had it fo plcafed God and GcdVo 
Chrill, that he fhould have undertaken and fatisfied pleafed. 
for them. 

III. 2dly. That Chrift as man, fubjedl to the law ChriH as 
of love, did, in a holy manner, love all men without ^^"^A^' 
diftindion, as his neighbours, heartily wifhed them eveu to 
well, ferioufly lamented the ruin of thofe, that pe- thofe, fof 
rifhed, whom yet, as God, he knew were reprobates, whom as 
and for whom, as Mediator he had not engaged. J^^j-^!^^'" 
Yet he fubmitted this human affedion, commanded encrao-e. 
by the law, common to us and to Chrifl, to the di- 

Aane appointment, and reflrided it to the purpofe 
of the decreeing will of God ; in this manner prov- 
ing the holinefs of his v/ill, in the glorifying of the 
divine counfel, and in a due fubjedion thereunto. 
This appears from the tears, which Chrift, ns man, 
fhed over the calamities, that were coming upon that 
abandoned city, which had partly (lain, and partly 
loaded with contempt and ignominy the Prophets : , 
nay, had been the only butchery in the whole world 
for them ; and was at length, by a moft horrid parri- 
cide, to devote itfelf, with its unhappy poflerity, to 
the lafiing curfe of God, Lukeig. 41. 

IV. 3dly, The furetifhip and fatisfa6lion of Chrifr, ChHft^s 
have alio been an occafion of much good, even to the ^^u'sfac- 
reorobate. For, it is owin^; to the death of Chrifb, '^^"^^^,5' 

. ceIioii or 

that the Gofpel is preached to every creature, that mu^h 
grofs idolatry is aboliflicd in many parts of the world, good alfo 

til at ^^ ^^^ ^^* 


2^6 For v/hom CHRIST Satisfied. Book i. 

that wicked impiety is much reftrained by the dif- 
cipline of the word of God, that they obtain at times, 
many and excellent, tho' not faving, gifts of the 
Holy Spirit, that ^bey have efcaped thi^ pollutions 
of the world thro* the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour 
Jefus Chrift^ 2 Pet. 2. 20. And who can in iliorc 
enumerate ail thole things, which they enjoy, not 
thro' accident only, and be fide the intention of God 
and of Chi-ift, but by the appointment of God? Not 
indeed with a defign and purpoie of faving them ac- 
cording to the teilament ; but from a view to make 
known hislong-fuiferingtov/ards the velleis of wrath, 
that is, thofe who are to perifh, who dwell among 
thofe, who are to be faved. For, nothing falls out 
by accident^, with refpeci to the intention of God ; 
every thing being according to his determinate 
Offuch V. 4th}y, That the obedience and fufferlngs of 

worth, chrid are offuch worth, that all, without exception^ 
Lenwith- ^^^ comQ to h:m, may find perfe6t falvation in him : 
outexeep- and it was the will of God, that this truth ihould, 
tion,com- without diflindion, be propofed both to them that 
ingtohim ^j.^ ^Q J3g faved, and to them that are to perilh ; with 
fklTation ^ charge not to negled fo great falvation, but to re- 
in him. pair to Chrift with true contrition of foul •, and with 
a mod fincere declaratioyi^ that all, who come to him, 
{hall find falvation in him, John 6. 40; 
^utbythe VI. 5thly, That, however, Chrifl, according to 
will of the ^^ v/ill of God the Father, and his own purpofe, 
ti^sfadion' ^^^ neither engage nor fatisfy, and confequently iri 
was no manner, die, but only for rdl thofe, whom the 

made only Father gave him, and who are adtualiy faved. This 
^?!^^^ is that truth, v/hich is controverted, and v/hich, we 
* ^ ' are now to confirm, in a concife, but folid manner, 

from the facred writings. 

i^roved VII. The Scripture declares, that Chrill fatisfied 

from % foi- x\it whole body of the eled:, when it declares, 

'^'^'^* \X\2.x.\i<^, died for alU and hy him reconciled all things^ 

as, 2 Cor. 5. 15, Ihh. 2. o, CoU 1. 20. And as this 


Chap. 9- For whom CHR 1ST Satisfied, 337 

is not to be underflood of all and every man in parti- 
cular, it muft be meant of all and every one of the 
ele6l. That it cannot be underflood of all and every 
individual, I prove frgm the pafTages quoted in the 
following manner. Thofe all fcr whom Chriil is faid 
to have died ^ 2 Cor. 5. 15, are thofe, zvho are atfo 
dead^ namely, as to the old man, whom, in virtue 
of the crucifixion of Chrift, they have crucified, 
Rom. 6.6^ and who live not to themfehes but to Chrift^ 
and to Chrift, indeed, who rofe again for them. 
But thefe things, can be applicable only to the elecflr. 
None but they are dead to themfelves, the world and 
to fm: none elfe live to Chrifl. In a word, accord- 
ing to the very hypothefes of the Rcmonftrants, the 
efficacy of Chriil's" refurredion is reilrained to be- 
lievers alone. In like manner, thofe ^//, fcr whom From 
Chrift is faidy by the grace of God^ to have tajied death., Heb.2.9, 
Heb, 2. 9, are fons brought^ or to be brought, unto 
glory y who have Chrift for the captain of their falva- 
tion\ who are fanufified\ whom he calls his brethren^ 
which God gave him^ v. 10, 11, 13. Thefe things can 
be applied, not to the reprobate, but only to the 
ele6l. In like manner, thofe all things., which are faid From 
to be reconciled to God., by the peace made thro'' the blood ^ol-'-^o.. 
of Chrift., Col. i. 20, can only extend to tht ele^l. 
The thing is felf-evident. For reconciliation and 
peace making with God are peculiar to ele6l believers, 
Rom. 5. I. On the contrary, the reprobate are per- 
petual enemies to God, the wrath of God abideth on 
them., John, 3, 36. By thofe things ivhich are on earth.^ 
are underftood believers, who are Hill in the world ; 
as by thofe things., which are m heaven., arc meant, not 
atigcls, but men in the ftaie of bliis, who enjoy, 17 
the fiilleft manlier, the fruits of Lhrift's atonement 
and reconciliation. 

VIll. Let us add that remarkable palTage, i I'irn. From 
2. 4, 6, God will have all men to be fived^ and to come ^ ^i"^.2. 
unto the [acknozvledgment'] knowledge of the truth : '^' 
Chrift gave him f elf a ranfom for all. \Vhere by ally 
M Vol.. h Z we 

2^5 For whom CHRIST Satisfied. Book. 2. 

we are not to underftand all and every one in parti- 
cular, but the ele6t of whatever nation and condi- 
tion •, which I make evidently to appear in this man- 
ner. I ft. They, for whom Chrift gave himfelf a 
ranfom, are aiftually refcued from the dominion of 
Satan, are brought to perfe6l liberty, and can never 
be thruft into an eternal prifon, in order to fatisfy 
again for thofe debts, which Chrift paid to the ut- 
moft farthing. This we muft certainly maintain, 
unlefs we would have Chrift's payment go for no- 
thino-. But all, and every one in particular, are not 
fet free from the dominion of Satan. Many are, 
and do ft ill remain, children of difohedience^ in whom 
that impure fpirit worketh^ Eph. 2. 2, and who arc 
for ever held captive at his will^ in tkefjiare of the devil, 
and thefe fhall be forced to fatisfy for their own guilt. 
Chrift therefore did not give himfelf a ranfom for 
them. 2dly. Paul fpeaks, of all thofe, who have 
Chrift for their Mediator. But he is Mediator, both 
by the offering of his body and blood, and by his 
powerful interceffion. This latter part of his media- 
tion <:an, on no account, be excluded here, when 
the Apoftle is treating concerning our prayers, of 
which we have a moft perfet^l pattern in the prayers 
of Chrift. Befides, the Remonftrants acknowledge, 
that Chrift's interceflion is not for all and every man 
in particular : therefore, he is not the perfed Me- 
diator of all and every individual. 3dly, What is 
Lere fpoken is, concerning all thofe, whom God will 
have to he favedy and come to the [^acknowkdgernent'] 
knowledge of the truth. But this is not his will con- 
cerning every man in particular, becaufe he will have 
unbelievers condemned, John, 3. 36. And the ac- 
knowledgment of the truth, or faith, is not the prive- 
ledge of all, 2 Theff. 3. 2, but of the Ele5l, "^it. i. i. 
Nor is it the will ot God it fhouid. He hardeneth 
whom he willy Rom. 9. 18. BcTides, it is unworthy 
of the divine majefty, to imagine, that there is an in- 
fompleat unrefolved and ineffcofual volition in God, 

Pf. 115. 

Chap. 9- For whom CHRIST Satisfied. 
Pf. 115. 3. And it is mere trifling and mean, to 
iinderltand a bare cc/// of precept^ enjoining all to 
work out their own falvation, with fear and trembling, 
and, with all diligence, to feek the knowledge of the 
truth; or, a will of his good plealiire, approving 
what is according to the precept; they with whom 
we now argue, do not take it in that light. 4thly, 
I'he perfons here meant are all thofe, for whom we 
are to pray : But we are not to pray for all and every 
one in particular ; not certainly for thofe, who are 
already damned •, not for the falvation of all, who are 
now alive, colledively taken ; becaufe we cannot do 
it in faith ; and we are fure, that many of them will 
be damned : nor in fine, for thofe, who have/inned 
the fin unto deaths i John, 5. 16. 5thly, and laftly, 
it is acknowledged, that thefe words are made ufe of 
by the Apoftle, as a motive for the prayers, which 
he requires, and which (hall not be in vain. But the 
words of the Apoftle would infer no fuch thing, if 
they only meant, thatChrift has, by his fatisfadlion, 
obtained no more than a poflibllity, for God to be 
reconciled to all and every one in particular, tho', 
by the nature of that impetration, it is polTible none 
may be actually faved ; becaufe, if that death has 
only procured a poflibility of falvation, and if our de- 
fires after that falvation might be ineffeflual, we 
could neither be fure of their being heard, nor have 
that hope of audience, which maketh not alhamed. 
We muft then conclude, that Chrift gave himfelf a 
ranfom of redemption, for all the ele6b, of whatever 
nation and condition, and that it is the will of God, 
they all Q^ould be faved ; confequently, that it is our 
duty, to be fubfervient, by our prayers, to this 
counfel of God ; and as we know not how to diltin- 
guifh the elcd: from the reprobate, to pray indif- 
criminatelyfor all, referring it to God, todiftinguifh 
thofe who are his ; efpecially, becaufe we are certain, 
we fiiall not pray in vain for thofe, whom God wilh 
to be laved, and for whom Chrift gave himfelf. 

Z z IX.ThC; 

•For whom CHRIST SATispi:Eb. Book 2. 

IX. The Scripture inculcates the fame truth, 
tlioie paf. ^.ji^p it fays^ that Chrift gave hisflefhfor the life of the % 
where he "^orldj John, 6. 5 1, that he I'?, the propitiation for our 
is faid to T^A/J, ij;?^ not for curs only^ hut cdfo for the Jins of the 
havegiveiv^^^/^ worlds 1 Johu 2. 2. 'That Gcd was in Chrifi 
^^^^^^^^^^ reconciling the world to himfelf^ 2 Cor. 5. 19. That 
By whicli Chrifi is the lamb of God, that taketh away the fins of 
word, ihtthe world, John i. 29. And other pafTages to the 
colleaive \\\^q purpoie. Where by the term wc'rld, cannot, 
the eka ^^^ oughc not, be underftood the whole of man- 
is fome- kind, but the eled. Which we prove by the fol- 
times de- lowing arguments. 

"°^^.^* X. It is clear, that, in Scripture, things are fome- 

J^ fo '^'^^^^ ^^i^ of the world, as agree only to the eled and 
theworld.. to believers. Thus Chrift prays, John 17. 21, that 
the world may believe, that thou hafi fentme, and verfe 
23, that the world may know, that thou hafl fent me^ 
But thefe things belong to that facerdotal intercefiion 
of Chrift, concerning which, we raay, with the great eft 
'Certainty, conclude, that it will never he rejected, fays 
' Arminius, in Oratione de facer Smo Chrifti, and Vv^hich, 
it is certain, is not made forthe world of reprobates, 
Chrift having exprelsly declared that, v. 9, and they, 
with whom we argue, do not refufe it. It is there- 
fore neceffary, that by the world, we here underftand 
the world of the eleEt, who beheve on Chrift, and know 
him by faith, by virtue of the intercefiion of 
Chrift, and by means of the miniftry, together with 
the holy and glorious example of believers. 

XI. Moreover, many texts, which fpeak of fai- 
vation, not only as irnpetrated, but as applied, af- 
cribe it to the v;orld. Thus Chrift declares, John 3. 
17, for God fent not his fon into the zvorld to condemn 
the world, lut that the wsrld, thro* him, might be favcd. 
But theintention of God, in fending his fon, is not to 
fave all, but that w'hcfoever helieteth in htm, fhould not 
perifh, hut have eternal life, as Chrift explains himfelf 
in the foregoing verfes. In like miinhQV, John 6. 33, 
the head of God is he, which o^fMtb downjromhean>ehj 

ar^d ^ 

Chap. 9- For whom CHRIST Satisfied. 34^ 

and giveth life unto the world Bur Chrift gives life 
only to the ele6t, to the flieep, and not to the goats, 
John 10. 27, 28. ThusChnli in profecuting his dif- 
courfe above quoted, John 6, retrains the term, 
worlds to thofe, -crZ^^/w the father gave htm^ who fee the 
fon and beleve on him, v. 39, 40. 

XII. Thefe exprelTjons hkewile, the father cf ihofe^^'"^^^^* 
that believe, and, the heir of the world, denote the f^j^^ r f 
fame thing, in the promife made to Abraham^ Rom. called the 
4. II, 12, 13. Abraham is the father of thofe that^^^^^r of 
believe, ift. As a pattern of faiih. 2dly, As a pat- J.^^^ ^^^^^" 
tern of the blefling, or of juftification by faith. 3diy, ^cir of the 
On accountof Chrift, who defcendedfrom him, and by world, 
whofe fpirit the eled are born again : hence Chrift, 

along with his myftical body, is CdWed the feed of Jbra- 
ham^ Gal. 3. 16. He is the heir of the zvcrld, that is, of 
all the families of the earth, who are blelTed in him 
as in the pattern of faith and of the blelTmg by it, and 
in his feed Chrill, as the fountain of every blefling. 
For, this is that world, which Chrifl receives for an 
inheritance ; as alfo, Abraham, and confequently 
every believer, v/ho, is his feed, in Chrift ; or, who 
becomes Chrifl's own poireinon,and with whomAbra- 
ham and evtry believer have communion, exulting 
in the good things which are beftowed upon them, 
1 Cor. 3. 21, 22. For, that llri6t un:on and fmcere 
love which fubfift between them, are the reafon, that 
every one rejoices in, and glorifies God, on account 
of the benefits beflo'vved on his neighbour, as if be- 
ftowed on himfelf. And thus we have made, it ap- 
pear, that the term world, fometimes in Scripture, 
.dai otes the colk5live body of believers, or of the ele^. 

XIII. We add, that the Holy Ghoit fpcaks in this Thewhole 
manner, with great propriety, for leveral lubilantial body of 
realbns. For, id, the term world, generally in the ^^^^^^^^^ 
common way of fpeaking, denotes any huge body ^J^^^.^^ '-^ 
or multitude of men whatever. Thus the Pharifis i^^^q^slC" 

z 3 Aid 

342 iPorwhom CHRIST Satisfied. Book 2, 

coun^ of faid amon^ themfelves^ perceive ye^ how ye 'prevail no- 
UtadT''^" ^^^^^^ B^eholdl theivorld is gone after hm, John, 12, 
19. We have a like phrafeoiogy in Horajot. c. 3. In 
Cemaray when Rabbi Simeon thefon of Gc mallei e7ttered 
(naTjely into the Synagogue) the whole world r of e up 
before Urn ', that is, all who were prefentin the fy- 
nagogue. Why then fhvoukl not a very large and 
almoft infinite mukitude of the chofer. people from 
among all nations •, that great multitude which no man 
cm number. Rev. 7, 9- be elegantly defigned by 
t6\y, be-^l'^c appellation tvorldi? 2dh/, Eiecl believers, con- 
^raufe, be- fidered in themll^lves, and before effe^ual callings are 
forevoca- a part of the world lying in wickednefs^ i John 5. 19. 
tion, they j^ time pczjl they v)alk€dintrcfprffes and fins ^ according to 
^znoi i^^ r<?//r/^ of this worlds Eph. 2. i, 2 •, and fo far they 
the im- belong to that worlds which is becov^e guilty before 
F^'^ Godj Rom. 3. 19. But this tends to illuftrate the 

'*'^'''^- glory of the love of God and Chrift, and tothe huiiiili^ 
ation of believers *, that, while they were a part of the 
wicked work!, Chrift was given to be their Re- 
But after dcemer. 3dly, Elccl bel.evers are, after effectual 
vocation callings coniidered as bcautiiied with divine grace, . 
thebet^ter ^j^^^ f^^j^j^^ y tithe bcft part of the world, ^e faints 
Fhe'world. ^^^^^^ excellent, that are tn the earth, i'f 16. 3. the 
holy feed, which is the fuhftance (fupport}^/ the earthy 
If 6. 13. And as the Jews are wont to Ipeak, the 
jufi are c^V^j^ ^^^'^^i^ the pillars of the world. But what 
is more ufual, what more fuitable, than that the 
whole fhould, by a lynecdocr.e, iignify the better, 
as fometimes the greater part r It is therefore not 
V/ithout its emphaus, and yields uieful inftruclions, 
when we hear the coUe^ive body af the cid't, defigned 
by the name of the \^orld. 
■jdlinf). XIV". i\'ow, let us apply thefe things to the paf- 

51, ex- fages we have already quoted, §.5. Ch rift indeed 
jnaitied. f^yg^ when fpeaking of impel ration, John 6. 51, that 
he will give his fief h for the life of the world-, but, in 
tUe lame chapter vl ^3, .when fpeaking of the ap- 



Chap. 9. For whom CHRIST Satisfied. 343 

plication^ he fays, x\\2.t he ^iveth life to the ^j:crld : and 
fo he explains, wliat, in the fubjedl of redemp- 
tion, he would have us to underftand by the ivorld. But 
it is a capital truth, that the application of rec^emp- 
tion extends no further, than to believers and the 

XV. When John writes, i John 2. 2, that Chrift ^ J°^^ 2. 
is the -proptiat'ion not only for our fins ^ hut alfo for the 
fins of the whole world', he fliews us by thefe words, 
who they are, that can take comfort to thcmfelves 
from the interceflion of Chrifl:, and the remifllon 
purchafed by him. But elect believers alone can 
do this; he is their advocate with the father, and 
not that of the reprobate. To them, and not to the 
reprobate, God hath fet him forth to be a propitia- 
tiony through faith in his bloody Rom. 325. More- 
over this confolation belongs not only to the clecl 
from among the Jewifh nation, fuch as John was, 
but alfo to the ele6l from among the Gentiles, whom 
Paul exprefsly points out by the name of the worlds 
Rom. II. 12, 15. By aphrafeology very ufualamong 
the Hebrew docftors, who call the Gentiles r)'\n'^,i< 
czb):^, the nations of the world. Nor does this faving " 
truth yield comfort to thofe believers only, who 
lived at that time., and to whom, as to his children, 
John was writing; but alfo to thofe, who lived in the 
a'fJtediluvian worlds and under the mofaical pedagogy, 
whole fins were no otherwife expiated, than by the 
blood of Chrift ; and in fine, to thofe believers, who, 
from John's days, were to be brought to Chrift out of 
all nations whatever, to the end of the world : which 
very great multitude is defervedly defigned by the 
name of the whole world. For it is very certain, that 
by the whole world is not cknoted the colle(fli\ ii body 
of all mankind: for John exprefsly difcriminares 
himfelf and thofe to whom he is writing from the 
whole world, and yet he could not feclude them 
from being a part of the collc^ive body of man- 

Z 4 XVI. When 

344- For whom CHRLST SATisrtED. , Book 2. 

2 Cor. 5. XVI. When Paul fays, 2 Ccr, 5. 19, thM God was 
^9* in Chrift reconcilit^ the world, to himjelU he imme* 

diately fubjoin^, that this v/3B, hy mot imputing their 
irefpaffss unto them : to teach us, that reconciliation, 
and no.n-imputa.t'ioBare of equal ck tent. Butti^e latter 
is the priveiege of the ele6l, and of believers alone^ 
and of thofe in whofe heart there is no guile. For, 
D^vid declares thofe hlejj'ed^ to inhom God mputeth nv't 
i'mquity^ Pf, 32. i, 2, Rom. 4. 6, 8. Therefoi'e, by 
the world, the world of the electis fignified. 
John I. XVII. John 1. 29, Chriifl: is ^ called /i^^ Imnh of 
^9* God', ivhkh tctkeih away tke]{in ef the zvorld. But, 

like that goat, on which the iniquity of the children 
of Ifrad was laid, he taketh them away, by taking 
them upon himfelf, by fatisfying for them, as if tbey 
were his own, and by taking them away from his 
people, as to their guilt by juftification,. and as tta 
their d©minion and ftain, byfan61ification : fee i Pet. 
2, 24. But as thefe things point to the impctration 
<)f falvation, fo as at the fame time to include its ap- 
plication, they can extend no farther, than to the 
world of the eled believers. Bieffedis r^^^ >w:in'^^ 
he^ whofe tranfgreffim is taken away^ [forgiven] Pf, 
32. I. 
Afinetef-' X'^ni- ^^^ ^^"5 we have ihewn, that tho' the 
timony of'Scripture, v/hen fpeakingof the world of the redeemed, 
St. Prof- feally defigns fom.e colleftive body, yet it is that of 
P^^' xht ele6l only. Which Profper elegantly exprelTed, 
4e Vocat, Gent, lib. i.e. 3, or in another edition, r. 9, 
In the eleB^ even thofe foreknown^ and difcrimmated 
from every generality^ or colleBive body ^ there is deemed 
'to be a certain 'peculiar kind of imiverfaUty ^ fo as that 
-a whole world feetns to be delivered out of a whole worldy 
and all men to be redeemed from among all men^ 
Scripmre XIX. li^t ITS riOw more efpeciaily thev/, that 
leilrains Chrift madfefatisfaaion for the eled only. To this 
theeffica- fp^,j.pofe are thofe paffages of Scripture, in wliich the 
Chrlfl/s death of Chrift is-r-eftriSed to his fkeep^ his churchy his 
death to feople^ m\y^ 2'.ndi his peculiar' 'people ^ John 10, 14, 

2 »■,'.''■' -^ /Uls,^ 

Ghap. 9- Forwhom CHRIST Satisfied. 545 

Atls 20. 28, E'ph, 5. 25, IT//. 2. 14. fi'om which v/e ceitain 
thus argue : what the Scriptures reftrift to fome cer- P^^^^"»* 
tain kind of men, to the manifeft exclufion of the red, 
ought not to Be extended abfolutely to ail men. But 
the Scriptures, in the paifages quoted, limit the death 
of Chrift to a certain kind of men, fo as manifeftly to 
exclude the reft. Therefore, &c. The truth of the 
major, or firft propofition, is evident from the terms % 
that of the minor, from the pafTages quoted : In or- 
der to illuilrate this, we are to fliew thefe two things: 
J ft. That the fubjecl matter is tlxtimpe trot ion of faU 
yation, which is xht adl of Chrift; and not thefnii* 
tw72 alone, which is our aft. 2d!y, Ihat the death of 
Chrii'i is fo reftri^ed to thofe, who are there defcribed, 
as >to exclude thts reft of mankind. The remon- 
ftrants, not being able otherwife lo refift the force of 
this argument, -deny both thefe. 

XX. As to the FORMER, namely, that the impe- ^^hich is 
tration of filvation is here intended, I thus pr6ve. JpT"j~ 
I ft. The very terms, which the Holy Spirit ufes in of the im- 
the pafi'ages quoted, to lay down his 'life for fome ^ to petratlon, 
purchafe.fome^ io give him f If j or fome ^ import fatisfac- ^"^°°^ ^^ 
tion, impetnition, ana acquifition. Nor do the ^^^q^^^",'" 
Scriptures ufuaily fpeak in any other ftrain^ when the of falva- 
fubje6t is evidendy concerning imp^etration. adlV, tion. ... 
In the pafTages quoted, we have a clear defcriptioa 
of v/hat Chrift has done, both without us and with- 
out our concurrence ; whereas the real fruition or 
enjoyment, concerning which the remonftrants will 
have thofe paflages to be underftood, is our aft. 
Thefe two differ much both in natm^e and time. In 
nature •, for the -one refembles a mean appointed for 
fome end; the other an external end, or rather the 
iife or enjoyment of that, for which that mean is ap- 
pointed. In iime-^ for thefe pVopohtions were com- 
pieatly verified the moment, in which Chrift laid 
down his life : but the aftual enjoyment or applica- 
tion is, a thing accomplifliing gradually for a long 
4:raft of tirais in all the elcft, 3d!Y. '^I'hc remonftrants 


1^6 For whom CHRIST Satisfied. Book 2* 

themfclves produce fimilar phrafes from Scripture, 
oi dying for fomey pur chafing fome^ &CC. when they con- 
tend, that the impetration of the grace of God reaches 
to others befides the elecl; with what colour or pre^ 
tence then, do they deny that impetration is here the 
fubje6l matter ? 4th]y, They fhew, that they lay no 
ilrefs on thcfe paflages, when they afterwards affirm, 
they cannot refer to believers alone, and maintain 
thar, by the church, we are not to undertland the 
e'e6l alone, or that Chrift gave himfelf for them only. 
Therefore, I fay, to purchafe and give himfelf for a 
perfon, cannot here be underllood of real enjoyment, 
which is peculiar to believers only, ^thly, and lailly. 
By making this exception, the anfwer of the remon- 
flants comes only to a begging the queftion : for, we 
ujaintain, and are directly to prove it by the ftrongefb 
arguments, that the application of faving grace is as 
extenfive as its impetration ; and we own, the quef- 
tion here is not concerning fuch an impetration, as 
may have its plenary efFe<5l, though never applied. 
For, fuch an impetration, we judge abfurd, un- 
thcoiogical, zi\d highly unworthy of Chrift. 
A"!^! are XXI. The SECOND, namely, which refpefts the 

^^^^ exclufion of the reft of mankind, when diftiniSt men- 
ilieei> ^^^" \s mzde of lbs fljeepy the churchy a peculiar people^ 
I ihall make evident ; firft, by Ihewing, that by 
tliefe appellations, Jheep^ churchy peculiar people^ can- 
not be underftood all men in general -, and then that 
what is here afierted of th(^ Jheepy churchy peculiar people^ 
0OWS from that extraordinary love of Chrift, which he 
has not for the reft of mankind. Tht firft has no great 
diiticuUy in it : for, Chrift exprefsly fays to fome, 
John 10 26y ye are not of rnyfheep. And therefore, 
fee divides n:anivind into fheep ^iVi(^ gcats \ of whom, 
t.he laji are undoubtedly reprobate, the former, cer- 
tainly the dcdt, and heirs of eternal life, Mat, 

NoicoaU XXII. Our opponents themfelves will not afHrm 
fcdong to ^p^^^ ^11 belong to the church. They indeed {^iy^ 
clvutch, ^l^y^\^^-^^ vifible church is meaht;^ in which there are 


Chap.9. For whom CHRIST Satisfied. 347 

others befides the eleft. But, ift. It fufficicntlj an- 
fwcrs our purpole, that all and every one in parti- 
cular cannot be underftood. 2dly, that what is faid 
of the vifible church, is fometimes of fuch a nature, 
as can be underftood only of the elect therein : as 
when the Apoftle, writing to the vifible church of 
•the Ephefians^ Eph, i. 4, fays, be hath chojen you in 
him : and in like manner, i Thejf. 1. 4, and wc fhall • 

prefently fhevv, that what is faid of the church in the 
places quoted, is of the fame nature. 

XXIII. In a word, the term all cannot be applied or to tlie 
to the people of God, for God himfdf makes thisP^^P^^ ^^ 
clear, when he ordered fome to be called, '^:^ t<b 

ye are not my people ^ Lo-ammi, Hof. i. 9. And 
they, who dilTent from us, take a wrong courfe, 
when, by people^ they underfland the Jews ; for there 
were reprobates even among them. Thus we learn 
from Paul, that, with refpe(5l to fpiritual privileges, 
they are not all accounted Ifrael, who are of lfrael» 
and therefore not to be reckoned the people, Rom. 
II. I, 2. * 

XXIV. But it is not enough to have fhewn, that What 
the names Jheep^ churchy people, do not comprehend Chrift dlJ 
every individual of miankind : for, it is pofTible, that, f^jL^^? ^" 
on a particular occafon, fomething might be faidofeffea^of 
fome perfons, which certainly agree to them, buthis extra- 
not to them only. The queflion is not, whether o^^i"^''/ 
Chriftd'icdfor the eled, but whether for them only. |°^^^^_' 
Our adverfarics fay, this cannot be concluded from alone!" 
thofe paffageG, where the particle, only, is not added. 

Wc muft therefore fh^w, tiiat thefe things ;Te fo ap- 
propriated to the elecl, as to exclude the reft of 
mankind: I prove it thus : all the pafiagcs quoted 
rend to amplify the extraordinary love of Chrill to- 
wards his (heep, for whom he laid down his life ; to- 
wards the church, which he purchafed with his own 
blood, towards his people, for whom he gave him- 

• To this quotation of the author's may be be added» Rom. 9. 6. 


34^ For whoin C HR 1ST Satisfied. Book %. 

feif. But if in this, the flieep, the church and people 
of Ch'ifi have nothing peculiarly diitinguifhing be- 
yond all other men, what probable reafon can be af- 
ilgned, v^hy that infinite love of Chrift, in laying 
down 1" is life, Hieddiiig his blood, and giving' him- 
felf, fhould elpecially be appropriated tp them ? 
GaI.2.2o. XXV. To this reafoning our adverfaries abf^^rdly 
objeaed x!>ppofe P^?//\f g-oriaiicMi, who, v/hile writing C^/. 2 w 
20, That Chrilr was given for him, does nof 
exclude others fromafnare in the fame love. Fof 
in that text, P^^/does not fpeak of any divine love, 
v/htreby God peculii^j-'y diftingiullied him from 
otliers, who had the like precious faith with him- 
self? Nor <loes he confider himfelf as Paul^ but as 
^an Z/f/^perfon, and ei believer ^ip^^or^oUn^ himfelf there, 
as an ex-ample, in the nameof all believers : and v/e 
■are fo far from being ab'e to infer from this, that 
"what Paul afBrms of himfelf was peculiar to hini, 
'that quite the reverfe ought to be concluded: 
this inli-?.nce therefore does not fuit the cafe. 
Forthofe XX VT. But let us confider each paflage apart: 
ihee^ml^ ■w'hen Chriil publicMy deciares, that he lays down his 
^^^\l^ ^^f^ f<^^ ^^^J^^^P^ lie 'thence infers, that he muft bring 
iite, to ^^^^'^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ i^Gic€^ ' that there may be onefold and 
\\HiDmiic one Jhepherd^ John 10. 15, 16, 17. But it is certain, 
^jwes eter- that thefe lafl afferti on s agree to eled believers only, 
"^' ^* and therefore alfo the fiffr,'from which the others are 
deduced. For it would not beajuft inference, to 
4ay, I lay down my lite for my fheep, therefore I 
miift bring theni to hear my voice &c. Did he 
lay down his life for fome, ^vhom he never brings, 


The XXVII. When Paul Jaid, that Chrift pur chafed 

church, his church zvith his own bloody AUs 20. 2^, He more 
purchafed diftin(ftly expLiins, in his epiftle to the Ephefians, 
's^alone S" ^••^' ' '"^"^^^^^ l>e means fey the church, which Chrift 
hisYpoufe, loved and gave himfelf for, namely the fpoufe of 
for whom, Chrift, whom alone he loves with a conjugal affedion, 
^outofcon- gj^(5^ fandifics and prefents glorious- 'to himfelf. But 

. that 

Gha'p. 9- For whomCHRIST Satisfied. g49 

that love of Ch rift, which was the motive of his jugal love, 
giving himfelf, and of the fandifrcation and glorifica- jjf S^J"^ 
tion of the church, which is the fruit of that donation, 
belongs to eledl believers only, therefore alfo the 
very giving itfelf, which is the confcquence of that 
love, and the caufe of the fan^Lification of the church. 
Moreover, that this conjugal love of Ch rift, whereby 
he purchafed the church, as his Ipoufe, by »his own 
blood, has the general aftembly of the eied:, alone for 
its objed, to wave other con fiderations, may be hence 
tclCvt inferred, becaufeP^^^/ propofcs it here as a pattern 
of the conjugal love of the huft)and for the wife. 
-But this love ought doubtlefs to reach no farther than 
the wife. 

XXVIII. Laftly, when Paul reminds his fonChrlflpu. 
Tims, that Chrift' gave himfelf for us, thai: be might '^'''^■f^ ^^^^ 
redeem us from all iniquity, and purify tinto himfelf a^-^^^^^^^^^ 
peculiar people, zeclous of good wcrks, Jit, 2. 14, heior, &c. 
evidently fhews, what was z\\t fruit of Chrift's giving 
himfelf; namely, redemption from iniquity, and the 
purification of a peculiar people, &c. And con- 
fequentjy they, who are not redeemed from iniquity, 

nor purified, nor made his peculiar people, &c. 
cannot glory in this, that Chrift gave himfejf for 

XXIX. What the apoftle writes in this chapter. Tit. 2.11. 
verfe 11, that the grace of God, that bringeth f aha- ^^ip\^itcA, 
tion, hath appeared to all men, teaching us that de- 
nying ungodlinefs Sec. neither avails our adverfaries, 

nor is any ways detritnenra-l to the truth we maintain. 
For, ift. The preaching of the gofpel, by which 
the faving grace of God is offered, and which is here 
intended by that exprefiion, had not reached all 
mankind without exception, nay nor every nation, 
in the days of Paul. zdiy. The preaching of the 
gofpel reaches tiie ears of a great many more than of 
thofe, who are the objc6is of that love of Chrift 
which bringeth falvatian ? For it is only an external 
mean, by which the elect, out of every ration, arc 


25C< For whom CHRIST Satisfied, Books, 

brought to the communion of Chrid. And therefore 
the gofpel is to be preached to every nation, without 
diftindlion, that the ele6l therein may hear it. 3dly, 
We fhould obferve the apoftles fcope, which is to 
encourage fervants to the exercife of univerfal piety, 
that, by their holy converfation,. they 7nay adorn the 
doBrine of Chriji in all things. The reafon he gives 
for this is, becaufe the faving grace of Chrift has 
appeared, both to mafters and fervants, teaching us 
&c. As if he had faid, " That all men, of whatever 
" rank, profeiTing the Gofpel, ought to reckon it 
" their duty to adorn its doflrine by the purity of 
" their manners : for, as to the dodrine itfelf, it fo 
" plainly, fo exprefsly, and fo efficacioufly inflru6ls 
" us in all goodnefs, as none, but they vvho wilfully 
" flop their ears, can be ignorant of. And therefore 
" all the profeflbrs of it, as well mafters as fervants, 
" fhould take care, leaft they bring a fcandal on this 
" mofl perfedb of all rules, by lives, which have little 
" or no conformity to it." This is the full import of 
thefe words, fo that any may fee, that they make no- 
thing for the univerfal efficacy of Chrift's death. 
Chrift did XXX. If we fearch the matter to the bottom, we 
Qot ea- will moft clearly difcern, that it never was Chrift's 
gage,con- intention, to fatisfy for all in general. Certainly, he 
not^adsfy fatisfied only for thofe he engaged for. But he en- 
ter all in gaged to do the will of his fat her y Pf 40. 9. But 
general, this is the will of his father, not that every man 

Cither by f|^Qy](-i b^ faved, but thofe that were given him, 

his own or , . , , p. ^ . *^ , 

the will of "^^^ IS, the eledt out of every nation, who are to 

his father, receive the gift of faith. Thole the father gave him 

for an inheritance by an irrevocable teftament. For 

thus Jehovah fpeaks Is, 49, 6, // is alight thing that 

thou fhouldft be my fervant^ to raife up the tribes of Jacobs 

and to refiore the freferved of Israel : I '-juill alfo give 

■thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayft be my 

fahation unto the end of the earth. And Chrift him- 

felf ftill more clearly John 6. 39, This is the father's 

vvilly which hath fent me^ that of all which he hath 


Chap. 9. For whom CHRIST SATistiED* 351 

given mc^ IJhould lofe nothing. But all are not given 
to Chrift, only thofe, that come to him w. 37, all that 
the father giveth me pmll come to me. He therefore 
only engaged for thele, according to the will of the 
father: took their fins upon him, carried them on 
his heart, when he offered himfelf to the father-, claims 
them as his peculiar property, in virtue of his merits 
according to agreement, challenges them for his 
own, and will, at length in due time, prefcnt them 
holy and glorious to his father, faying, behold I and 
the children which God hath given me,, Heb, 2. 13. All 
thefe things naturally flow from the very nature of the 
covenant which fubfifts between the father and the 
Son, as formerly explained. 

XXXI. And theie particulars may be further iU The fame 
luftrated, and confirmed from Aaron\ typical prieit- thing 
hood. The High Priefl, on the folemn day of ex- ^^"^^ 
piation, (lew one of the goats, on which the fms of j.^^'J^j p[, 
all Ifrael were laid, and fent the other into the wild- cal prieft- 
ernefs. All thefe things were typical. The High hood. 
Pried, the facrifice, the fcape-goat, all fet forth 
Chrift. But who were typically defigned by Ifrael ? 
Not indeed all men. For, what is more abfiird than 
that Ifrael (hould be a type of the Edomites and Egyp- 
tiansy and of all that world, out of which they were 
chofen, and from which, on fo many accounts, they 
were diftinguifhed? We therefore conclude, that 
they were typical of the eledt, who are the true 
Ifraelites, Jews inwardly, and in the fpirir, and whom 
the Apollle loves to dillinguifh by the name of the 
Ele^ion, Rom. 11. 7. For, the nature of the type, 
confilled in this, that the people of i/r^^/, was chofen 
byanexternalpompof ceremonies, was redeemed, and 
In their meafure was a holy priefthood. They therefore? 
prefigured thofe, who were truely chofen, redeem'd 
and confecratedaroyal priefthood to God; as Peter 
feems not obfcurcly to fignify, i Pet. 2. 5. As 
therefore the High Prieft formerly offered an aton- 

3 §z For wliom Cll R I S T Satisf i e d. Book 2; 

ing facrifiee not for the Egyptians^ or tanaanites^ but 
for the typical ^r^g^i. only? So oui^ High Pdeft, 
accofdiag to the order oi Melckixedek^ offered him- 
felf once, not for -abandoned reprobate?, but for 
myftical IjraeK that is, the truely cholen. 
And from XXXII. This truth will appear very .plain, if we 
the mie- ^kttQnd to fome.of the. infeparable effeds of Chrift's 
effeas^of fetiyfadtion. It would carry us too tar to enumerate 
Chriirs' all; let us confider fome of the principal. If they ivho 
fatislac- • c^g^^ e'rtemies ijo God ware reconciled by the deaths of his fon: 
^^^^' much more being reconciiedj they floaU be faved by his life^ 
Rom. 5. 10'. For Vy'hom God, not fparing his own, 
fon gave him up unto death, with him freely he gives 
them^ all things^ Ror4. 8. 32. We may boldly fay to 
them, for whom Chrifl died, who fh all lay any thing to 
the charge of God's Ek5l? It is God that juftifieth. Who 
is he that condemneth? &:c. v. 33, 34. They whom 
Chrift redeemed from the curfe of the law^ are not 
under the curfe, but the bleffmgof Abr&ham comet h upon 
them^ GaL 3. 1 3, 14. But this is not true of ail and 
every one, but of ele6l believers only, that they are 
faved by the life of Chrift; that with Chrift God 
freely gives them all things -, that none can lay any 
thing to their charge, or bring an accufation againft 
them ; that upon them is come the bleiTing of Jbra- 
ham. Therefore, they alone are the perfons, of 
whom the foregoing things may be truly affirmed. 
Afatisfac- XXXIII. That fictitious fatisfadion for therepro- 
tion for^ h^ilG^ and thofe who perifn, is altogether a vain and 
^K^'^^l^felefs thing. For, whom does it profit .? Not cer- 
akoge'ther tainly God, vs^ho by no a6i; can be rendered happier 
MkM^o, than he is. Not Chrift himfelf, who, as he never 
feeks them, fohe never receives, for his peculiar pro- 
perty; and neither is he enriched by poilelTmg them, 
though fuppoled to have purchnled them at a dear 
rate. Not believers, who, content with their por- 
tion in God and in Chrift, and fully redeemed by 
Chrift, enjoy a happiaefs in every refpcc^l compleat. 
In fine, no'c thole 'that perifn, v/ho are conftrained 

Chap 9. For whom CHRIST Satisfied. ^^S 

to fatisfy in their own perfons, for their fins to the 
iitmoft farthing. But to affirm the fatisfaftion of 
Chriftto be a vain and ufelefs thing, is abfurd, and 
borders upon blafphemy. Remigius, formerly bifliop 
oi Lyons ^ faid extremely well, when difcourfing at 
large on this controverted point, The blood ofChriJl 
is a great price ; fuch a price can, in no refpe^, be in 
vain and tneffe^ual^ but rather is filled with the fuper- 
abundant advantage arifing from thofe blcffings, for 
which it was patd. St^Forbes. InJlriUJ. Hijt. lib. 8. 

€, 16. 

XXXIV. Nor are we to fay, that therefore the Had 
reprobate have no benefit by the fatisfadion ofChriftfa- 
Chrift, becaufe the condition of faith and perfc- ^'^^^^ ^or 
verance, which the reprobate do not perform, is ne- ^^^"J\ ^f 
cefTary to that purpofc. For, firil, it is not true, that fb^Lve^ ' 
faith and perfeverance are pre-requifite conditions, merited 
before a perfon can have any of the fruits of Chrift's ^^^^^ ^"^ 
fatisfadlion. For, regeneration itfelf and eftedlual cal- P^^^^^^" 
ling, which goes before actual faith ; juftification, [hem. °' 
adoption, and fandification, which precced final per- 
feverance in the faith, are the fruits of Chrift's mofl 
excellent fatisfa6lion. And then, from the want of 
faith and perfeverance in thofe that perifli, we have a 
moft eflTeclual proof, that the blood of the new co- 
venant was not fhed for them ♦, for by that Chrift 
-has. merited for his people the continuance of the 
new life in faith and love. Seeing he is the Mediator 
of that better covenant, which was eflabli/hed upon better 
promifes^ Heb. 8. 6. But thefe promifes are, fanflifi- 
cation v. 10 ; / will put my lazvs into their mind; and 
the continuance thereof, I will be to them a God, and 
they JJjall be to me a 'people. For, in the new covenant 
to be a God to any, is to be an everlaftingfaviour, as 
we gather from Mat. 22, 32, and which the oppofi- 
tion made between the new and the old covenant, in 
like manner, fliews, Heb. 8. 8, 9. Thefe promifes, 
being gracioufiy and actually conferred on the ele^5>, 
in virtue of Chrift's fatisfa(ftion, would have certainly 
S Noh. I. A a been 

354 Forwhom CHRIST Satisfied. Book 2. 

been cdnfered on the reft of mankind, had Chrift 
equally fatisfied for them. 
Satisfac- XXXV. Nay, the fatisfa6i:ion of Chrift for the re- 
tion for probate had not only been ufelefs, but highly un- 
bate^^un°' worthy both of God and of Chrift. Unworthy of the 
worthy of wifdom, goodnefs and jufticeofGod, to exadl and 
Goa and receive fati3fa(5lion from his moft beloved fon for 
of Chrift. j-j-^Qfe^ whom he neither gave, nor wanted to give 
his fon, and whom he decreed to confign to everlaft- 
ing confinement, to iufter in their own perfons ac- 
cording to the demerit of their crimes. Unworthy 
of Chrift, to give his blood a price of redemption 
for thofe, whom f he had not in charge to redeem. 
And if we may fpeak freely, this alfo, in fome re- 
fpe(5t, would be for Chrift, to account the blood the 
new covenant^ or the new covenant itfelf, in which he 
was fan5iified a common, or unholy thing, 
XXXVI. I fliould now refute the arguments of thofe 
Conck- on the other fide of the queftion ; but this has been 
iion. done at large, and with fo much judgment, by very 
learned men, that we can fcarce make any addition; 
The very accurate differtation of Gomaru on this 
head, may, efpecially be confulted, which is inferted 
in his commentaries on the epiftle to the Gala- 

\ There is a deficiency in this part of the paragraph In the firft 
and third editions, which, by the favour of a particular friend, I 
got fuppUed from the fecond* 


I 3-5 ] 


After what 7nanncr Ch-ijl yfed the Sacraments^ 

I. r a A HUS far we have at large treated of thofe The cove- 

\_ things, that relate to the covenant between nantbe- 
Chrift and the Father : and might feem to have p^j^crand 
compleatly finifhed that fubjedl ; was it not proper chrirtj 
to add fomething concerning the Sacraments, by confirmed 
which that covenant was confirmed. The Apcftle ^othby 
has obferved, Heh. 7. 20, 21, that, not without ^^^ b^^ certTiri 
cath^ Chrift was made prieil, and furety of a better fymbohi 
teftament. As this manifefted the {lability of the 
covenant, and the immutability of God's counfcl : fo 
it likcwife contributed to the full affurance of Chrift; 
the Mediator. It moreover pleafed God, to confirm 
that covenant by certain external fyrbbols, and in- 
deed, the very fame, by which the covenant of 
grace was fealed, to believers undet- the different dif- 
penfations of it. We have already hinted fomething 
on this fubjedt, which we are now to enlarge upon 
more diftindtly. 

II. It is evident, that the Lord Jefus was circufti- Chrifl a 
cifcd on the eighth day from his birth, luuke^ 2. 21, partaker 
that he kept the paffover with his Difciples, Luke^ 22. °^,^"^"=J^^ 
8, 11^ and was baptized by Jo hn^ Mat. 3. i^. Tho' pafTover, 
the Evangelids do not indeed, exprclsiy ai'ert, that baptifm 
he alfo partook of the holy flipper -, yer, they relate '^"^ the 
what we think, mav make it more than probable he ^^' P^"^' 

III. I [I, It is certain, that our lord, ih the inlli- By the 
tution and ufe of the myPcicalfdpper, borrowed mod Jewlfh 
of the rites from the Jewiih palTover. The very ^"^^^'^'^^j 
learned, Jofeph Scaliger^ Lv.dovicus Capclhs^ and moft i ! ^u.jfj 
particularly, Buxtorf in a peculiar duTertation, hav6 none.of 
made this as clear as noon-day. Thus our Lord took the guc(^? 

A a 2 ihe 

2^6 How Christ ufed Book 2. 

allowed to the bread and cup diilindly, feparately blefTed them 
eatortaflej^Q^j^^ and gave them to his Difciples, after the 
j^^^g^o/jewifh manner. It was, befides, a cuflom among 
the fami- the Jews, for the niafter of the family to eat firft of 
h» the bread after bleffing : to this purpofe Maimonides 

in HilcGt Berachot^ c. 7, fays, the giiefts were not to eat 
er tafte any things till he^ who broke ^ had tafted firft. 
Nor was it |iermitted, at feftivals and folemn fealts, 
for any of the guefts to drink of the cup, till after the 
mafter of the family had done it firft, according to 
an exprefs paiTage quoted by Btixtorf from the I'al- 
mud^ where it is faid, to he an excellent precept that he^ 
who fan^iifies or bleffes^ Jlwiild firft tafte^ and after all 
the guefts fitting down^ tafted \ every one took a draught \ 
fee the above diff rtation, §. 76. In this manner 
Chrift acted at the pafchal fppper, Luke 22. 15, 17 j, 
and why not fo at this ne V myftical fupper ? 
Chrifl's ^ ' ^^^y' '^^^^ obfervation will be more cogent, 
drinking if we confider, that the fame phrafeology, ufed by 
of the cup Chrift of the pafchal cup, Luke 22. 18, I will not 
hinted, ^nnk of the fruit of the vine ^ until the kingdom of God 
^^^'^^* floall come, is alfo, according to M^/. 26. 29, made 
^^' ufe of concerning the cup at the holy fupper. 

Whence we infer, that then Chrift likewife drank of 
the cup with his Difciples. ^ 

Chrift ^- 3^^y' ^^ "^^y ^^^'^ ^^^^ "° realbn can be 

ought to afficrned, vvhy Chrift ftiould not partake of the fup- 
parlakeof^j.^ ^3 j^^g didof baptifm, and confecrate, in his own 
the fupper ;^ thefe two Sacraments of the New Tefta- 

as of bap- r ' 

tifm. ment. 

VI. 4thly, Nay, this feems requifite from the mu- 
4e union tual union between Chrift and believers, and that in- 
of Chrift tercourfe of intimate familiarity, which, among other 
and be- things, was fealed in this myftical feaft, and which 
lie vers re- ^^^ J. \_^q^^ himfelf has very elegantly propofed, under 
quireti. ^j^^ fimilitude of a mutual fupper. Rev, 3. 20. / 

willfup with him, and he with me. 
Autho- VII. This alio was the opinion of the fathers : As. 

Tifedby q^ jeroine in epift, ad Hedibiam queft. 2. Not Mofes, 
the father* ^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ 

CAap. 10. the S A CR A M E NT S. ^^y 

but the Lord J ejus gave us the true bread : he him f elf ^3/ of the 
once the entertainer and the ejitertainment ^ Ihe eater and ^^"^^^' 
the food. Of Augufiine^ de Dcofrina Chnfiiana. lib, 2. 
f, 3. And having fir ji tafled the Sacrament of bis lody 
and bloody he fignif.ed his meaning. Of Chrvfofloniy 
HomiL 83. in Matth. He alfo drinks thereof ^ kaftyon 
hearing his wordsy they Jhould fay : and do we then 
drink blood and eat flefh ? And thereforey in order to pre- 
*vent this, he himfelffets them an example. Sec. 

VIII. This life of the Sacraments, was not a mat- ^^^ "^^ 
ter of choice to Chrift, but a part of his rightecufnefs^^^^^^^^' 
and a duty incumbent upon him. For, he himlcifa part of 
declared, when John rerufed to baptize him ; fuffer ChriU's 
it to be fo now ; for thus '^p'^'^°* £^'r»» // becometh us to fulfil ^"^x ^"^ 
all right eoufncfsy Mzt. 7,. 15. Whereby ^4''^^'?<^«/ rj^hteouf- 
nefs he means the obedience due to the command nefs. 
of God, and it became both John and Chrid, to Mat. 3. ij. 
fulfil all^ and confequently this part. The part ^^P^^^"^^* 
of Chrift was to prefent himfcif to be baptized 
by John : and John's duty not to deny Chrift in this : 
thus it bccimeboth of them : nor was it a matter of 
mtvc fitn^'/s in this place, as if baptifm was a thing 
unncceflary, (it being, as I have already faid, a part 
of the rignteouihefs, which Chrift was to fulfil) but 
it fignified every duty incumbent, and the perfor- 
mance of every fuch duty is an ornament to the 
faints, and renders them beautiful in the eyes of God : 
as the Pfalmift fings, Pf 93. 5, holinefs n;i<: [is the 
beauty of] becometh thine houfe, [or thofe thd': fre- 
quent they houfel. In this fenfe Paul diid, Eph. 5. 
3, as -^^'--^^^ becometh faint Sy and i Tim. 2. 10, S wpfTrst 
which becometh women, 'profejfing godlinefs, and tieb. 
2. 10, for %c-7r£ // became him. * The rectitude, beau- 

* The author here ufes a word of a very general fignification, 
fignifying every thing that is fuitable to the perfedlions of God. 
And as the divine re<5litude, holinefs, or righteoufncfs, is his beau- 
ty : fo this, I apprehend, is what the author means here by De- 
mentia Dei. 

A a 3 ty. 

35^ How Christ ufed Book 2. 

tr, or cpn-jeliners of God, who is, adorned with rec- 
titude and* beauty, hmdh, P/. 89, 8, (which re6li- 
tude he can neither <.ienv, nor adt contrary to) re- 
quired, tliat the captain of' o'.ir falvation (hould be 
made ptrled by fufferings •, /nr/^ a High Pri eft be- 
came us, lieh, 7. 26. Fioiii which it appears, that 
the- baptifm of ChriH was a part of his duty, by 
which he rendered himfelf comely both in the eyes 
of God and men. \ 

Were be- IX. But betides this, the vSacraments which Chrift 
t}des feals j^^^j^ ^^^ ^^f^ |^^^ /^.j^ ^ further refped. They are 

the cove- "o^o^^^Y ^o be confidc-red as ncJs of obedience^ enjoined 
f-apL by tlie law, but alfo z^fipis andfea/s of the covenant^ 
whereby the mutual engagements of the contradling 
parties are fealed. For God did not inditute the 
Sacraments with a view^ that any iliould place virtue 
and holinefs in the bare exercife of thofe a6ls, but 
that they might be feals of fpiritual things. Nor does 
he make a proper ule of the Sacraments, who does not 
apply them to that end. But doubtleis Chriil: made 
life of thefe inilitutions agreeably to the intention of 
God, Vv'ho appointed them, as was proper to be done 
by that moil: perfeft and excellent lervant, in whom 
God was well pleAfed. There was therefore, in the 
ufe of the Sacraments, a coniirmation of the promifes, 
boch of thoie made by the fatl:er to the fon, and by 
-4^10 Ion to tlie father. 
p oniifes "^' i^^-t tlien, the promifes made to Chrid: were of 
ni'aaeto varicus kinds : fome were made to him as a particular 
Chviii, d-^ born holy, who was to be juftified and made 
happy, upon confcantly perfevering in the courfe of 
his commenced purity. For, Chriil was indeed a 
holy creature, but to make a holy creature happy, 
Vv'ho prefcrves its holinefs untainted, is fo agreeable to 
the divinci goodnefs, that it is fcarce, if at all, pofFi- 
ble, it could be otherwife, as we have proved at large, 
hook I. dcp, \,fetl. 12 fe^. And thefe promifes are 
kgk!,iind belong to the Covenant of JVcrks : But there 
V/ere other promifes made to him ?iS furety and medi^- 


T,\ZT\^ or 

chap. I o. the Sacraments. 359 

tor^ by which his per/on^ and his ofice and ivork^ as 
Mediator fliould be acceptable to God, and very fuc- 
cefsful : and a twofold effedl was certainly to enfue, 
one for himfelf^ viz. a mofh excellent degree of glory -, 
the other^ for the ele£l^ who were to be united to him, 
namely their falvation. And thefe lail are properly 
the promifes of the covenant, we are now upon, of 
which we have given a fpecimen, book 2. chap. 3. 
fe5i. 1^, feci, 

XI. We may nov/ enquire, whether both thefe The for- 
kinds of promifes were fealed to Chrift, by the ordi- ^"^'■'^sbe- 
nary Sacraments of the Old and New Teftament, j-gfin n^V 
which he partook of. But vs/e mull not determine to be Teal- 
any thing rafhly with refpe6l to this : and therefore, ^^ ^^ 

I fhall modeftly propofe, what I think moft probable. fht"sa^^r3 
There is indeed, no reafon, why Chrift, as a holy ments of' 
man, and who, as fuch, was to be made happy, the cove- 
might not be confirmed in the faith of this promil'e "^nto^ 
by fome certain Sacraments, as appears from the §^^^^' 
Sacraments of the Covenant of Works given to 
Adam before the fall. But that fuch Sacra- 
ments were, for that purpofe, granted to Chrift-, 
does not appear from Scripture. Moreover, I dare 
not affirm, that the ordinary Sacraments, which 
Chrift made ufe of, were fubfervient to the confirm- 
ing the legal promifes, belonging to the Covenant of 
Worlcs, becaufe they are Sacraments of the Covenant 
of Grace. And it does not feem confident, that the 
promifes of the Covenant of Work§ fhould be fealed 
by the Sacraments of the Covenant of Grace. 

XII. I cannot indeed refufe, that there is a great The fa- 
cifference in fome circumftances, relative to the craments 
fignification of the (jicramencs, as made ufe of by ^^^^ified 
Chrift, and as ufed by believers. For to the latter tijjn^^^'^^ 
they feal regeneration, the mortification of the old, Chrliland 
and the vivification of the new man, the remiftion ot believers, 
fins. But, as there neither was, nor could be, any 
occafion for thefe with refpefl to Chrift, the holy one 

of God, fo they could not, in this manner, be feals 
to him. Chrift alio, by the Sacraments, engaged 

A 4 tg 

How Christ uftd 

Book 2, 

to perform obedience otherv/ife,"than believers do \ 
for, he engaged to perform the moft perfe6l obe- 
dience, without any defed, and bound himfelf to 
bear the curfe of the law, in order to fatisfy divine 
juftice. But tho' believers, in the ufe of the Sacra- 
ments, engage to perform obedience, yet not that 
which is abfolutely perfed (for that would be to be 
guilty of a formal life) neither do they bind them- 
felves to bear the curfe, nor promife any thing, by 
which, of themfeives, they may fatisfy the juftice of 
God. So that all thefam,e things, at leaft not in the 
fame manner, were not fealed to Chrifl; by the Sacra- 
ments, which by thefe are fealed to believers. 

XIII. That very accurate divine, Gcmarus^ hav- 
inp- duly examined thefe things^ has prefented us 
with a certain general fignification of the Sacraments, 
which he maintains to have been applicable toChrifb, 
and according to him, was this, namely, a fign and 

feal of his covenant with God and communion with 
the churchy that God Jhould he his God^ and the he- 

flower of falvation : and he himfelf bound to perform 
perpetual^ grateful obedience to him, and joined in com- 
munion with the church. On Mat th AW 13, Tho* 
there is no impropriety in thefe things, and they 
were doubtlefs fignified in the Sacraments, which 
Chrift made ufe of, yet they do not feem to come up 
to the full fignification of the Sacraments ; becaufe 
the proper, proximate and principal end, and con- 
fequently the very nature of thele Sacramento, is 
efpecially to be a feal of the new covenant. And 
here holds what is commonly faid in the fchools, the 
principal acl fpccifies, as the great Voetiiis^ Bifput. 
"Tom, 2. p. 161, has accurately obferved. 

XIV. I therefore conclude, chat the promifes, made 
to Chrift as Mediator, were principally fealed to him 
by the Sacraments ; Chrift- indeed, obtained thefe in 
virtue of his merits, or to fpeak with Paul, becaufe 
hefulniied the righteoufnefs ofthelaw; yet in them- 
felves,and as theyrelat^ tobeliev^crs,they are promifes 

' of the covenant of grace. By them it was declared, 


Chap. lo. the Sacraments. 361 

that Chrift fhould be highly exalted, and become 
the head of believers, and that they fliould be re- 
deemed by his fatisfadion, jullified by his merits, 
and at length made perfc^Lly happy with him, that fo 
he might for ever exult for joy with them, and in 
them, as his glorious inhcritanse. 

XV. The juftiiication of the Lord Jefus is con- 1" which 
tained in thele promises, concerning which he him- ^y"^^"'^* 
felf fays, If f^o, 8, 9, be is 7iear that juftijieih me, who\r^^^^^^^ 
will contend with me ? Who is he thatfljall condemn me ? ofChrift. 
And Paul, 1 Ttm. 3. 16, he was jnfiified inthefpirit. 

This j'.iftification does not only confift in his being 
declared innocent of tjofe crimes, with which he was 
falfely accufcd, and for which he v/as condemned by 
men •, nor in the father's declaring him to be holy 
and righteous, and worthy of his favour, on account 
of the perfed holinefs of his nature and adlions ; 
but in his being, as Mediator, declareJ to have per- 
formed every thing, he wtrj bound-to for the nay- 
ment of the debt he Jiad taken upon himfelf. So 
that he, who had before appeared in- the likenefs of 
Jinfulfiefb, Rom. 8.3, was now to bcfeen ^'^pk ajLA»pT»«? 
without pn hy thofe, that look for him unto falvaticn. 

XVI. 'n'et I dare not fay with a certain divine, in Not pro- 
other refpeds very found, that the remi.Tion ^'^ ^'^'^^^^^'^^^x^^l'')^ 
fms, which Chriit as furety, took upon himfelf, was Jnlfllon of" 
fealed to him. For the Scripture no where fpeaks fms. 

in this manner-, befides, the femiflion of fins is the 
forbearance, or removal, of the punllliment due to 
them. Which cannot be faid of Chrid, becaufe he 
fuffered the punifhment due to us, and, in the ful- 
led manner, ficisfied the juftice of God. Our fins 
are forgiven us, on account of the fitisfaflion of 
Chrift. But neither Scripture nor reafon will autho- 
rife us to fay, that ^m was forgiven to Chrift. 

XVII. However, agreeably to both we may fay, ^p ^hofe 
that the regeneration of the eled, the rcmiffion of proraifcs 
their fins, their fancliftcation and glorification, in a ^^'-'^ng all 
word, all thole beneiits, which, by virtue of the co- !.^'^' ^^'?^' 
yenant of grace, arc beftowcd upon them, were pro-grlntld^ 


362 How Christ tifed Book i- 

mifed and fealed to Chrifl by the Sacraments. For 
fince, by virtue of the myftical union, founded on 
the decree of God, Chrift and the eied, are one fpi- 
ritual body, he received thofe gifts in the eled, 
which are given to them ; as wx have feveral times 
hinted from P/ ^^^ 18. 
Epli.i.zj, XVIII. May we not here alfo refer, what Paul 
explained. ^j.j^^g^ j^pj^^ 1 . 2 3, that the church is ^Ai^f^f^^ t5 ru ^avla 
h 'srSicri -TrMpeulvH the fulftefs of Mm^ that filleth all in all? 
Fulnefs, I lay, not only to be compleated by Chrift, 
but alfo, in its meafure, which makes Chrift com- 
pleat, who himfelf feems not to be compleated with- 
out his whole body. So that the promifes, made to 
theeled, may fo far be looked upon as made toChrift, 
and thus fealed to him by the Sacraments. 
What XIX. Moreover Chrift, on the other hand, pro- 

^^l^^l^' mifed the father, in the ufe of the Sacraments, faith- 
the Sacra- ^^^^^Y ^^^ perfeveringly to perform all, he bound him- 
ments. felf to by agreement. For, in the ufe of the Sacra- 
ments, there is, as it were ; a kind of renewal of the 
covenant, and, if we may thus fpeak, a repeated fo- 
lemnifation thereof. Chrift therefore, by that ad, 
publickly protefted before God and the church, that 
he. would not fail in any parr of his duty. 
Which he XX. Some perhaps may think, to what pui'pofe^ 
iifed not ^|-^-g mutual fealing of the promifes by Sacraments : 
verv wife ^^^' neither was the faith of Chrift fubjedl; to any vi- 
reafon, tious flaw of weaknefs, to render fuch a confirmation 
thereby to necelTary ♦, nor the father under any doubt, as to the 
be con- |^(-]e]i{-y of his engaging fon. But the anlwer is eafy. 
the faith jft^The inftitution and ufe of Sacraments do not, 
ofthepro- from the nature of i\\t thing, prefnppoie fin, or any 
wifes of weaknefs of faith, as appears from the Sacraments, 
the father. j^^-^^^^^..j before the fail. And are not therefore to 
be efteemed a vain inftitution •, for that would be in- 
jurious to the wifdon of God, who appointed them. 
2dly, Tho' the faith of Chrift, had no irain, yet it 
was but human, ?nd depended on tiie iniiucnce, fup- 
port, and corroboration of the Deity, and as he 


Qhap, lo. the Sacraments. o6? 

urually does this by the means, he has apjx)inted for 
that purpofe, it was the daty of the man Chrift, to 
obey this will of the Deity, and carefully apply the 
means adapted to that end, fome of which are the 
Sacram.ents. 3dly, None, I imagine, will deny, that 
Chrift preferved, exerted and ftrengthened his own 
iaith by devout prayers, pious meditation on the 
word of God, an attentive obiervation of the ways of 
God, towards himfelf and other believers, the con- 
j:emplatioa of the divine perfe6lions, and by a full 
exercife of inftituted worfhip. For, as thefe are 
things infeparable from the duty of a pious man, fo 
they very much contribute to prefcrve and ftrengthen 
faith. Why fhould we not then believe, that they 
had the fame effe(5l pn Chriil, as what, by their na- 
ture, they are adapted to have ? And if, by thefe 
means, the faith of Chrift was fupported, why not 
alfo by the Sacraments ? 4thly, Nay, as often as a 
piore bitter temptation, or dreadful affliction, affaulted 
him, he was confirmed in the faith of the promifes 
by extraordinary means •, fuch as the appearance of 
God at Jordoyiy the defcent of the Holy Spirit, Mat. 3. \ 
16, 17 •, the miniftry of angels. Mat. 4. ii ; the 
glorious transfiguration on the holy miountain, Mat, 
\-j. i,&c. A voice from heaven, John 12. 28. And 
an angel ftrengthening him in his agony, Luke 20. 
43. So from this, I conclude, that fince it was fit, 
Chrift (hoiild at times be confirmed in faith by extra- 
ordinary means, it was no ways unfit to allow the or- 
dinary means of the Sacraments, to be applied for 
the fame purpofe. 

XXi. Nor was it lefs proper, that Chrift fliould fo^^^ ^^ 
folemnly reiterate his engagements in the ufeof theteftify his 
Sacraments, tho' the father was fully pcrfuaded of his fidelity to 
veracity and fidelity. For, i. That i\'izfz and often- ^^^^^^'^^^^* 
repeated profeillon of Chrift's alacrity, to perform 
every thing he engaged for, contributed to the glory 
of the father. 2. The zeal of Chrift himfelf, tho' 
never vitioufty languid, was yet roufed, and kindled 
to a fiame by tliat repetition of his obligation. 3. It 


364 How Christ ufed Book. 2. 

was highly uieful to believers, who either were eye- 

witnefles of his adions, or otherwife acquainted with 

them, attentively to confider that open declaration 

ofChrill. For, thus they were both ftrengthned 

in the faith of Chrift, and excited to a like alacrity 

of zeal. Whence we conclude, that the ufe of the 

Sacraments was neither a vain, nor an empty thing 

to Chrift. 

XXII. Havinsj premifed thefe thine:s in oreneral 
What cir- • ^u c 1 - ,->i -/i r j i 

cumcifiou concerning the Sacraments, whicii i^hnlt ulecl, let us 

ii. lined briefly take a view of each. And the firft is his cir- 
to Chrift. cTjMcisiON, intimated, Luke^ 2. 21. Which fig- 
nificd and fealed 10 Chrifl, ill, That he was acknow- 
ledged by the father, as the promifed feed o^ Abra^ 
ham^ in whom all the nations of the earth were to 
be bieifed. ^dly. That his death and cutting off 
out of the land of the living, If. 53. 8, fliould be the 
means of the prefeivation and life of his whole myfti- 
cal body, as the cutting off of the forefliin, in the 
Jews, was a mean for the prefervation of the whole 
perfon. For they, who neglefled this, were threatned 
to be cur off from among their people. Gen. 17. 14. 
3dly, That his people were to derive from him the 
circumcifion made without hands, confifting of put- 
ting off the body of the fins of the fiefh, to be be- 
gun in regeneration, carried on in fandification, and 
confumated in the gloriiication both of body and 
foul. Col. 2. 1 1. 
^\^x XXIII. On the other hand, Chrift promifed in cir- 

ChriO: cumcifion, iff, that he would in general perform 
pomifed ^ righteoufnefs, fee Gal. 5. 3. And, on his coming 
iherem. j^^j.^ ^^ world, he proclaimed this by this folemn 
token, lo I J come to do thy will., O God, Pf. 40. 
8, 9. 2dly, More efpecially, that he was ready and 
prepared to fhed his blood, and undergo thofe fuffer- 
ings, by which he was under obligations to fatisfy 
the juilice of God. For, he entered upon life by un- 
dergoing pain and (bedding his blood on the eighth 
day. And 3dly, Molt of all, that being now made 


Chap. lo. the S A C R A M E N T 3. 3.5- 

fledi of our flefh, Eph. 5. ^o^ he would willingly, at 
the appointed time, give himlelf up to death, and 
to be cut off out of the land of the living, in order 
thereby to be the faviour of his myftical body, \Lph. 
5- 13- 

XXIV. Cf a like nature is the confideration of the ThefignJ. 
Baptism of Chrifl. In which, ift. The father fi^^^ic^n of 
openly declared, that he acknowledged the Lord ^"P^^^"^- 
Jefus for his fon, whofe perfon and offices were moll 
acceptable to him. 2dly, That Chrift Ihould be 

filled with the gifts of the Spirit, not only to be 
furnifhed with them, in the fulled manner, for the ex- 
ecuting his office, but for believers to derive abund- 
dantly from his fulnefs. This was fignified both by 
the water of Baptifm, Ezeck. 36. 25, 27, and by 
the fymbol of the defcendingdove. ^diy. That, in 
the appointed time, Chrift fhould, by a glorious 
refurreclion, come out of the waters of tribulation, 
and lift up his head, Pf. no. 7, and Pf. 40. ^, as 
the baptized perfon afcends out of the water. 4thly, 
On the other hand, Jefus declared his readinefs to 
plunge into the torrents of hell, yet with an aiTured 
faith and hope of a deliverance. 

XXV. In the passover was fignified to the Lord ^nd of 
Jefus. Ill, His being acknowledged by the father the paiTo- 
the lamb without fpot or blemilh, and feparate from v^^* 
finners. 2dly, That, by his blood, he was certainly 

to obtain for believers deliverance, from the deilroy- 
ing angel, as the Ifraelites in Egypt, by the blood of 
the palTover. On the other hand, Jefus made a de- 
claration of his readinefs to undergo the mod bitter 
thmgs for his people, prefigured by the bitter herbs 
of the paflbver, and to fhed his blood, and be (lain 
and fcorched in the fire of the divine anger burning 
againft our fins -, in a word, to give himlelf wholly 
for us, as the Gofpel lamb was all of it to be con- 

XXVI. Here I cannot omit, what the celebrated whercm 
Buxtorf has obferved in.^he dilTcrtaCiOn abovr quoted, was an e- 

2 V 54, ^"S^'^^ 

366 Hovv CURl ST iifid Book 2. 

prefigura- §. ^^, that the circLiiriCifiOn of Chrift and his death 
tion of Qj^ ^Yi^ crofs, were very elegantly and exadly prc- 
crudfix- fig^'^^^i ^y ^h^ manner of flaying the pafcal lamb, 
ion. as defcribed in the Talmud on the paflbver, chap. 5, 

in Mifchna^ in thefe words : How do they hang up 
and excoriate^ or fl^:aoff thefkin of the lamb to hejlain ? 
Iron hooks ^ or nmls. were fixed in the waits rud pillars y 
on which nails they hanged up and e>^roriated crflead the 
lamb, If^ on account of the number of the flayers^ there 
was not room enough on the nails ^ they had recourfe to 
Jlender fmooth flicks^ upon one of thefe a per f on took up 
the lamb and laid it on his own and his neighbour's 
Jhoulders^ thus they hung up and excoriated the lamb. And 
much to the fame purpofe is what Bochart has re^ 
marked in his Hierozoicon^ lib, i.e. 5, from Maimo- 
nides in his book de Pafchate c. 8. §.13. JVhen thei 
roafi the pafcal lamb., they transfix it from the middle of 
the mouth to the pudenda^ with a wooden fpit or broach^ 
find placing fire underneath fufpend it in the middle of 
the oven. In order therefore to roaft it, they did non 
turn it on an iron fpit, in the manner iifed by us, 
but fufpended it transfixed with one made of wood,- 
which, in fom.e meafure, reprefented Chrift hanging 
on the crofs. Efpecially, if what Juftin Martyr 
mentions is true in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew. 
The roaft ed lamb zvas ?nade into the figure of a crofs., by 
empaling., or fpitting^ it from bead to tail, and then 
from one fhoulder to the other with a Jlzewer., on which 
laft were extended the fore feet., and thus it was roafted. 
And why may we not give credit to this relation of as 
man not only pious, but rdfo well fl^illed in the Jevv- 
ifh cuftoms, having been born at Sichem, and the 
fon of a Samaritan ? Since then the paiTover prefent- 
^d fuch a clear refemblance of the crucifixion ; 
Chrift, when he partook of it, promifed an obedience 
even unto the crofs. 
The fig- XXVII. 7lie fignificarion of the holy supper is 

th^^T "^"^^ ^^^^ ^^^'''^* ^^' '^ was fealed to Chrift. ift, 
Lr.^ ^^' Th?ii he ihould be to the elecl the fweeteft food, meat 


Chap. 10. the S A c R A M E N T s. ' 367 

and drink, for their fpiritual and eternal life. 2dly, 
That the virtue of his merits fhould be celebrated by 
believers, till his return again to judgment. 3dly» 
That, together with believers, he fhould enjoy a 
heavenly feaft, never to have an end. But then 
again, Chrift promifed the breaking of his body and 
the {bedding of his blood. And thus in all, and each 
of the Sacraments, which Chrift made ufe of, there 
was afolemn repetition and a fealing of the covenant 
entered into between him and the father. 




O F T H E 

Divine Covenants. 


C H. A P. I. 

Of the Covenant of God with the ekdi. 

The order I. ?<^)^^' '^ H E plan of this work, formerly laid 
oftreatmg ^ -p ){( down, has now brought us to treat of 
'ea " " w ^"^-^^ God's Covenant with the Elect, 
I^TkTkM. founded on the compadl between the 
Father and the Son. The nature of which we fhali 
firfi unfold in general, and then more particular- 
ly explain it in the following order, as firil to fpeak 
of the Contracting Parties; then enquire into 
the Promises of the Covenant, and moreover, ex- 
amine, whether, and what, and how far, any thing 
may be required of the EIcl^I, by way of a condi- 
tion in the Covenant : in fine, to debate whether 
this covenant has its peculiar threatnings. 

IL "The 

Chap. I. Of God's COVENANT '369 

II. 'The Contracting Parties are, on the one God as 
part, God •, on the other the Elect. And Gou is a^l-^'"^^- 
to be confidered. i. As truly allfuficient, for all ^^^^^ j'|^° " 
manner of happlnefs, not only to himfelf, nay, nor covenant 
only to the innocent creature, but alfo to guilty and ofgraceto 
finfulman. He himfelf impreffed this upon Abra- ^^^ ^^^^' 
ham, at the renewal of the covenant, when God, em- 
phatically called himfelf, *'^^' ^k the Almighty God^ or 
God all-fiifncient, Gen. 17. i, ^^ d(tnoifts power- 
ful^ and fometimcs too in the abftradl, power^ as 
Prov. 3. 27, 1'T ^K, power of thine hand. It there- 
fore denotes him, who is endowed with fuch power, 
as, that he is able to do exceeding abundantly ^ above all 
that we ajk^ or thinks Eph. 3. 20. Without whom we 
can do nothing, and in whom we can do all things : 
nui^ fignifiesy/z/^aV^/; whether we fuppofe it compound- 
ed of the relative ii^> and n, fo as to denote one who 
is fufficient ; or whether derived from "Tii^* fignifying 
both a pap or bread, and defolation or ravage. If we 
join each of thefe together, and fay, that God is fo 
powerful and {o fufficient., as that himfelf is in want 
of nothing, and from his 'plentiful breaft all things de- 
rive their -being, their life, and their motion : which 
breaft being once withdrawn, ail things relapfe into 
defolation. This is what he declares himfelf to be to 
his chofen people, in the covenant of grace, for whofe 
benefit he is pofTeffed of this moft powerful all-fuffi- 
ciency. That name, therefore, is often repeated to the 
Patriarchs, as the fountain of every blefTing, Gen. 28. 
3. 35.11. and 43. 14. 2diy, As moft w^r<:?/7// and Mofl mcr. 
gracious.^ rejoicing to communicate himfelf to the clful. 
finful creature, Exod. ^^.. 6, -j. 3dly, And at the J"^^ 
fame time as mod jufl\, not entering into a ftatc of 
friendftiip with the iinner, but in a way confident 
with his holinefs, and after having obtained full fa- 
tisfaclion to his juftice : for, he will by no means clear 
the guilty. 4thly and lailly, As moft -ict/?, having and wife, 
found out an admirable mixture of his mercy and 
juftice, without infringing the rights of either. For 
8 Vol. I. B b by 

^7o with the ELECT- Book 3. 

by this means, unto the principalities and powen in 
heavenly places^ is made known by the church ^ '^oP^v-TFoiMX^ 
ero(piec t5 Oe5 t^e manifold wifdcm ofGod^ Eph. 3 . 10. 
Men con- I^^- ^^^ ^^^^ "^^^ ^^"^ confidered, ift, k%finncrs^ 
fidered mifcrable and loft in themfelves, who could not be 
here as reftorcd by their own, or by any other created power -, 
inncrs. -^^^ word, poflefled of nothing, on account of which 
they could pleafeGod, E'zek. 16. i — 6. "Tit. 3. 3, 4. 
But 2dly, As chofen by God to grace and glory, accord- 

«hofen. jj^g J.Q j^[5 \x\Q^ abfolute good pleafure, and fo ap- 
pointed heirs of eternal life, and are that little flocks 
to whom it is the father* s good pleafure to givcthe kivg- 
dom^ Luke 12. 32. 3dly, As thofe, for whom 
Chrift engaged, or made fatisfadlion : for, this 
ought to be confidered as neceffary, before ever it 
could be worthy of God, to make mention of his 
grace to finful man. 
Theoeca- IV. The oeconomy of the perfons of the Trinity 
nomyof in the covenant of grace, claims alio our attention. 
theTrinj- cj'j^g Father is held forth as the principal author of 
covenant ^^> *^^^ '^^^ ^^ Chrifi reconciling the world to himfelfy 
of grace. 2 Cor. 5, 1 9, and appointed the Ele6t to be heirs of 
himYelf, and joint hiers with his fon, Rom. 8. ij. The 
Son is not only ?/Iediator^ and executor of the cove- 
nant, but is himfelf alfo the tejlator^ who, by his 
death, ratified the teftament of grace, Luke 22. 29. 
Heb, 9. 16. and the diftributer of all the bleflings of 
it. I give unto them eternal life ^ John 10. 28. The 
Spirit brings the Elecl to Chrift, and, in Chrift, to 
the pofteffion of the benefits of the covenant, inti- 
mates to their confciences *■* oV»« tS Aa^fr^ ra 'mrcc the 
holy pledges^ the fur e mercies of David, and is the feal 
and earneft of their compleat happinefs, 1 Cor. 1 2. 
3, II, 12. Eph. 1. 13, 14. 
The com- ^ V. Moreover, as we reftri^l this covenant to the 
munionof p|g^^ it is evident, we are fpeaking of the internal, 
^^e cove- j^y^^i^.j^l m-,(j fpiritual commimion of the covenant, 
therinter- For, falvation Itfclf, and every thing belonging to 
nal or ex- it, or ififeperably connecled with it, are promifed in 
ternaj. .2 this 


Chap. I. with the ELECT. 37] 

this covenant, all which, none but the Ele6l can at- 
tain to. If, in other refpccls, we confider the ex- 
fernal otconoxwy of the covenant, in the communion 
of the word and facraments, in the profedlon of the 
true faith, in the participation of many gifts, which, 
tho* excellent and illullrious, are yet none of the 
efFe6ts of the fandlifying Spirit, nor any earnefl: of 
future happincfs •, it cannot be denied, that, in this 
refpe(fl, many are in covenant, whofe names, not- 
withftanding, are not in the teftament of God. 

VI. And thus we come to mention fome things The pro- 
concerning the promifes of the covenant, which, inmi/esof 
general, may be included under the names of grace ^^^^ ^^^^' 
and GLORY, as is done by the Plalmiri:, Pf. 48. 9, "raceTnd 
11^ the Lordwillgive grace and glory. Which are glory, 
commonly fo diftinguiflied by divines, fo as to refer 

grace to this life and glory to that which is to comie ; 
tho' the grace of this life be glorious, and the glory 
of the future life gracious. We may likewife not im- 
properly fay, that, in the covenant of grace, are pro- 
mifed both falvation itfelf, and all the means leading 
to it, v/hich the Lord hath brietly comprized, Jer, 
31. 33, but this JhaH be the covenant^ that I 'uoill make 
wit': the houfe of Ijrael, after thofe days, faith the Lor d^ 
I will 'put my law in their inward parts^ and write it in 
their hearts^ and will be their God^ and they fhall be my 
people-, and again, chap, 32. 38, 39,40, and they fhall 
be my people,, and I will be their God : and 1 will give 
them one heart and one way,, that they may fear me for 
ever,, for the good of them, and of their children after 
them. And I will make an everlafiing covenant with 
tkem^ that I zvill not turn away from them, to do the?n 
good •, but I will put my fear in their hearts, that they 
fhall not depart f cm me. 

VII. Here we are to obferve a remakable differ- Which 
cnce between the promifes of the covenant of works, and ^''pJ\^^* 
thofe or the covenant of grace. The fame eternal life ^j^^^^ 

is promifed in boch, which can be bu*: one, confill- inthisco- 
ing in the communion and enjoyment of God ; but venant, 

B b 2 it^lhervvifc 

372 Of God's COVENANT fiook g. 

than in it is promlfed in a manner quite different in the one, 
that of fi-om what it is in the other. In the covenant of works 
God promifed life to man, on condition of perfeft 
obedience, but he did not promife to produce, or ef- 
fect this obedience in man. In the covenant of grace, 
he not only promifes life eternal, but alfo at the fame 
time faith and repentance, and perfeverance in holi- 
nefs, without which, life cannot be attained, and 
which being granted, life cannot but be obtained. 
And even in this fenfe it may be faid, that the cove- 
nant, of which Chrift is the Mediator, is more ex- 
cellent^ and eftahlijhed on better promifes^ Heb. 8. 6 ; 
becaufe it does not depend on any uncertain condi- 
tion, but is founded on the furetifhip and a6lual fa- 
tisfaftion of Chrift, does Infallibly fecure falvation to 
the believer, and as certainly promife faith to the 
The CO- VIII. Divines explain themfelves differently as to 
venant of the CONDITIONS of ths^ Covenant of grace. We, for 
^^^)^\ our part, agree with thofe, who think, that the co- 
fpeft to venant of grace, to fpeak accurately, with refpedt to 
us, pro- us, has no conditions, properly fo called : which fen- 
perly timent we fhall explain and eftablifli in the following 
rondt-"' manner. 

tions." iX- A condition of a covenant, properly fo called, 

A condi- is that Uuiion^ which ^ being^ performed, gives a man a 

tion is an ^/^^^ ^q fj^^ reward. But that fuch a condition can- 

^'h^'^h' ^^^ ^^ required of us in the covenant of grace, is 

perform- felf-evident : becaufe a right to life neither is, nor 

ed, gives indeed, can be, founded on any a6lion of ours, but 

ajightto on the righteoufnefs of our Lord alone ; who having 

perfectly fulfilled the righteoufnefs of the law for us, 

nothing can, in juftice, be required of us to perform, 

in order to acquire a right, already fully purchafed 

for us. And, indeed, in this all the orthodox 

readily agree. 

The cove- X. Further, the Apoffle, more than once, fcts 

nant of forth the covenant of grace, under the appellation of 

feftament. ^ TESTAMENT, which is God's immutable purpofe, 


the re 

Chap. I. with the ELECT. i.y^ 

not fufpended on any one condition : and as it is 
founded on the unchangeable counfel of God, and 
ratified by the death of the tellator, lo it is not 
pofTible, it fhould be made void by any unbelief of 
the Eledl, nor acquire its (lability from any faith of 
man : for in this very teftamcnt God has as immuta- 
bly determined concerning faith, as falvation. Thus 
Gal. 3. 15, we fee the covenant of God with Abraham 
is called ateftament\ the ratification of which mud 
.alfo be the fame with that of a teftament. And the 
covenant to be made with Ifrael., Jer, 3t, has the 
fame appellation, Heb, 8. 10. As alfo that cove- 
nant with Ifrael mentioned by Mofes^ Exod, 24, and 
the declaration of the manner of enjoying the love 
of God through faith in Chrift, Heb. 9. 15, 20. 
And in likewife, the compa6l of the father with the 
fon, Luke., 22. 39; in which pajfage., fir ft., the will 
of God is publtftped., by which he decreed^ that the fon 
fhould., by the divine power of the father., obtain the in- 
heritance of the world., and a kingdom : feccndly^ the 
will of Chrift., that the Apoftles and others given him., 
fhould., through faith., become heirs of right eoufnefs., and 
of the heavenly kingdom and of that of the world. Com- 
pare Gal. '^, 8. But why fhould the Apoftle call the co- 
venant of Abraham^ and that mentioned. Heb. 8 . i o, ^ 
TESTAMENT, and whcthcr it ougbt not to be fo taken., 
Mat. 26. 18, and in other places., fhall be confidered in 
its place., Cocceius de Foeder. §.4. And, in a word, 
I know not, whether Paul, when ipeaking of the 
covenant of grace, did, at any time, or in any paffage, 
give it any other name than that of a teltament. 
Jiut at that tiine (at lead if we give in to Cocceius's 
opinion) that word fignified., neither to Greeks^ nor 
flellenift Jews., nor to the Hebrews^ any other thing but a 
teftament., Cocceius ad Gal. 3. §. 134. I do not afTert 
thefe thin^rs, as if I wanted to confound tlie notions 
of a covenant and a teftamcnt \ but to flicw, that the 
^gven^nt of grace is testamentary, and to be 

B b 3 diilinguiflied 

374 Of God's COVENANT Book ^ 

diflinguifhed from a covenant, founded on a com- 
pa(5l, agreement, or law. Nor do I conceal, that I 
found this in Cocceius de fcsd. §. 87. Which made 
me wonder, that a certain learned perfon, who is a 
great admirer of C(?crm^j, fhould find fault with thefe 

Cloppen- XI. The famous Cloppenhiirg^ formerly the orna- 

^^^ , ment of the univerfity of Friezland^ has accurately 
' obferved the fame thing, whofe words I fnall fubjoia 
from Difputat. 3. de f^derihus^ Thef, 29. The other dif- 
fofition of the covenant (which regards us) istefiamentary^ 
whereby the grace^ by which we are faved^ comes to us 
from the moft perfect merit of Chrifl the furety. For^ 
we are reck: ned to be in covenant with God^ by the new 
covenant of grace^ without having fwperadded to the 
covenant confirmed with Chrift^ the furety^ ly the renewal 
cf the old agreement^ any condition^ by whic ': God fhould 
tranfaB with us^ but giving a gratuitous call to the in- 
heritance of the promtfcs^ whcfe tefiament Chrijl ratified 
by his deaths and whofe mediator he now is in heaven ; 
namely^ of full reccnciliation with God and of eternal 

andju- I'^fS' Junius/mYxkt manner, in his Thefes, Difput at. 

tiius. 25. §. 29. 7 he conditions being fulfilled by the angel of 
the covenant^ the catholick churchy was^ through and 
for him, conflituted heir of eternal life ^ without any con- 

rrv 1^ r XII. Befides, when God propofes the form of the 

I he Oof- - , . 1 1 • r 

pel itriaiy covenant of grace, his words, to this purpole, are 

taken,con. mere promifes, as we have lately feen, Jcr. 31 and 
fills of 0^2. Our divines therefore, who, in confequence of 
mere pro- ^|^^ quirks of the Socinians and Renionfirants^ have 
learned to fpeak with the greateft caution, juftly 
maintain, that the Gofpel, finally taken, conftlls of 
pure promifes of grace and glory. 
Whatever XIIJ. And indeed, if we were to take the pro- 
can be rr.ifes of the covenant of grace altogether without ex- 
devifed as ^gpj.-Qj^^ we could not, fo much as in thought, de- 
lion, is" "^^^^ ^''^y ^^i"g i" ^^s, as the condition df thefe pro- 
included mifesc For, v/harevcr can be conceived as a con- 

Chap. I, with the E L E C T. 275 

dition, is all included in the univerfality of the pro- intheuni- 
mifes. Should God only promife eternal life, there ^^rM^ 
might be fome pretence for faying, that repentance, ^ifes^/'^^' 
faith, and the lil^e, were the conditions of this cove- 
nant. But feeing God does, in the fame breath, 
as it were, ratify both the beginning, progrefs, un- 
interrupted continuance, and in a word, theconfum- 
mation of the new life; nothing remains in this uni* 
verfality of the promifes, which can be looked upon 
as a condition of the whole covenant. For, we here 
treat of the condition of the covenant, and not con- 
cerning any thing in man, which muft go before 
the actual enjoyment of confummate happinefs. 

XIV. It is, however, certain, that God has, in a Vet none 
very wife and holy manner, fo ordered it, that none comes to 
fhould come to falvation, but in a way of faith and Salvation, 
holinefs, and fo ranged his promifes, that none^"^^Y^*^ 
fhould attain to the more principal, or more perfed: f^^tVand 
happinefs, but they, who fhould firft be made par- holinefs. 
takers of the preceeding promifes. Whence we ga- 
ther, that none can take comfort in the infallible hope 
of happinefs, who has not fincerely app'ied himfelf to 
the practice of faith and godlincfs. And the Scripture 
now and then afllires us, that it is impofTible for any 
to pleafe God without faith, or fee him without holi- 
nefs. From this, many were enduced to call faith, 
and a new life, the conditions of the covenant : where- 
as, to fpeak accurately, and according to the nature 
of this covenant, they are, on the part of God, the 
execution of previous promiles, and the earned of 
future happinefs, and, on the part of rpan, the per? 
formance of thofe duties, which cannot but preceed 
the confummate perfection of a foul delighting in 
God. Or if we will infift upon it, to call thefe things N^ot fo 
conditions: they are not fo much conditions of the mnch con- 
covenant^ as of the affurance that we (Ijall continue in ^'"ons of 
God's covenant, and that he (hall be our God. And ^^l^^Hl^ 
I make no doubt, but this was exadtly the meaning t^g alTur- 

B b 3 Qf 

376 Of God's COVENANT Booki. 

ance of of thofe verv learned divines, tho' all of them have 

th'jfe in ' 

thofe m j^Qj. -^ happily exprefied themfelves. 

Cloppen- ^^- Let us again hear our own Cloppenburg on this 
bu'g fubje(^, to w: cfe accuracy on this point I have no- 
quoted a- thing to add. Dijputat. 4, de Pct^der. T'hef. 26, 27. 
^^^"' Nor do the conditions of the new covenant^ enjoind by 
a law adapted thereto, as repentance^ faith, and the 
pra^ke of love to God and our neighbour^ dellroy this 
evangelical difplay of the grace of the new covenant^ 
which the teftamenrary donation, made on account 
of death, demands. For, thefe conditions of the 
new covenant are inferted in fuch a manner in the 
teftament, as to exclude the impenitent, the unbe- 
lieving and the ungodly, from inheriting the pro- 
mifes, but not as if the difpenfation and donation of 
falvation depended on thefe •, or that, by our works 
of obedience to the law-giver, we obtain a right to 
the promife of the inheritance. — What then ? Con- 
ditions of new obedience are inferted into the tefta- 
mentof the new covenant, Vindi^x a legal form ^ indeed, 


becoming gratitude, leaft, without having the un- 
doubted charaders of the Sons of God, we Ihould, 
without any ground, think ourfelves fure of the inhe- 
ritance. However, repentance itfelf, confifting in the 
mortification of fin and the practice of good works, is 
alfo promifed under another form^ to wit, as the gift of 
God, which he himfelf works in us, that, by this fign, 
or evidence, we may, from the time of our truly repent- 
ing and believing, perfectly hope in that grace, which 
is brought lo us, at the revelation of Jefus Chrift, 
J Pet. I. 13, having eternal life already begun in 
ourfelves, together with the new creation of the new 
fpiritual life, by the fpirit of CTod. Thus far Clop- 
penburg, the accuracy of whofe difiertation nothing 
can exceed. 
The CO- XVI. We are not to think, that, by this fentimenr, 
venant of the nature of a covenant is deilroyed, which con- 
grace, fifts in ^ftipulation and reftipulation. For^ there is nq 


Chap. r. with the E L E C T. ' 377 

abfurdity, fhould we maintain, that that difpofition with re- 
qf the new covenant, which was made to the furety, ^P^^^ ^° 
retained the proper notion of a covenant, fignifying '^^^"^^^y» 
a compa6l between two parties of mutual faith •, but nant7witli 
that the other difpofition made to iis^ comes nearer refpedl 
to the form of a teftament^ and is rather unilateral, ^° "^' ^^" 
or appointed by one party. Nor is the word nnn Jamen/^^' 
any obilacle, which we have fliewn, hook L chap, I. 
fe£l. 3. is of various fignifications, and often denotes 
the fame as \>r[, a conjlitution^ or fignifies a certain 
promife, tho' not mutual. 

XVII. Moreover, God, by a certain wonderful »xis the 
act of condefcenfion, publifhes the promifes of his goodnefs 
grace to his covenant-people, in this manner; to (hew o^ God, 
that it was his will, that they feek for, and expect from Jj^^' ^^ 
him, what he promifes, jufl: as if it was a promife of pofed'^his 
reward, and proceeded from covenant and agreement, promifes 
and was irrevocable on the account of the right of ^° "^^" ^X 
him, who fuesfor the performance of it. Which is, veYa°t^°* 
indeed, an aftonifhing degree of the Lord's goodnefs ^ 
neverthelefs, we are not to ufe it as an argument for 
conditions of the covenant of grace, properly fo 

XVIII. But, which is the principal thing, we ima- By the 
gine, the bed way to conceive of this conftitution of ^^w.fub- 
the covenant, is as follows : fmce the covenant of ^'^^^^"^^'^ 
grace, or the Gofpel, ftridlly fo called, which is the nantor' 
model of that covenant, confifls in mere promifes, grace, the 
prefcribes nothing properly as duty, requires nothing, promife 
commands nothing-, not even this, believe, truft, ^^.^^"^f.^ 
hope in the Lord, and the like. But declares, fets 

forth and fignifies to us, what God promifes in Chrifl, 
what he would have done, and what he is about to 
do. All prefcription of duty belongs to the law, as, 
after others, the venerable Vottius has very well incul- 
cated, Difput. Tom, 4. p, 24.. feq. And we are, by all 
fneans, to maintain this, if, with the whole body of 
the reformed, we would conftantly defend the per- 
fedlionofthe l^w, v/hich comprehends all virtues, and 
■ '■ • ■• - . ali 

37S Of Ggd's COVENANT Book *• 

ali the duties of hollnefs. But the law, adapted to 
the covenant of grace, and, according to it, infcribed 
on the heart of the ele6l, enjoins to receive all thofe 
things, which are propofed in the Gofpel, with an 
unfeigned faith, and frame our lives fuitably to that 
grace and glory which are promifed. When God, 
therefore, in the covenant of grace, promifes faith, 
repentance, and confequently eternal life, to an ele<!:l 
fmner, then the law, whofe obligation can never be 
difiblved, and which extends to every duty, binds 
the man to afTent to that truth, highly prize, ardently 
defire, feek, and lay hold on thofe promifed bleflings. 
Moreover, fince the admirable providence of God 
has ranged the promifes in fuch order, as that faith 
and repentance go before, andfalvation follows after, 
man is bound, by the fame law. to approve of, and 
be in love with, this divine appointment, and allure 
himfelf of falvation only according to it. But when 
a man accepts the promifes of the covenant, in the 
order they are propofed, he does, by that acceptance, 
bind himfelf to the duties contained in the foregoing 
promifes, before he can afTure himfelf of the fulfil- 
ment of the latter. And in this manner the cove- 
nant becomes mutual. God propofes his promifes 
in the Gofpel in a certain order. The man, in 
confequence of the law, as fubfervient to the co- 
venant of grace, is bound to receive the promifes, 
in that order. While faith does this, the believer, at 
the fame time, binds himfelf to theexercife of anew 
life, before ever he can prefume to entertain a hope 
of life eternal. And in this manner it becomes a 
mutual agreement. 
Not every XIX. But let none here obje6l, that life Is pro- 
^^1°"' .*? rhifed in the new covenant, to him that believes and 
hanpoint- ''^P^^^s, no Icfs than it was, in the old covenant, to 
ed^'^isprO" him that worketh; in order, thence, to conclude, that 
pe.Jy a - faith and rep.ntance are now, in the fame manner, 
condition, conditons of the covenant of grace, that perfect obe- 
dience was the condition of the covenant of works.^ 


Chap. r. with the ELECT. 379 

For, when life is promlled to him that doeth any 
thing, we are not diredly to underfland a condition, 
properly fo called, as the caufe of claiming the re- 
ward. God is pleafed only to point out the way we 
are to take, not to the right, but to the poircfTion of 
life. He propofes faith, as the inftrumenr, by 
which we lay hold on the Lord Jefus and on his grace 
and glory : good works, as the evidences of our 
faith and of our union with Chriil, and as the way 
to the pofle/Tjon of life. 

XX. But we mull not forget to obferve, that faith paith has 
has quite a different relation with refped to the blef here a pc- 
fings of the covenant of grace, from what the other culjar re- 
works of the new life have. In this, indeed, they ^^'^°"- 
agree, that both, conjointly, are the way to the pro- 
mifed blifs •, but faith has Ibmething peculiar. For, 
as faith is an aftipulatlon, or aflent given to the di- 
vine truth, it includes in it the acceptance of the 
benefit offered by the covenant, and makes the pro- 
mife firm and irrevocable. Here is my Son, fays God, 
and falvaticn in him. I offer him to whoever dcfires 
him, and believes, that he jha I find his falvation in him. 
Who deftres him? Who believes this? I do^ fays the be- 
liever, / greatly long for him. I believe my falvation 
to be laid up in him. I take him as thus offered to me. 
Be it fo, faith the Lord. And, in this manner, the 
promife is accepted, the truth of God fealed, the 
donation of Chrift, and of falvation in him, becomes 
irrevocable. From all which it is evident, that faith 
has a quite different relation in the new covenant, 
from what works formerly had in the old. What 
the difference is between giving and receiving, fuch 
feems to be the difference between a condition of 
works and of faith : which the celebrated Honrnbek 
has not unhappily explained in Scan, Confut. Tom. 2. 
p. 2H0. 

XXI. Let us nowlafily confider the threatnings, 530,^ 
whether there be any luch in this covenant. It can- cimmina- 
pop indeed be denied,, but that, in the dodrine of ti->nspurc- 
" * ^ " Chi id 

38o Of God's COVENANT 3, 

ly legal, Chrift and the Apoflles, we frequently meet with 
others y^j-y. ^lany comminations, which have their peculiar 
refpedto ^^^P^^ to the covenant of grace, and which could 
the cove- not have thus been fet before us, if there had been 
nantof no fuch Covenant, tor initance, whoever /ball not 
grace. helieve in Chrift^ whoever pdl dejpife the counfel of God 
againft his own foul^ whoever jhall not obey the Gofpel^ 
Jhall be condemned. And thefe threarnings feem to be 
diftinguilhed from thofe, which are evidently Ugal\ 
fuch as the following : cur fed is he that continueth not 
in all things J &cq. Yet, if we would v/eigh the mat- 
ter narrowly, the covenant of grace has no threat- 
nings fo peculiar to itfelf, but what may well be 
referred to the law, from which every curfe pro-^ 
Yet all XXIL Which I would explain thus : we no 
from the where hear of any threatnings, which may, and 
whicr ^^8^^ "ot to be deduced from that threatning, which 
they pro- doubtlefs is purely legal, curfed is every one that con- 
perly be- tinueth not in all things^ &c. In this moit general 
|o°g« threatning are included the other more particular 
ones. Moreover, when falvation by Chrift alone 
is propofed, in the covenant of grace, as the principal 
truth, the law, which enjoins man to embrace every 
truth, made known to him by God, with a firm 
faith, obliges him to receive this truth in particular, 
and be delighted with the glory of God, fhining forth 
in it, and that his own falvation is conneded with the 
glory of God. Should we deny, that the law lays us 
under this obligation, we fhould then affirm, that 
the law does not enjoin us, to acknowledge God as 
true, and that there is a holy love of God, and of our- 
felves, which the law does not command ; all which 
are moft abfurd. I go further : when man, as the 
law prefcribes, receives the truth of the Gofpel with 
a lively faith, then, not the law, but the Gofpel, pro- 
mifes falvation to him. For the law knows of no 
other promife, than what depends on the condition 
pf perfedt obecjience. But, fhould man flight, and 
% obitinatelY 

chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. 381 

obftinately reje6l, that truth propofed to him, he fins 
againft the lav/, and ib incurs its curfe, according to 
the general rule fo often inculcated. And fince we 
have fuppofcd the Gofpel declaring, that falvation 
flows from the faith of Chrift alone, the law enjoins, 
that all, who defire falvation, fhould feek it by the 
faith of Chrifl alone -, and confequently it cannot but 
thunder the curfe againft thofe, who, rejefting the 
Gofpel, believe not on Chrift. As therefore unbe- 
lief, or the rejecting the Gofpel, is a fm againft the 
law, which is the only perfedt rule of all virtue (it 
can be called a fin againft the Gofpel, only objedtively) 
fo every threatning of the curfe and of wrath againft 
unbelievers, and the defpifers of the Gofpel, muft 
come from, and be reduced to the law, but then it 
is to the law, as now fubfervient to the covenant of 

XXIII. In the difcourfes of the Prophets, Chrift In the dif- 
and his Apoftles, there is a certain mixture of various ^^"p^*^^ ° 
doctrines, which, indeed, are clofely connedled, and p^ets, " 
mutually fubfervient; each of which ought to be re- Chriiland 
duced to their proper heads, fo that the promifes of l^^s Apof- 
grace be referred to the Gofpel, all injundlions of f"e'o?^^' 
duty, and all threatnings againft tranfgrefTors, to the j^^ and 
law. * Gofpel. 


Of /i'd? Oneness of the Covenant of Grace, as 
to its Subjiance, 

I. T T Is a matter of the greateft moment, that wc Thecove- 

A learn diftinclly to conliderthe covenant of grace, nant of 
cither as it is, in \i% fubftance or effence, as they call gr'ice,one, 
it, or as it is in diverfe ways propofed by God, with \^^^^^ 
refpecl to circumjiantials^ under difi'erent oeconomies. 


382 TheONENESSofthc Book ^^ 

If we view thefubftance of the covenant, 'tis but only 
one^ nor is it poflible it fliould be otherwife. There 
is no other way worthy of God, in which falvation 
can be bellowed on Tinners, but that difcovered in 
theGofpel. Whence the Apoftle, G^/. i. 7, has beau- 
tifully faid, which is not another. And that Tefta- 
ment, which was confecrated by the blood of Chrift, 
he calls everlajiing^ Heh. 13. 20, becaufe it was fettled 
from eternity, publifhed immediately upon the fall 
of the firft man, conflantly handed down by the an- 
cients, more fully explained by Chrift himfelf and 
his Apoftles, and is to continue throughout all ages, 
and, in virtue of which, believers fhall inherit eter- 
As to cir- nai happinefs. But if we attend to the circumftances. 
ftances ^^ the covenant, it was difpenfcd at fundry times, and 
varioufly at divers manners^ under various oeconomies, for the 
difpenfed. manifeftation of the manifold wifdom of God. In 
confidering this, we are firft to difcourfe on thofe 
general things, which appertain to the fuhjlance of the 
covenant, and have continued in every age : and then 
explain the different oeconomies, or dilpenfations, and 
the new accefTions made to each, which we will, 
firft, do, in a general and concife manner, in this and 
the following chapter ; then gradually defcend to the 
more fpecial confiderations. 
In the CO- H- We therefore maintain, agreeable to the facred 
venant of writings, that to all the Ele6l, living in any period 
grace is of time, ift, One and the fame eternal life was 
don/one' P^o^ifed. 2dly, That JeCus Chrift was held forth 
iaviour, as the ONE and the fame author and beftower of 
one faith, Salvation. 3dly, That they could not become 
partakers of it any other way, but by a true and lively 
FAITH in him. If we demonftrate thefe three things, 
none can any longer doubt, but that the covenant of 
grace muft be, as to its fubftancc, only one from the 
beginning. For, if the falvation be the fame, and 
the author of it the fame, the manner of communion 
with him the fame, it is certain, the covenant itfelf 
cannot be more than one. 

Ill The 

Chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. ^^^ 

IIT. The Scriptures Co plainly decl.ire, that eter- Thateter- 

nal life was promifcd to the Eledl from the beginning-, "^^ ^^^^ 

that it is allonifhing any chriftians could venture to m^i\J^^' 

deny it; who, indeed, are much blinder than tht the dea 

Jews themfelves •, of whom our Lord tcftifies, Jobn^ f -mp the 

5. 39, Te dofearch the Scriptures^ for in thm ye think ^^g'"nJng 

ye have eternal life: and that they were neither ?'T^^'^\ 

n -i-i- .1 .' II om John 

ram, nor erroneous, in thinkmg that the promiles of 5. 39. 

eternal life, and the manner of enjoying them, were 
contained in the Scriptures they had, we prove by 
the mod cogent arguments, ill:, Bccauie, not only 
the Lord Jefus does not charge them, in this re- 
fpect, with the leaf! error, but makes ufe of that as 
a reafon to recommead to them the fearch of the 
Scriptures. But it is very inconfident with tie frreac 
fincerity of the Lord Jefus, and the divine dignity of 
the Scriptures, to recommend them by arguments 
not genuine, or to recommend their value and ufe- 
fulnefs from Jewifh forgeries. Nay, had the Jews 
falfely perfuaded themielves, that the promifes of 
eternal life were contained in the Old Tedament re- 
cords, our Lord ought not, by any concelTion, to 
have cherilLed that mitlake, which would have hin- 
dred them from acknowledging the excellence of 
his dodlrinc, and confequently the divinity of his per- 
fon : but rather to have exclaimed againil them ; 
" in vain do you fearch the Scriptures, in hopes of 
*' finding eternal life in them •, attend rather to me 
" and my dodrine, who am the firft, who came into 
'' the world, ^s a preacher of eternal life." But 
every one may fee, how inconfiftent this was from the 
defign of the Lord Jefus. 2dly, To this we add, 
that PauVs hope was founded on the law and the 
Prophets, as well as the expectation of the Jews, 
Acls^ 24. 14, 15, believing all things^ which are writ- 
ten in the law and the Prophets : and have hope towards 
God^ which they themfelves alfo allow^ that there fljall 
he a reftirre^lion of the dead^ both of the iujt and unjkjt. 
He teilifies, that the Jews expedled a refurredion of 


384 The ONENESS of the Book 3. 

the dead : he profefTes the fame beh'ef and hope 
with them : and that he did not do fo out of a vain 
prefumption, but from a faith refting on the law 
and the Prophets, which they alfo, in their manner^ 
carefully read, and from which they had derived the 
fame expedtation with him. sdly. The Jews were 
fo far from judging amifs in this refped, that, on the 
contrary, the Lord Jefus reproved the Sadduces, as ig- 
norant of the Scriptures, becaufe from them they had 
not learned life eternal, and the refurredion, Mat, 
22. 29. 
And Mat. IV. But let us argue from the very books of the 
22.31,32. Qi^ Teiiament : and firft, after the example of our 
Lord, who. Mat. 22. 31, 32, fpeaks to this purpofe ; 
' I?ut as touching the refurre^ion of the dead^ have ye not 
ready that which was fpoken* unto you by God^ faying^ 
I am the God of Abraham^ and the God of Ifaac^^ and 
the God of Jacob ? God is not the God of the dead but 
of the living. This inference appeared fo evident to 
the multitude, that they were aftoniftied at his doc- 
trine, and theSadduces were put to filence, v. 33, 34. 
And indeed, if the words of Mofes, quoted by 
Chrift, be accurately weighed, the evidence of this 
argument will eafily appear to the attentive reader. 
When ^^' f^*^^ ^^9 That expreffion, to be God to any ^ in 

cmphati- its full import, includes life eternal. For, when 
cally faid, Qq^j becomes the fmner's God, he then becomes to 
h^God^to ^'"^' ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ himfclf. But, what is he to him- 
anyone, f^lf? Doubtlefs, the fountain of eternal and com- 
it includes pleat bleffednefs. When God, out of his grace, 
eternal gives himfelf to man, he gives him all things. For, 
^ ^* himfelf, is all things. Such a man finds in God ^ 

pield again ft every evil, and an exceeding great reward^ 
Gen. 15. J. And what can he defire more in order 
to his perfed happinefs ? Accordingly, the Apoftle 
joins thefe two, Heb. 11. [6, God to be the God of any 
one^ and to have prepared for them a city. And feeing 
the gifts of God's grace^ efpecially when he gives 


Chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. qg.^ 

himfelf, are without repentayice^ Rc7n. ii, 29; hereby 
alfo the eternity of this happincls is eflabiilhed. 

VI. 2dly, Moreover, this covenant is not made The cove, 
with the foul, but with the man ; and God, not only r^ant of 
requires the v/orfnipof the foul, but alfo the Tub- ^^^ ^'-'f'^ 
million of the body, as redeemer of both, in or^ler maV'^\°o! 
to his being glorified in both : accordingly he ap- mifes fa'u' 
pointed a fign of his covenant to be in the br;dy. Gen. vation to 
17. 13, And confequentiy, when he calls himfelf ^'^^ ^^^^^'^ 
the God of the whole man, he promifes his falva- ^"' 
tion not to the foul alone, but to the body alfo. 

VII. 3dly, Thefe confiderations will be more co- God caU 
gent, if we refleiSt, that the words, from which oiirl^^^'"^- 
Lord argues, were fpoken of the Patriarchs, who^^J^^r 
had been dead long before, Exod. 3. 6. But as the Pa- 
God is not the God of perfons, who have no exiilence ; tiiaichs, 
it was firft evident, that their fouls furvived, and en- ^1^".^' ^^^^^ 
joyed the beatific vifion of God ; and fince, as we ^^^^}^ 
have juft faid, their body alfo was comprehended in 

the covenant, it followed, that, at the appointed 
time, their very body, v/hen raifed from the dull, 
fhould be reunited to the foul, in order to partake of 
the fame happinefs. 

VIII. 4thiy, To be the God of any one, fignifies, God de- 
in the ufual (lile of Scripture, deliverance from ene- J'vcrshim, 
mies ; compare Pf, 3. 7, 8. But death is our greatefl: |^^!'-s^j^?jj 
and lad enemy, i Cor. 15. 26. As therefore God his ene-' 
delivers thole, whole God he is, out of the hand of niicscon- 
their enemies, he cannot be the God ot tliole who ^^'■T^'-'^^^y 
always remain under the power of death : but all J^^^|^ 
who have him for their God, muil, afcer death is 
fwullowed up, exukingly fing that long of triumph, 

O death ! ^-^i^here is thy vi^ory ? 

IX. 5thly, It is beyond all controverfy, that God AsthcPa- 
promifed to thofe illuftrious Patriarchs, when he call- j''^^'^^^ 
ed himfelf their God, fomething jiighly excellent, jj^j^p- ex- 
and by which they were to be peculiarly diilinguifn- tiaondina- 
ed above others, who were not lb eminent in the O' i". this 
fei;vlce of God. But they obtained nothing fo very j^^^";\^^^'J^J^ 
9 Vol. I. Cc d.llinguiuiir-'g 

385 The O N E N E S S of the Book 3. 

this pro- diflino-uifhina: above other men, in this world, that 
miie rcier ^^^j^j equal i\\z p-rcatnels of this promife. Many 

to TP ll'^ 1 o A / 

to comer wicked men lived more happily in the land of Ca- 
naan, and elie where. It follows then, that thefe 
things regard concerns of a fuperior nature, and be- 
long to eternal life in heaven. 
Seelno- X. 6thly and laft'y, If we jare benefaclors to 

God pro- any here, for the lake of another, we will much 
mifed to more do good to him, on whole account we do 
^]'^^ ^' prood to them, if it is in our power. But God 

thcrs on o ' ■«■ . 

account of wants no power. And he dechirts he will be a 

ihe patri- benefadlor to the poilerity, for the lake of Ahra- 

archs, ^^j^j^ jj-^^^^^ and Jacobs much more then he is, and 

^"^^ 1 will be a*benefador to themfelves. But they could 

more does i i ,• • ■ i -r i .• j 

he blefs ^ot be capable ot receivmg any good, ir they did 

them. not exiil, nor of the highell benefit, if they were, 
for ever, to be under the power and dominion of 
death. It therefore follov/s, that, when thefe words 
were fpoken, their fouls v/ere in bring, and, at the 
' time appointed, were to bereftored tc life, that God, 
in a diilinguifning manner, might be t^^eir benefac- 
tor. All thefe things follow from the words of Mofes 
by an eafy confequence. 

The re -^^* ^^'^^^^^ Volkefius fays is to no purpofe, when, 

vuibation being pinched by this paifage, he requires us, lik 3. 

ci' ro/.'ii./' i\ II. to produce tettimonies, in which ihis benefit is 
prcfrdfid to us [viz in the old ) in as clear and evident 
terms, as in theNew Teilament •, for he refufes, that 
the paifage, we aie now t rear hi g of, can, on any ac- 
count, be of that number, as appears from this, that, 
before Chrijl explained //, none ever ve?itured fo much as 
to fufpecf^ it contained any fuch thing. Nor is it ere- 
dible, that the tharifces^ who -were very wellfiilled in 
the divi^:e law^ and who ^ as it feems frequtntly and warm- 
ly difpited with the Sadduces, about the refiurre^ion of 


* The ai-thors here, feeni pkunly to ij.ainate, that to be a God 
to «?/i', is to be a benefactor. 


Ghap. 2. Gove N A N T of Gr A c E, 2S7 

the dead ^ would have pajfed over this place infiknce^ if 
they had imagined it- to contain a tejiimony to that pur- 

XII. All this is trifling, for, lil. The qucflion isThequeC 
not, whether the teftimonies concerning eternal life tion not 
are exprefTed, in fuch plain and clear words, in the .'yl'^^^^^ i 
Old Tefhment as in the New, which none of us af- J^.t'lhen 
firm, who own that thefe occonomies differ exceed- plainly 
ingly in the degrees of their clearnefs : but whether promifedi 
any tedimonies at all, concerning eternal life, are to^,"^ ^^^^,"j. 
be found in the Old Tetlament ; which the Hereticks * '^ * 
obflinately deny. P^or, Volkelius^ at the beginning 

of the fame chapter, fays, // appears that that promifi 
(of eternal life) was not at all made in that old co- 
venant. How unfair then is it, to require us to pro- 
duce fuch plain and clear teftiriionies ^ 

XIII. 2dly, He is of a different opinion from Pharifeel 
Chrifl:,' in commending the Pharifees for being very falfely 
fl<ilful in the divine law, for he reproves them, ^^^' , 
Mat. 2?. 16, 17, as bl':nd and foolijJo guides^ and JJJ^^^Iy ^ ^* 
charges them with taking away the key of know- fkillcd in 
ledge, Luke 11. 52, and of whom Faul teftified, <^ the divine 
vail was upon their hearty that in reading Mofes and the ''• 
Old Teft anient^ they did not under ft and^ 2 Cor. 3. 

14' 15. 

XIV. 3dly, And we arelittle concerned after what It doei 
manner, or from what topicks, they formed their ar- notappeat 
guments ; fince it appears, that Chrift, which i^^^-ourbuf. 
pudcnce itfelf will not dare to deny, reafoned judi- nefs to 
cioufly. Nor will our adverfary be able, in any know, Iri 
manner, to (hew, that they never argued from this ^^'^^tmari- 
pafiage. For, who has given us a hiitory of all their ^^^^^^. 

XV. 4thly, Whatever it be with the Pharifees^ Obferva- 
certainly Philo., an ancient Jew, fcems to have had tions of 
fomething like this in his mind •, whofe words the il- ^^'^° ^"° 
luftrious Grotius^ a name noways unacceptable to our ,^Jg^ 
adverfaries, adduces in his commentaries on Mat. 

2 1. 32, to thispurpofe: To fay^ that Gcd is eternal^ 

G c 2 is 

383 The O N E N E S S of tJie Book 3: 

is f be fame, as to fay he is me, who beflows grace, not 
at fome cert am times only, hut inceffantly at all times. 
The celebrated Lightfoot, in his Specilegia in Exo-^ 
dum, feci. 5, has obfervedj that our Lord's argument 
would appear with greater evidence, if compared 
with the mind and doftrine of the Jews. For, Rahhi 
Simeon Ben Jochai faid, the bleffed and holy God dees not 
put his name on the righteous who are alive, hut on thofe 
who are dead. As it is faid, Pf 1 6. 3, to the faints that 
are in the earth. When are they faints ? When they are 
laid in the earth. For, the holy andtleffed God does not 
put his name upon them, all the days they live. Why 
fo ? Becaufe the holy and hleffed God does not confde in 
them, as if they could not he turned away from the right 
path, by evil affections : hut when they are dead, the 
holy and hleffed God puts his name upon them. See ^an^ 
chum on Gen. 28, and Menachem on Exod, 3. wliich 
comes to this purpofe, that God, in a far more ex- 
cellent manner, is faid to be the God of thofe, who 
are dead, than of thofe, who ftill live in the mortal 
body. And what reafon can pofTibly be aGlgned far 
this, but that the feparate foul enjoys a more excel- 
lent life ? Aben Ezra, among the Moderns, had the 
fame view of this, who, on Levit, 18. 4, explains 
thofe words, lam the Lord thy God, as containing a 
promife o^ life in both worlds. And Menaffe Ben Ifrael, 
de refurre5l. Mortuor. lib, i. c. 10, ufes our Lord's 
very argument. 
Thehopes XVI. What can ho. more evident than that tefti- 
ofthegod- mony, by which the Apoftle, Hch. 11. 10, recom- 
ly, inold mends the faith of Abraham? He looked for a city, 
founded°^ le'/^/V/^ hath foundations, whofe builder and maker is 
on conjee- ^^^'^ • adding the other Patriarchs •, /?r they that fay 
tures, h\jitfuch things, declare plainly that they feek a country, v. 14: 
*^" ^^^ but now they defire a better country, that is, a heavenly, 
Q^^ ° v. 16. The perverting of thefe things to a bare ex- 
peftation, and a vain perfuafion, founded only on con- 
jectures, as Smalcius exprefles it, does an injury to 
thefe pious hero's, and contradids Paul^ v/ho, in 


Chap. 2. Coven ANT of Gr AC E. sgg 

this refpedt, celebrates their faith. But it would not 
have been a faith, founded on the word of God alone, 
but a culpable temerity, to hope for fo great things 
to thcmfclves without a promife from God. Fran- 
zius Bifput, J. Thef. 55, ules here a mofl excellent 
climax or gradation. Hozv could they have hoped^ had 
they not believed y how could they have believed^ what they 
had not heard ? How could they have heard^ unlefs it 
had been preached to them ? But how could any have 
preached to them^ had not God fent them for that pur- 
pofe^ andexprefsly commanded them to preach this very 
thing ? As the Apoftle of the Gentiles^ Rem. jo, argues 
in a like cafe. 

XVII. But leafc they fhould cavil, that we borrow To this 
our arguments only from the New Teftament f tho' ru'"po^c Ik 
none can better iniiru61: us in the co;^tents of thc-^'^^^^^ 
Old Teftament th;inChrift and his Apoftles) we fliall Gen. 40/ 
confider fomepaffages of the Old Teftament, and free 18. 
them from themifconftruftionsof our adverfaries. And 

firft we have that fvvan-like fong of Jacob, Gen 49. 
18, mn' ^n>^p ']r)ny^'>b I wait for thy falvation, Lord, 
The ar>ed Prophet was now at the point of deatli, ?rid 
being full of the Spirit of God, he, in the midftof his 
prophecies, in which he foretels, what was to befall 
his children and lateft pofterity, breaks out into thefe 
words ; which were not fpoken without the Spirit of 
God, fo as with Smalcius to be referred to a vain per- 
fuafion, nor poftibly to be wrefted to any other, but 
this fpiritual and eternal falvation. 

XVIII. Here again, let a certain Jew put the fol- Para- 
lowers of Sccinus, if poftible, to the blufti : in op- fjj'jy^°, 
pofition to whom we produce this paraplaaie of the ^^ii^m 
JerufalemTargumift. Our father J n cob faid^ myfoul'Ti-z'^m 
does not expecl the redemption cf Gideon^ the fon of Joaz, thereon, 
that being only mcmentary •, nor the redempiion of Samfon^ 
hecaufe, a trcnfient redem'ption, but, the redemption thoH 

hafi mentioned in thy word^ or by thy zvord, which is to 
come to thy people, the children of Ijrael -, my foul, Ifayy 
e'j:pe5ls this thy redemption. Is ngt this a very clear 

C C 3 teftimony 


The ONENESS of the Book 

teftimony of the mod certain perfuafion and the ful- 
lefc afTjrance of their.faivation ? 
Job, 19, XIX. Nor miitl we omit the celebrated paffage of 
25,26327, y^^^ 19. 2f;,26, 27. where, in very clear terrns, he 
of the^re-' ^^clares his belief of :i future refurreflion -, for I know. 
'furredion that my redeemer livesb, and that he will fiand at the 
pd eter- latter day [over the dujt'] upon the earth. And tho*- 
f:^} ai?. ^j-i(.y. my Jkin^ worms defiroy this body^ yet in my flejh 
Jhalllfee God\ whom I jhall fee for my f elf and mine eyes 
fhall behold^ and not another^ iho'* my reins be cGnfumed 
within me. On this confeiTion of faith I v;ould make 
the following remarks. 
Tklofti- -^-^- ■^^^' That it is fomething very great, that 
refsofthe Job here treats of, appears both from the lacred 
|liie fhevvs ioftinefs and majefly of the ftile, and the preface with 
5^^^"^" which he ufl-^ers them in ; namely, his earned de- 
lome great ^^^^5 that thcfe his words might he written and printed 
batter, in a book^ and graven with an iron pen and lead^ in the- 
rock for ever. And nothing was more becoming fuch 
a defire than the profeffion of his faith in the Meffiah^ 
and his hope of a bleffed refurredion. 
He Gould XXL 2dly, Job clears his innocence againft x}c\t 
not better accufations of his friends, who condemned him as a 
f lear his 'wtcked perfon^ and one who did not acknowledge the 
inno- jirong God^ Joh^ iS. 2 i. ^' I am fo far, fays he, from 
than by a '^ being fuch, as you reproachfully reprefent me, 
profefnon '' that, on the contr ;ry, I am fully polIefTed of the 
pfthe 'c }^Qpg of the righteous, and know both God and 
'^^^•^ht- " "^3^ redeemer, and expedb greater b:eiTii;gs at his 
eous?^ " hands than all the things of this world canpofiibly 
" afford." This indeed was far more powerful to 
filence the accufatior.s of his friendsf, than if he had 
fpoken of fome exiraordinary happinefs in this 
^ ^ ^^^,^. ' XXIL 3dly, He fpeaks of a thing he was certain 
fureof be- ^ft ^"^^ which therefore oiight to be built on the 
ing reftor- iiifallible promife of God. But it does not appear, 
ed in ;his any uromife was made him of being reitored in this 

Chap. 2. CoVENANTofG'^ACE. ^91 

life to his former kate. Nor are there any general 
prom'fcs, from which riai: coul 1 be certainly con- 
cluded. Nay, thtre are not a few things which per- 
fuade us, that 'job had no fuch expeflation. For, lie 
wiflies. Job 6 8, 9," II ; n.nd 7. 7, 8, that it -wculd 
pleafe God to !^rai n the ihivy he l:vgedfrA\ that is, 
deaths and to df^f rov h'rn. Fm-, fays he, whet u my 
ftren^th^ that T Jhr: :' hope out, cr^ ix'-hct is ynine cid^ 
that I fijoidd prclovz my life ? 

XXllI., All tlie words of the text dlre6> Kvcry 
ns to the bleffe ' refurredlion ot believers in Chrift. •^''^ ^^ 
Fie fpeaks of his '^n^j GceL who, as the redeemer of ^,Jj^|^'*[o 
believers, and as 'Jhecdotion tranflates it, their next a happv 
of kin, had the right of confanguinity, to re- rduircc- 
deem them. He declares, that he liveth^ being ^^*^" 
the true Gcd and eternal life^ i John 5. 20. And 
who has tau;:' r us to reafon from his life to our own, 
John 14. 19. h:caufe lUve^yefljall live aljo, Tho' he 
was really once to die, neverthelefs he fays, / am he 
that live th and was dead, and behold! I ajn alive for 
ever mere, Rev, i. 18. And this is what Job adds, 
he Jhall ftand, at the latter day^ upon the earth 
\Gver the duft'] After having triumphed over all his 
enemies, he will manifeft himfelf in the field cf battle 
both alive and a conqueror: or, he fhaM (land upon 
the earth, or over the dull, the receptacle of death, 
as an enemy proilrate under his feet, as i Cor. ic,, 
26, 27, i'he laft enemy, that Jhall be defiroyed, is 
death. For he hath put all things under his feet. Fie 
conhdered this refurrection of Chrift, as an earneil 
of his own. y^nd though after my Jkin, worms dejiroy 
this body, which he pointed to with his finger, yet in 
my flefh fhall I fee Gcd, namely, that great God and 
faviour Jcfus Chrift, at 'that time to be manifeded in 
his priory, i John 3. 2. Whom he was to ^t^ for 
himfelf^ for his own falvation and confummate joy, 
in like manner alfo, as David fortold, P/. 17. 13-, 
As for me, I will beheld thy face in ri^hteou fiefs •, 1 fhall 
he fatisfied^ when I awake, with thy likenefs. This 

Cc 4 vifion 

392 The ONENESS of the Book 3. 

vifion therefore was different from that, of which he 
fpeaks Chap. 42. 5, 6, Which affedled him with 
grief, and humbled him to dnft and afhes. Nor 
was it poffible, but fuch a firm hope of fo great 
happinefs muft excite an ardent long'ng after the 
erijoyment of it. And this is what he adds, my 
reins are confimed^ that is, are wafied and languifh 
through my longing (fee the fignification of this 
word n^D Pf^4- 2. And 119. 81) within me. In 
the fame manner alfo as the apoflle ardently longed 
to know the power of Chriffs reftirreEiion \ if by any 
means he might attain unto the refurre^iion of the dead., 
Phil. 3-. 10, II. All thefe things mod exadrly agree 
with JqFs defign, with the force and magnificence 
of the ible, with the whole tenour of fcripture, and, 
was it not for prejudices, could never be perverted to 
any orhei- meaning. 

XXIV. We therefore conclude in the words of 
Jercme to Pafnmachius., concerning the error of John 
ofjerufaiem. JVhat is more evident than this prophecy? 
None after Chrift fpcaks fo plainly of the refurre^iioUy as 
he before Chrifi. 

XXV. Let us fubjoin the prophefy of Daniel 
12. 2, And many of them^ that Jleep in the dufi of the 

■ earth fljall awake., fome to everlaflijig life., and for,ie to 
floame and everlafltng contempt. On this place I ob- 
ferve thefe following things: ifl. That a general 
refurredion of all, and among thefe, of the righteous, 
to life eternal, can fcarce be defcribed in more 
evident terms. Indeed, under the new teitalnent, 
the Lord Jefus, fpeaking of this very myftery, ufes 
almoft the very fame words, John 5. 28, 29. I appeal 
to any confcience, had Daniel been appointed to pro- 
phefy of the refurredion of the dead, whether 
he could have defcribed it in clearer language } 

XXVI. 2dly. It is no objection, that Daniel 
fays, ynany of them, that Heep, fliall be raifed. For 
not to mention, that many fometimes fignifies the 
fame thing as all (as Rom. 5. 15, compared with 12) 

2 it 

Chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. 9q-> 

it 13 evident, that Daniel divides the whole colIe6live to two 
body of thofe, that fleep in the diift of the earth, ^^^^"• 
into two clafTes, one of which fhall rife again to life, the 
other to fhame. 

XXVII. 3dly. And this mofl anguft prophefy This pro- 
cannot be explained to fignify nothing but a tern- P^^cfycan- 
poral and corporal deliverance from the oppreiTion "°^ ^^ 
of Antiochiis. For how did tranfgreflbrs rife out^e^/^li-^ 
of the duft after Antiochiis^ feeing they were then vcrance 
rather dead, and rendered contemptible? For, (''om En- 
during the life of Antiochiis^ they even flouriflied. '^°^^^"^* 
And how were the pious and perfevering delivered 

to eternal life^ for they all doubtlefs died again ? Will 
you affirm with Volkelius^ that this is to be under- 
ilood of thofe, who coyiftantly adhered to the law of 
God^ and to whom that deliverance was to turn to an 
eternal glory? Then, I fay, we have an evident 
promife of eternal life in the books of the Old 
Teftament: which is what we contend for. But if 
we allow eternal glory to have been promifed to them, 
why not too, the refurredionof thedead, which pre- 
ceeds confummate glory?. 

XXVIII. 4thly. Nor ought it to be urged, that The op. 
thcfe things agree not with the time, of which P''^^[^^ by 
Daniel prophefied, namely, the tyranny of AntiochuSy n.^u^n^"^ 
and the deliverance therefrom. For fhould we grant, fitly com- 
that Daniel fpeaks, in the verfes immediately pre- Ported by 
ceeding, of Antiochus^ yet it does not follow, that ^ P'"°"^^'*^ 
he could not in this fpeak of the refurreftion of the ^ ^ 'r^-^" 

^ py relur- 

dead. For, the Prophet was here fhewing, that rcaion. 
God, after having difplayed fo illuftrious an inilance 
of his glprious power, would proceed in the extra- 
ordinary deliverances of his people, till all Ihould 
terminate in the happy refurredlion of the dead. If 
you infill, that the things here foretold, were to 
exifi; at that time^ about which he had hitherto been 
fpeaking, I anfvver firfl:, that this is not in the 
text. This verfe, indeed, is connedled with the 
foregoing by the particle, ) and^ where the words 



The ONENESS of the 

Book 3, 

The fore- 
going tro- 
phecy may 
b° under- 
{i ' of 
Au •rift 
or or th?- 
ent to 

A mifin- 
tio.. -f a 

concerning /i?^/ time are found. But nothing is 
more frequent in the prophets, than thus to join 
two things, which are to exift at very different 
times: of which we have unexceptionable inilances 
Mat. 24. It has likewife been obferved by very 
learned men, that the particle 1 fometimes fignifies 
at lengthy or afterwards. Secondly, it may alfo be 
faid, thar ^^•^^ n);:^ denotes after that time: as Jos. 
g. £;, c::nKK3 fignifies, after they came forth. And 
the promife of the refurredion ought not to be 
thought a thing foreign to the {\xxit% oi Antiochus : 
becaufe it is certain, that they who continued fted- 
faft in the ways of piety, might comfort themfelves 
by that hope, under all their dreadful torments, as 
may be fcen, 2 Maccah. 7. 6, 11, 14, and Ueh. 11. 


XXIX. But nothing* hinders us, wuh very 
excellent expofitors, to refer the things, which D(^;?/>/ 
prophefies of towards the clofe of the chapter, to 
the New Teilament Aniichrifl^ or to the Roman 
emperors, fubfervient to Antichrifl., in promoting the 
mydery of iniqiiiry. Cunradus Grafems has very 
learnedly handled this fentiment in a peculiar treatife. 
And thus the refurreftion of the dead would be 
joined with the deftrudion oi Aniichrift., as is hkewife 
done Rev. 20. 10, 13. 

XXX. I'his being the cafe, we may jufdy be 
furprifed thataperfon, in other refpeds very learned 
and orthodox in the main of this enquiry, could 
not find the general refurredion of the juft, in the 
fecond verfe, when he could find, in the firH, the 
war of the En^ifh with the Diitch^ of the Danes with 
the Swedes., of the + "Tartars in Chijja, and of the 
Chinefe in Florida., of the Fortuguefe with the Caflilians^ 
and a great many other things of a modern date. 

t There is certain'y ,,^.^ 
a'v thor to whom Witjias refeis 

he.e a mol egregious blunder In the 


Chap. 2. Coven ANT of Grace. ^05 

But let thefe things fuffice to Ihew, that, even 
under the Old Teftamcnt, eternal life was promifcd to 

XXXI. Our writers have diftindly anfvvered what- In what 
ever Hereticks have advanced to rh.e contrary. "^"^^ the 
The whole comes to this : when the apoitle, Heb. 8. J.j^'"'^^^ 
6, calls the promifcs of the New Teftament better^ Teft^- 
that may be underftood in various refpedts -, if mentare 
referred to eternal life, it does not regard fo much ^^"^r- 
the thing promifed, as the plainnefs and certainty of 

the promife, which is not now wrapt up m certain 
obfcure words, fhadovv/s and ceremonies, but diilinfliy 
propofed ; does not depend on fome uncertain con- 
dition, but, in the fulieft manner, is confirm.ed by the 
blood of the teftator, as the apoflle himfelf fuggells v. 
9, 10. 

XXXII. When it is faid, 2 Tim. i. to, ThatzTim. i, 
Chrift hath abclijhed deaths and hath brought life and ^°'. ^^' 
immortality to light through the gofpsl^ it cannot be ^ ^^"^ ' 
underftood of the firll promife of eternal life, unlefs 

any fliall fay, that it was not made before the re- 
furrecrion of Chiift, vv^hich is what is here fpoken 
of. But none will lay fo. The plain meaning is, 
that the Lord Jefus, being rifen from the dead, 
fliewed to the whole world, both Jews and Gentiles, 
to whom the gofpel was preached, that he was the 
true author of life and immortality: namely, that, 
on his coming forth out of the grave, the light of this 
truth was very widely diffufed, even among thcfe 
who before fet in darknefs, and in the ihadow of 

XXXIII. When the fame apofile affirms, that Hcb. 2/3. 
eur fahation at the fir ft began to be fpoken by the Lordy 

Heb 2, "^y It is clear, he fpeaksofthe gofpel com- 
pleated, and of the Meffiah, the author of lalvation, 
already exhibited ; which gofpel the Lord fird 
publifhed, with refpe^t to the apoflles, evangelifts 
and the other ordinary preachers, that followed 
them. For othcrwife who can deny, that Zachariasy 


39^ The O N E N E S S of the Book 3, 

the father of John the baptift, and Mary the mother 
of our Lord, and the angels who proclaimed his 
nativity, and the aged Simeon^ and John the baptill, 
v/ere preachers of falvation before the Lord? Of the 
fathers the apoftle himfelf affirms, that they were 
tvctyys>.KTiJ.£m gojpelifed^ or that the gofpel was preached 
unto them as well as unto us^ Heh. 4. 2. 
Heb.p. 8. XXXI7. When it is written, Heb. 9. 8, That 
the way unto the holuft of all was not yet made manijefi^ 
while as the jirft tabernacle was yet ftandrng-^ the 
apoftle indeed, intimates, that the mi^nner of 
obtaining falvation was, in fome meafure, hid, in 
comparifon of the brighter luftre of the gofpel. For 
then, doubtlefs, the way to life was clouded with 
much pomp of ceremonies and figures : which being 
now difpelled, we behold with open face, and 
ardently defire, heavenly and fpiritual things. But 
from this it no ways follows, that thofe, under the 
Old Teftament, had no knowledge of falvation ; any 
more than it can be concluded, we know nothing 
of our glorious ftate, becaufe John fays, it doth 7iGt 
yet appear^ what we Jhull he^ John 3. 2. We' may 
almoft, in the fame manner, anfwer the other 
objedions advanced by our adverfaries. But it is no 
part of our defign to examine each in particular. 
The fa- XXXV. Now let us ^xocttd 10 the fecond things 
thers^of ^vhich we undertook to prove ; that in Christ, and 
Tcfta- ^" virtue of his furetifliip, the fathers of the Old 
ment fav. Teftament alfo obtained falvation even as we. Which 
ed alfo by Peter declares almoft in fo many words, Ads, 15. 11. 
A^"'"^* hut we believe^ that^ through the grace of the Lord Jefus 
jj^^^^* Chrifl^ we fhall be favedY.yTE.'i^ AS TniLY. Where the 
pronoun they is to be referred to the fathers, on 
whofeneck an infupportable yoke of ceremonies was 
put, as appears both from the grammatical confide- 
ration of thegender,from the connedion and the force 
of the ^. poiiles argument. For, fince ^^^^'^^^^^ is maf- 
culine, and ''^ ^'^•'a* the Gentiles^ mentioned v. 7, is neu- 
ter, it is not fo properly referred to the Gentiles, a-s 


Chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. 

to the fathers. And we are not here, wirhout nc- 
ceflity, to have recourfe to an enallage of gender. 
And then too, what method of commenting is ic, to 
imagine fo wide an hypcrbaton, or tranfpofition, 
and to bring from verfe 7 a noun, to which, after the 
interpofition of fo many other things, a pronoun 
fhall at length anfwer in eleventh verfe, and which 
yet does not anfwer ; becaufe, in the words imme- 
diately preceeding, you may find a noun, with which 
the pronoun in c.ueftion may be very well joined ? 
In fine, it will either be nonfenfe, or, very infi- 
pid, if the words be fo conftrued. For, what man- 
ner of reafoning is it, if we fuppoft the Apoftle to 
have faid : " Tiie yoke of ceremonies ought not to 
" be put on the necks of the Gentiles, becaufe, we 
" Jews and Apoftles believe, that we fhall be faved in 
" the fame manner as they, by the alone grace of the 
" Lord Jefus Chrift ?" For bcfides this, it v/as im- 
proper to propofe the Gentiles, to the Jews and 
Apoftles, as a pattern of falvation, becaufe it appears, 
that the contrary fhould be done •, and we coukionly 
conclude from that pofition, that the Apoftles and 
Jews were not bound to circumcifio 1, and the other 
ceremonies, any more than the Gentiles. But that 
was not the thing in difpute. But according to our 
interpretation, the Apollle argues in the ftrongefl 
manner : *' You ought not to put the yoke of cere- 
" monies on the necks of the Difciples, who are 
" converted from among the Gentiles, becaufe the 
" fathers themfelves, who were under that yoke, 
'' really felt the uneafinefs of it, but did not find 
*' falvation In it, and yet they were favtd, norincon- 
'' fequence of thefe ceremonies, but by the grace of 
'' our Lord Jefus Chrift. Neither are we, nor any 
" of the human race, to take any other way to attain 
*' falvation. They therefore are under a mllfake, 
" who tell the Dllciples, if you will be fived, you 
••^ muft be circumcifed, and keep the law of Mofcs," 



398 Tlie ONENESS of the Book 3, 

To fum up the whole, then, in fhort, the Apoftle 
here declares three things, ift. That the fathers 
were faved. zcily. By the very fame covenant that we 
are. 3clly, Through the grace of our Lord Jefus 
Chrijl : intimating likewife by all this reafoning, that 
there can poffibiy be but one way of falvation. 
Heb. 13. XXXVl. This is likewife confirmed by that fa- 
2, ex- mous paflage, Heb. I3. 8, Jefus Chrift the fame yefier- 
^ "^ * day^ and to day and for ever. In the foregoing verfe 
the Apoille admonilhed them, to keep frefh in their 
' meir.ory the ivord^ which their giiides had fpoken unto 
them., whcfe faith they fhould follow. Now, he gives 
this for the reafon of that admonition, becaufe jefus 
Chrift is the fame yefier day., and to day^ and for ever ; con- 
llantly preached by all the teachers of the truth, be- 
lieved on by ail, and to be believed on by thofe that 
come after, if they will imitate the faith of their 
predccelTors. The fame doftrine therefore is always 
to be retained, bccaufe Chriilj who was always both 
propofed, and believed, as the author of falvation, 
changeth not. But the particles, yeflerday., to day and 
for ever., denote all the differences of times. Nor 
does ye^erday here fignify fomething of a late date, 
as we ufually fay, yelierday or lately \ but all the time 
fa^l : as the phrafe /o ^^j, denotes /i?^ time of grace 
under the New 'Teftament, For, this is compared to 
fome one prefent day, as chap. 3. 13^ while it is 
called., to day •, and ckap, 4. 7, again., he limit eth a cer- 
tain day^ f^yi^ig i^ David., to day ; of which 2 Cor. 6, 
2, behold! now is the accepted time., behold! now is the 
day of falvation. As therefore Chrift is to day, under 
the New Teflament, acknowledged the alone author 
of falvation, and will be acknowledged as fuch for 
ever •, fo in like manner, ye§icrday., under the Old 
Teftament, which day is now paft, he. was the fame, 
and as fuch was declared and acknowledged. 
Heb. 9. XXXVII. Let us alio add what we have in Heb. 
15- 9- J^S^ <2^^ for this caufe he is the mediator of the New 

i'elfament^ that, by tncans of death, for the redemption of 


Chap. 2. Coven A NT of Gr A c E. ^oo 

the tranf^rejfions^ that were under the firii teBdment, 
they which are called might receive the promife of eternal 
inheritance. Where we have an open declaration, 
that the death of Jefus Chrilt was effeclual for the 
redemption of tranfgre/Tions, committed under the 
Old Teftament. For, thus the Apoille proceeds. 
He fuppofes, that the fiithers of the Old Tellament 
were faved, notwithftanding their fii sj v/h^ch Socinus 
with his followers dare not deny. He fays further, 
that the blood of bullocks, and of goats, and confe- 
quently of all facrihces whatever, could not really, 
and before the tribunal of God, expiate fin, and pu- 
rify the confcience. Yer, fince, as he declar s, without 
ihedding of blood, there can be no remilTion, verfe 
22, he concludes, it was neceflary, tiiat the death of 
Chrift fliould indeed be undergone, in order noi- only 
to the eftablilhment of the New Teftament, but by 
virtue of which the redemption of former fins might 
alio be obtainecf. This is the genuine meaning of 
the facred writer. 

XXXVIII. And, indeed, Grotius fliamefully (huf- Grotius's 
fles, when, to favour the 6W;//^;/j, he thus writes on ^"^^"S* 
this place : His death interveenedfor this end^ that men 
might he delivered from tho^e fins ^ which generally pre- 
vailed^ before Chrilt^ among thofe called God's people. 

Is it really fo ? Would thus the redemption of the tranf- 
greffwns^ that were under the fir si te^iament^d^noit fuch 
an action of Chrift, whereby fucceeding ages would 
abftain from the like fins, as were formerly com- 
mitted? God forbid, we ftiould ever pervert Scrip- 
ture thus. Redemption is ")DD an expiation of fin, 
upon paying a ranfom. Chrift paid this for all the 
fins of his Ele6l, at v/hatever time they lived. And 
upon the credit of that payment, to be made at the 
appointed time, believers, even under the Old Tefta- 
ment, obtained redemption. 

XXXIX. Moreover, hnce it is evident, that Old Nofalva- 
Teftament faints were faved, it muft likewife befionbut 
evident, that they were faved through Chrift. For, ^'^ ^^'^^'^^^^ 


400 The O N E N E S S of the Book 5; 

our Saviour hi mfelf {2^1%^ John 14. 6. no man cometh un- 
to the father hut by me. And Peter ^ A5is 4. 12 •, nei- 
ther is there falvation in any other ; for there is none other 
name under heaven given among men^ ^whereby we muft be 
faved. Nothing can be plainer than thefe words, 
which feem to be written as with a fun-beam. Yet 
the itch of contradidion has found fomething to 
fay, but that fomething is lefs than nothing. 
^, . , XL. Our adverfaries except, that thefe pafiages 

holds true Should be underftood of thofe, who hve under the 
both un- New Teilament, and therefore that both Chrift and 
der the Peter fpeak in the prefent, and not in the pail time, 

Tefta-"^^' ^^"^' ^"^ "°^ ^^^^^^ ^^"^ Teilament Saints ; of the 
ment? times when Chriil was exhibited, and not of the Old 
Teilament times. We anfwer: lil, As both texts 
are expreifed in univerfal terms, they are not to be 
limited without caufe and neceiTity, as there is none 
in this cafe. For if falvation could be obtained for- 
merly without Chriil, equally as now through Chriil, 
what need had we of Chriil's coming ? Or, what fo 
very great matter do v/e obtain in Chriil? 2dly, There 
are very folid reafons, why they neither ought nor 
can be thus reilridled. Becaufe they, who were 
without Chrifi^ were Grangers from the covenants of 
promife^ having no hope^ and without God in the world, 
Eph. 2. 12. 3dly, The quibbling about the verbs 
being of the prefent time is idle, becaufe verbs of 
that time, or tenfe, may equally refer to all times. 
And whatever expreilion had been ufed, whether de- 
noting the future, or pail time, there might always 
be room left for fuch cavils. Befides, no reafon can 
be afllgned, why the pail time ihould be excluded 
any more than the future, if that verb of the prefent 
tenfe is thus to be racked. If this is not falfe reafon- 
Jng againil the Supreme Being, and a childifh abufe 
of ones genius and pwarrs, what can be called fo } 
No com. XLI. That, which in the third and lail place, we 
xnunion promifed to prove, namely, that there is no other 
w^^'^ means of communion widi Chrift but faith, appears 


Chap. 2. Covenant of Grace. 401 

from that very noted pafTage of Hcibakkuk, fo often 
quoted by the Apoftle, l/ut the ji^ft JJjall live by his 
FAITH, or thefdith of HIM, namely, of the promifed 
Milifiah^ Heb. 2. 4. From which Paul, at different 
times, proves our juftification, who live under the 
New Teftament, through faith. And then, Moles 
declares concerning Abraham^ and he believed in the 
Lord^ end he counted it to him for right eotifnefs^ Gen, 
15. 6; which the Apollle quotes for the lame pur- 
pofe, Rem. 4. 3. David likewife declares the mart 
bleffed that put teth his truft in him (the fon) Pf. 2, 12. 
And Ifaiah counfeJs the (Inner to take hold of the 
ftrength of the Lord^ and thus make peace with him^ 
7/] 27. 5. But what is it to take hold of the fortrefs 
of the Lord, but to believe in the Lord .^ And fin- 
ally, Paul, by a long enumeration of examples, which 
he took from the Old Teftament fathers, attempts to 
prove this general truth, Heb. it. 6, ixjithout faith 
it is irnpojfible to pleafe God. 

XLII. Our adverfaries object, that the pafiage's Bcude a 
above-mentioned treat only of a general faith in gcTieral 
God, and not of a fpecial faith in Chrid. We deny ^^^^ ["j^j^ 
not, that as Chrift was then more obfcurely revealed, inChri'iiis 
fo believers had likewife a lefs diftintfi: knowledge of requlfite. 
him ; yet we boldly affirm, that they had fome 
knowledge, and fufficient for their time, upon the 
authority of our Lord, who fays, Abraham f aw my 
day and rejoiced^ John 8. 56, and of Paul., who teili- 
fies concerning Af<:7/d'j, Heb, 11.26, that he efleemed 
the reproach of Chrift greater riches than the treafures in 
Egypt., and concerning the other fathers, v. 13, that 
they f aw the promifes afar off., and embraced them., and 
lallly Q^ Peter., who tells us, iPet.i. 11, that the 
Prophets fearchcd what^ or what manner of time., the 
Spirit of' Chrift which was in them., did fignify when 
it teftifiid before hand the fufferings of Chrift., and the 
glory that fhculd follow. Since then, thefe things 
were faid of the Heroes of that time, it will not be 
hard to determine, what we are to judge concerning 
9 Vol. I. D d oilier 

^oz Of the Old and New Book 3: 

other believers, according to thejr rank and ftation. 
And the Patriarchs and Prophets had not a6led the 
part of honefl men, if they had envioufly concealed 
from other believers, fuchan excellent talent, which 
was committed to their trull. 
No dero- XLIIJ. The Apoftle writes nothing in oppofition 
gation to to this truth, when he lais, GaL 3. 23, but before faith 
this truth ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ j^^p^ under the law. For, it is far from 
3, 23- ' the Apoftle's intention to deny, that faith in Chrifl 
prevailed before his coming in the flefli, becaufe, 
in the fame chapter, he had highly commended the 
faith of Abraham, and propofed it as a pattern to us 
all, V. 6, 7, 9. But by faith we here undertland 
either the objefl oi faiths the do6lrine of the Gofpel, 
as chap. 1.23, and the I_.ord Jefus himfelf, believed 
on the world, 1 Tim, 3. 16, or, the faith of the re- 
demption already a6lually "uvrought mt^ as contradi- 
ftinguilhed from the hope of the Old Tefiament Saints, 
who, with earnefc longing, as it were, expeded 
the coming of the Lord, waifing for the confolation of 
Ifraek Luke 2. 25. And thus we have now (liewn, 
that the Old Teftament Saints had the fame pro- 
mifes of eternal life with Ub, to be obtained by 
the famfeChriil, and the fame faith in him, andcon- 
fequently alfo had the fame covenant of grace with 


Of the different economies or dl/penfatims of the 
Qovenaut of Grace, 

The fame I. ¥ T neverthclefs pleafed God, at fundry periods 
covenant J^ of time, and in diverfe manners, to difpenfe 
of grace the fame covenant of grace. We lliall exhibit, in 
differently j^- ^j^^p^^j. a ihort rcprcfentation of thefe difpen- 

Chap. 2- TESTAMENT. 4C3 

fations, in fuch a metfiod, as/r/? fimply to explain 
what in this matter, feems to ns moil cxadly agree- 
able to the whole tcnour of S ripture-, /to; freely, 
but calmly weigh the refle6tions of other learned 

II. This diverfity of oeconomies, is comprized un- Hence the 
der two principal heads,which the Apoille calls by the ^/ ^ndN^ 
names of the Old and New Testament, where ^^11^^* 
we are to note, that by the Old "Teftament^ we are 

by no means to underftand the legal covenant^ of ob- j 
taining falvation by our own works -, that being very- 
different from the covenant of grace. Butj according 
to us and Paul, the Old Tcrtament denotes the 
teflament [or covenant] of grace, under that difpen- 
fation, which fubiilled before the coming of Chrifl: in 
the flefli, and was propofed formerly to the fathers 
under the vail of certain types, pointing out fome 
imperfedions of that ftate, and confequcntly that 
they were to be abolifhed in their appointed time: or, 
as Calvin has very well exprefled it, Inftitiit. lib. 2, 
r. 1 1 . Se^f. 4, the Old Teftame-nt was a do^rine involved 
in a fldadoijoy and ineffe5f-ual ohfervation of ceremonies^ 
and was therefore temporary^ hecatife a thing infufpenjcy 
till eftahlijhed on a firm and fuhfiantial bottom. 'The 
New Teftajnent is the teflament Tor covenant] of 
grace; under that difpenfation, which fucceeded the 
former, after being confecrated and eflablifl-ied by . 
the blood of Chrift. For thisreafon Chrifl calls the 
cup, which he reached to his Difciples in thefupper^ 
the cup of the new teflament in his bloody Mat. 26. 2S. 
Tb fignify, that then at length the New Teflament 
Would be perfe6led, when fealed ny the blood of the 
tellator, v^hich he Hied at his d..ath. 

III. It is iarefully to be obferved, that the differ- The dl^ 
ence of thele tellaments is not to be placed in theference 
fubflance of the promifed inheritance-, as if, under "^,^ ^°?'' 
the Old Teflament, was allotted the inheritance ofj^gi-^j^. 
the land of Canaan., and the inheritance of heaven iiance of 
imder the New. Nothing can be imagined Icfs ac- the pro- 
curate and jufl. The allotment of the heavenly in f ^^^^^ *^; 

D d 2 heritance 

404 Of the Old and New Book 5; 

but in the hcritancc proceeds from the teftament of grace, ab- 
manner. f^jytely confideied, which remains invariably one 
and the fame, undef every oeconomy. Only the 
fame inheritance is propoled in a different manner. 
In the Old Teftamentunder fhadows, and in a certain 
period thereof, under the pledge of the land of Canaan, 
and which at the appointed time was to be purchafed 
by the death of the teftator. In the New Teftament 
clearly, without a pledge, to which any regard was 
to be had, and as now purchafed by the death of the 
teftator. The promile of the common falvation, 
which is in Chriit, v/hether formerly made to the fa- 
thers, or to us at this day, does not belong to the 
Old and New Teftament as fuch, but abfoliitely to 
the teftament or covenant of grace. The difference 
of the teftaments confifts in the different manner of 
difpenfing and propofing the fame faving grace, and 
in fome different adjundls and circumftances. What- 
ever was typical in that dilpenlation and denoted 
imperfection, and an acknowledgement, that the 
ranfom was not yet paid, belongs to, the Old Tefta- 
ment. Whatever fhews, that the redemption is ac- 
tually wrought out, is peculiar to the New Tefta- 
ment. Without carefully adverting to this, it is not 
pofFible, we can have a diftin6l knowledge of the na- 
ture of both teftaments. 
More ac- IV. But let US infift a little further on this point, 
curately jf pofftbly wc may advance, what may fet the truth 
explained. -^^ ^ ^j^^j. Wgh^^ Three things are to be diftinguifli- 
ed : the teftament of grace, the Old and New Tefta- 
ment. To each its own inheritance is to be affigned: 
That of the teftament of grace is eternal falvation, 
with every thing belonging to it, through Jefus Chrift^ 
which 13 equally common to believers* in all ages. 
The Old and Nev/ Teftament being different oecono- 
mies of this one teftament of grace, which they com- 
prize-, fuppofe alfo and include the fame heaven?y 
inheritance. But in fo far as they are diffc'ent, the 
inheritance alio, attributed to each, is different ; 
but that differciKCj confifts chiefly in two things : 


Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 405 

firft, in the different manner of propoGng it, which, 
I hope, I have now clearly explained : then, in the 
circumftantial adjunds of the principal inl:eritance ; 
which, in the Old Teftament are, the inheritance of 
the land of Canaan^ as a pledge of heaven, with a 
bondage to the elements of the world, and the ex- 
clufion of the Gentiles, and a lefs nicafurc of the 
fpirit of grace. In the New Teftament, the inheritance 
of the Gentiles, with liberty, and a more plentiful 
meafure of g-race. 

V. We begin the oeconomy of the Old Teftament The Old 
immediately upon the fall, and the firft promife of Terta- 
grace, and end it inChrift-, as both the nature of "!^"':^'^" 
the thing and Scripture dire6l us to do. We argue niedl'atVly 
from the nature of the thing, in this manner: fin ce on the fall, 
believers had the covenant of grace propofed and 
confirmed to them, immediately after the fall, by 
fuch figns, as contain'd aconfefiion, that guilt was not 
yet expiated-, and which therefore wTre, at the time 
appointed, to be abrogated by the introdu6lion of 
the New Teftament •, there can be no reafon, why 
the promife thus propofed and ratified, fliould not be 
the Old Teftament. We don't reckon the promife 
of the feed of the woman, bruifmg the ferpent's head, 
and of the enmity eftabliflied between 'the feed of 
both, as belonging to the Old Teftament, for thefc 
things abfolutely belong to the covenant of grace 
in general, but the facrifices, which were added, 
and by the blood of which that teftament was con- 
firmed, belong indeed, to the Old Teftament. It ap- 
pears more than probable to us, v;ith fome very 
learned men, from the Mofaic hiftory, that, imme- 
diately upon the promulgation of the covenant of 
grace, Adam, at the command of God, flew bcafts 
for facrifice,'whofe flcins were, by the flivour of God, 
granted to him and his wife for clothing : which was 
not without its myftical fignihcation, as ftiall be ex- 
plained in its proper place. It is certain, wc have 
an exprefs account of facrifices, G^;;. 4. 2yfeq. which 
account, in the opinion of chronologers, happened, 
D 4 3 about 

^o6 Cf the Qtd and New Book 3. 

about the year oi" Aaaai, 129. Seeing therefore 
thefe iaciificcs ..elong ro the teft^ment [or covenant] 
of grace, and typically fcal the blood of Chrift, which 
was to be flied in due time, and likewife urnindcd of 
guilt not yet expiated, they can be referred to no- 
thing but the old teftament. For, whatever is thus 
joined to the covenant of grace, cannot pofTibly be 
referred to the New Teftament, the very force of the 
words requires its being f^iid cf the Old Teftament. 
To this Argument a certain very learned perfon ob* 
je6ls as follows: Adam^ the deluge and the rain- bow 
were types ^ and previous to the atlual performance of 
redemption^ and yet they belong not exprefly to the Old 
Tefiament. hor^ this laft was abrogated with all its 
JJoadows. But thofe others ceafc not to be types of greater 
' and fpiritual things to us. But the anfwer feems to be 
eafy. The deliverance of the Ifraelites out of Egybit 
the paftage through the rcd-fea, their wonderful iup- 
port in tlie wilder nefs by manna, and water from the 
rock, the fall oi Jericho^ t^e expulfion of the nations 
out oi Canaan^ the carrying away of the Ifraelites into 
Babylon., their return from Babylon^ and many other 
things of the like nature (for it would be endlefs tp 
recount all), do they not all belong to the Old 
Teftament oeconomy r But thefe very things cer- 
tainly, ceafe not according to the fentiments of very 
learned men, to be all of them types of the 
greateft things to the Chriilian church. The city 
ofjerufalem itfelf, the very temple with its whole 
pomp of ceremonies, tho' no longer in being, any 
more than Adam and the deluge, yet ought alfo to 
bcconfideredby usChriftians astypes of the heavenly 
• city and temple not made with hands. Jn a word, the 
whole of the Mof^ick law, tho' abrogated as to any 
Tl-iereto obligation of obfervance, ceaics not ^o exhibit to us, 
V^"^ ^!l f*^^' ^^^ inftru^lion, a type of ipiritual things. 
fnililu^^^ VI. There is another reafon, taken from Faul\ 
tionsof who reduces all thefe inftitutions of God to the Old 
CjQd.^ Teftament, //.f^. H. i:,\ Which decay and wax old^ and 
(ire ready to va?iijh awiiy. Bui it is certain, that not 


Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 407 

only thofe things which were firft ordained by Mofes^ 
but thofe alio, which were in force, long before 
Mofes^ asfacriMcesand circumcifion, were abrogated 
by the introdu<5lion of the New Tcdament. But 
thefe were not abrogated, becaufe, as the learned 
perfon would have it, they were reduced by Mofes^ 
with the reft of his conflitutions, into one obfcure 
fyftem, but becaufe they were of the fame nature 
with the mofaical -, namely fhadows, which were to 
give place to Chrift tli^ fubftance. And they were 
fo, not from their being renewed hy MofcSy but from 
their firft inftitution. 

V.II. Nor do wefpeak without Scripture, when we Paul, 
reckon all that time, from the fall to the comino- of ^b.9,1^, 
Chrift, to the Old, or former Teftament. For tTius ""^^^ll^f^ 
we have the Apoftle's authority, Heb. 9. 15. And for ceeding 
this caufe he is the ?nediator of the New Teflament^ that time to the 
by means of deaths for the redemption of the tranfgreffions ^^J^"^*^*" 
that were under the first testament, the}\ which are ^ ^ "^ ' 
called^ ynight receive thepromife of eternal inherit aiice. 
But it is evident, that, by the death of Chrift, the 
tranlgreflions not only of thofe believers, who lived 
under the Mofaic oeconomy, but alfo of the elder 
Patriarchs, were expiated from the foundation of the 
world ; to which the Apoftle's reaioning leads us, 
jis by the hand, v, 26. And therefore to their time 
alfo THE FIRST TESTAMENT bclongs. And no rca- 
Ibn can be given, why the Apoftle iliould make par- 
ticular mention of any determinate period, feeing the 
efficacy of Chrift's death equally extends to all be- 
lievers backward. Which was alfo finely obferved 
by Cocceius himfelf, in his comment on this place, 
thofe very fins therefore^ which have been, and were not 
remitted under the fir ff teftament^ feeing that fin ^ which 
(ill men have in common^ becaufe all are f aid to havefm- 
ned^ when Adam finned^ Rom. c,. 12, and all other fms 
f)is children were guilty of^ as alfo the fins ofthofe^ who 
fxfe^cd Chrift, in order that the te^ament, which gives 
r miff on and th& inherit ancs^ might be ratified, ought to 


^g8 Of the Old and New Book 3. 

he expiated by the death of the Mediator^ as by a ran- 

Oppofed VIII. We will again confider and examine the 

indeed, by ^gj-y leaded perfon's exception : and thus he fpeaks; 

ed^f^eHbn" f^^'^^ ^^^ tlme^ that fin vjas imputed^ to wit^ from the 
time of the law^ there being made^ by the law of Mofes 
and the Mcfaic infiitiitions^ a commemoration and expro- 
hration or charge^ or accufation of ftn^ and a hand- 
writing exa^ed^ Heb. 10. 3, Col. 2. 14 *, kence all the 
prec ceding fins., committed during all the time avoyj,^ of the 
forbearance., are faid to have been., in a peculiar man- 
ner., tinder the Old Tefiament. Not that the Old Tefla- 
ment was from the time in which Jin was firfl committed 
hut that thofe committed before the Old 'Teflamenty are 
faid^ in a peculiar manner., to have then chiefly exifted 
when they were imputed., commemorated and ,expro- 
hated or charged. Nor did it contribute a little to 
heighten the virtue of Chrifi^s deaths exprefsl^ to have 
cbferved, that fins not only not imputed., when there was 
no law., but alfo very often imputed and charged., were 
yet., by the death of Chri§I., entirely removed., fo that 

But to no ^^^^^^^ ^^^ yn ore remembrance of them. 

purpofe. IX. Thefe things are {o fubtle (for, I hardly dare 
call them obfcure and preplexed, Jeaft the learned 
perjbn fhould be offended) that I own, I do not un- 
derhand them allj I will however attempt it. He 
fuppofes with me, and with all the orthodox, that 
the virtue of Chrift's redemption extends to the re- 
moving all the fins of all the eleft, from the begin- 
ning of the world. This being fo, he enquires, why 
Paul called thofe fms, the tranfgreffions that were under 
the fir §i tetlarnent. The realbn of which he vvill not 
have what we contend for ; namely, that the Old 
Teilament was from the time, in which fm was to 
be expiated by Chrifl, but that all the preceeding 
fins, committed from the beginning of the world, 
are faid, in a peculiar manner, to have been and 
to HAVE EXISTED Under the Old'TeBamcjit., or Mafaic 
ceconomy. But why did thofe very old fms exift un^ 
dtr the Old Teilament ? Becaufe then they were im- 

Chap, 3. TESTAMENT. 

puted and charged by that remembrance of fin, 'that 
was made by the law of Mofes. From this reafon- 
ing I firft alfcrt, that, by the tranfgrelHon under the 
hrii teftament, arc underilood all the preceeding fins^ 
which were corhmitted during the whole time of ibe 
forbearance. Whence "by a very eafy conlcquence 
it follows, that the tinies of the forbearance^ in the 
fenfe the learned perfon ufes that expreiTion, th^r is, 
the ages, which went before the coming of the 
MefTiah, 2.x\A oi the fir§i le^anmit^ are of equal ex- 
tenfion. No, fays he: But the very old fins, fup- 
pofe of Adam:, Enochs Noah,, are faid to have c::i(fed 
tinder the Mofaic covenant or teftament. Where, 
learned fir ? Where, I fay, is it faid, that the fins, 
committed before the Old Teftament, exified in a 
peculiar manner, upon the introdudion of the law of 
Mofes ? Not certainly in thefe words of Paul. For 
the very word, exifring,, is not to be found there, 
much lefs in the fenfe you frame to yourfeif. I im.a- 
gine the learned perfon had in his eye, Rom. 5. i^, 
for iintlll the law,, Jin was in the zvorld. But in what 
manner foever this may be explained, the Apoft-le, 
never and no where fais, that I know, that the fins, 
for inftance, committed by the inhabitants of the 
firft- world, exifted, in a peculiar manner, under the 
oeconomy of the Mofaic teftament. And in what 
{i^n^Q^ pray, fiiould they be faid to have then'exifted ? 
Becaufe, fays he, they were then imputed and 
charged. But to v,/hom ? Not certainly to thofe veiy 
perfons, v/ho, dying in the faith, were received into 
heaven. And how imputed and exprobrated by the 
introduction of the Mofaic teftament .? Seeing it wa^ 
fo much later than their death and falvation, it does 
not greatly regard thofe departed pious and happy 
perfons, at leaft as to its rigour. I refufe not, tha: the 
Ifraelites were convinced of their fins by the Mofaic 
law, and that a remembrance of fin was made, and 
that all mankind was condemned in the liraelites : 




410 Of the Old and New Book ^^ 

but that the fins of the more ancient believers were 
then imputed and charged, and then in a peculiar 
manner exifted ; is neither alTerted in Scripture, nor 
The re- X. But this aifo deferves confideration, that he 
futation would have the apoflle exprefsly mention the 
Mofaic Teftament, becaufe that tended to amplify 
the virtue of Chrift's death, as pecuharly fliining 
forth therein i feting it has removed all remembrance 
of thofe very fins, which were ofien imputed and 
charged, upon them by the lav/. Which does not 
indeed appear to me to be very pertinent to jthat 
matter. For, fince the commemoration and re- 
membrance of fins are made in the repeated offering, 
of the fame facrifices, which could not take away 
fins, and feeing facrifices of that kind began to be 
ufed immediately upon the promulgation of the 
Teftament of grace •, thefc very fins were comme- 
morated and charged by ficrifices, before the mofaic 
oeconomy took place. But if, on the introducing 
the law of Moles, that exprobration or charging of 
fin was more frequent and llrong -, the promife, in 
the fame law, was iikewife more frequent and ftrong, 
as Iikewife the fign and feal of the remiffion of fins, 
which the Meffiah was to procure. For, the fame 
inftitutions, whLch commemorated fin, fignified alio 
and iealed the future expiation of it by the MefTiah. 
If therefore, on one hand, it may feem ftrange, 
that thole ^ very fins v;ere alio expiated by Chrift, 
which were fo often commem.orated and charged *, 
on the other hand, the expiation of thofe fins, which 
was fo often fignified and fealed appears lefs ftrange. 
But the pious meditation of the redemption purchale4 
by Chrift ftands in no need of any fuch fubtleties of 
idle difputation. It is fufiicient to fay with Paul, 
that the efficacy of the death of Chrifl, who is the 
mediator of the New Teftament, is fuch that it ^has 
purchafed for the eled, in every age, the redemption 
of thofe tranfgrcfijons, which could never be expiated 

Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 411 

by any blood of bulls or goats. Our argument 
therefore remains in its full torce, and is in vain 
attacked by the windings and mazes of a perplexed 
difcourfe. The tranfgr.ejfions under the jirfi "left anient^ 
are fms committed from the mofl: anticnt period of 
the world i i\\Qxdox^ the firft Tey?^;;?^«/ comprizes all 
the ages from the iird origin of the world. 1' 

XI. Moreover, in this occonomy of the Old The Old 
Teilament, feveral periods are diflinc^lly to be '-^^^^^- 
obferved. For, God^ at fundry times and in divers ^^^^^^' 
Vianners^ fpake tinto the fathers, Heb. i. i.^ 1'he firft y^^^x ^^ 
period reaches from Jidam to Noah^ and comprehends riods, the 
the whole time of the firil world. In which every ^^^^^ 
thing was very fimple and plam. The firft gofpel ^^ins^witk' 
promife was publilhed by God, received by faith Adam, 
by our iirft parents, was inculcated on their children 

by incelTant catechiftng, or inftrudiion, fealed by facri- 
lices offered in faith. The death of the Mefiiah, the 
righteous one, the mod beloved of God, who 
was to be (lain by his envious brethren, was prefigured 
in the perfon of Abel^ who was murdered by Cain^ 
his afcenfion into heaven, with all his faithful, 
people, was forediown in the type of Enochs who 
alfo, according to Jude v. 14 propheficd of his 
return to judgment with ten thoulands of his 
faints \ and in fine the feparation of the fons of 
God from the fons of men for the pure worlliip of 

XII. The fee end period begins with Noah, in The G?- 
whom his fither Larnech feems to have beheld a ^"^, ^ 
certain type of the Mefiiah, when he faid, this 

fame foall comfort us concerning our -work and toil of 
our hands, and therefore he called his name Noah 
which fignifies refi^ Gen. ^j. icj. He was a juft and 
upright man in his generation, and a preacher of 
right eoufnefs^ 2 Pet, 2. 5; By him Chrift preached 
lo the fpirits in prifon. Pet. 3. 19. He was not only 
heir of the right eoufnefs of faith ^ Heb. 11. 7, but 
^he head and reftorer of a new world, and in that 

( refpe6b 

412 Of the Old and New Book 3^ 

refpect an eminent type of Chrift. For the fame 
purpofe the ark was built by him ; the facrifice of a 
Iweet-fmelHng favour oiTered to God •, God's gracious 
covenant, enrred into with the habitable world 
after that facrifice, and fealed by the rain-bow, and 
many other things of the like kind, full of myflical 
fenfe, which ihall be explained in due time. This 
fecond period reaches down to Abraham. 
r^-i, .-L- J XIII. To this fucceeds the third period from 

Ihe third 7,^ r -tl • 'j j 

with A- Abraham to Mojes, 1 here were mdeed very great 
brahara. and precious promifes made to ^^i^r^si^t-z;^ ; as of the 
multiplying his feed, of giving that feed the land of 
Canaan^ of the MefTiah to fpring from his loins, 
of the inheritance of the world, and the like. The 
covenant of grace was folemnly confirmed with 
hini, and fealed by the New Sacrament of circum- 
cifion : and himlelf conftituted the father of all the 
faithful, both of bis own feed according to the 
fieih, and of the Gentiles, Rom. 4. 12. Melchizedek 
pried and king of righteoufnefs and peace meets 
him fatigued after the overthrow and purfuit of his 
enemies who alfo bieffed him, and prefented to him 
in himfelf, as in an eminent type, a view of the 
MefTiah. Hence was kindled in Abraham a defire 
of feeing ftill more clearly the day of Chrift, which 
he both faw and rejoiced at, John 8. ^^6. This 
favour of the fupreme being was continued to 
Abraham's fon and grand-fon, Ifaac^ and Jacobs to 
v/hom he often made himfelf known by repeated 
revelations, which confirmed to them the promifes 
made to that great Patriarch, and propofed them to 
future generations as the chiefs of his covenant. 
And thus the old promifes of the covenant of grace 
were enlarged with manyaddipons and enriched with a 
fuller declaration. 
Xhe XIV. But things put on a quite different afpedl 

fourth under the fourth period, which was introduced by 
'^l'^ the miniftry of Moses. The people were delivered 
put of E^yp by an out-ilretched arm and by tremQn- 



Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 413 

dous prodigies.. The Ton of God, before all the 
congregation of the people, declared himfelf to be 
the king oilfraeihy the folemn manner in which he 
gave the law from mount Sinai^ amidll thunderings 
and lightenings. The tabernacle and the ark of the 
covenant with propitiatory, or the mercy-feat, the 
gracious refidence of God, were conftrucled wirli 
wonderful art. An incredible number of ceremonies 
was added to the ancient fmplicity. So many 
myriads of men (fhranoe to relate-,) were fed with 
manna from heaven, in the horrid and fcorched 
defarts o\ Arabia^ for forty years, and fupplied with 
water from the rock, which Tlz/^y^j flruck v^ith his 
rod. Whole nations were caft out before them and 
devoted to dellrudllon. Ifrael, as the favoured 
inheritance of God, was introduced, after a very 
great deftrudion of their enemies, to the promifed 
pofTefllon oi Canaan \ and who can pretend to enume- 
rate all the things, with which this period was 
enobled above the others ; of i;:hich ive cdmut nc\v 
fpeak 'partkularly^ Heb. 9. 5. 

yiY. Seeing all the inlVitutions of former ages To vt'hofe 
were renewed under the direction of Mrfe<:^ and time, en 
enlarged with very many additions, and itduced to account 
a certain form of worfhip, and as it were, into onejj.^Q|.jj,"^^" 
body or fyftem-, and the covenant was folemnly ryrevolu- 
renewed with Ifrael both at mo\m\. Sinai^ and In thction,the 
plains of Moab\ therefore it is, that, in the facred ^^^'^'^^^^* 
writings, the Old Teftament covenant is alcribed to ^^^^ j^ 
Mofes^ and to his minidry and times, Heb. 8. 9,fometimc3 
from Jer. 31. 32. Not that either, at that rime allaiciibed, 
thefe things, on which the O d Teftament depended, 
were firft inftituted, or that, on no account, it is to be 
referred to the preceeding times ; for the religion of 
both times, namely both before and after Mofes^ 
was the fame; and many rites the very fame, as 
facrifices, the diftin6lion of clean and unclean beafts, 
circumcuion, and many others : but that then the con- 
firmation both of old and new rites' was reduced into 


4i4 Of the Old and New Book 3. 

a certain form of a ritual, and that period was fo 
diftinguifhed by a folemn renovation of the covenant 
and by many additions thai it feemed to fvvallow up, 
as it were all that went before. We likewife, at other 
times read, that fomething is faid to be given by 
Mofes^ which was long before Mofes time. Our 
Lord fays John 7. 22, Mofes therefore gave tint you 
circumcifwn^ not hecaufe it is of Mofes ^ hut of the fathers. 
God alfo is faid, Ezek. 20. 11, I0 have given 
Ifraelin the wildernefs his ftatates^ which if a man do ^ 
he fhall even live in them. Yet we could not from 
thence conclude, that the oriorin of thofe ftatutes 
e derived from that time : feeing it Is 
plain, that they were cotemporary with man, and 
from the beginning made known to all believers 
by the teaching of the fpirit of God. This Mofaic 
period lafled, tho' under the kings D^t?/^ and Soloman^ 
there was a g-reat acceffion of mao;nificence made to 
the publick worfhip, by the fuperb flru6lure of 
the temple, and the appointment of its miniftry, even 
to the Lord Jeius, or his fore runner John. For 
thus we are taught, John 1. ly, '^he law was 
given by Mofes. but grace and truth came by Jefus 
Chrift \ and Luke 16. 16, The law and the ^prophets 
were until John , frnce that time the kingdom of God is 
Theepo- XVI. When the Old Teftament evanifhed, the 
dia of the NEW fucceeded ; whofe beHnninpr and Epocha 
td'f divines do not iix in one and the iame point or time, 
ferently Some begin the New Teftament fro7n the birth of 
fettled. Chrift, becaufe of that exprelTion of the apoftle 
Gal. 4. 4. in which he afferts the fulnefs of time 
was come, when God fen-, his fon made of a woman : 
to which they add, that, on that very day, the 
angels proclaimed the gofpel concerning Chrift 
manifefted, Luke 2. to ii. Others begin the 
New Teftament fro7n the year of ChrifVs preachings 
alledging M<:?r^ i. i. Where the evangeHft feems 
to reiier the beginning of the gofpel to that year, 
' " in 

Chap. s. TESTAMENT. 415 

in which John and Chrift began to preach, which is 
more clearly taught in that pafTage, juft cited from 
Luke 16. 16. Others rf^ain place the beginning 
of the New Teftament at the moment of Chrift's 
deaths upon the authority of the apoftle, who fais, 
that the New Teftament was ratified by the death 
of Chrift the teftator, Heb. 9.17. Some in fine, on the 
^^yofPentecoIf^ or theeffufion of the Holy Spirit on 
the Apoftles, on which the new was, as it were, 
lealed, and its law came out of Zion, Ifa. 2. :^. 

XYII. But all thefe things are eafily reconciled. Its fucceA 
if we allow fome latitude to that fulneis of time, in ^lonin the 
which the New fucceeded the old Teftament. God, ^J^^^ j^ 
indeed, began to prepare for the New Teftament ha^s fomg 
from the very birth of Chrift, on which very day the latitude. 
Gofpel of Chrift exhibited, began to be preached to 
the fliepherds -, but thofe beginnings were very fmall, 
but were foon after more illuftrious by the preachinor 
of Jobriy proclaiming the kingdom of heaven to be 
at hand. Mat, 3. 2 ; and of Chrift himfelf, aflerting 
it was already come and even among the people of 
the Jews, Luke i-j. 21, Yet the kingdom of heaven 
did not directly and all at once attain to its full ftate 
of maturity, but by (low degrees acquired ftrengtb, 
till Chrift, having finiftied the work, which the father 
gave him to do, compleated all by his death, and 
ratified the New Teftament. By this death of 
Chrift, the Old Teftament was of right abrogated. 
Yet there was an acceflion of greater folemnity to the 
New, when, after the death, refurre6tion and af- 
cenfion of our Lord, Upon the plentiful effufion of 
the Spirit on the Apoftles, the dodrine of Ihlvation 
was proclaimed over all the habitable world, God, 
at the fame time-, bearing witnefs by figns and won- 
ders, and various virtues and gifts of the Holy 
Ghoft* Neverthclefs, the church did not enjoy the 
full liberty of the New Teftam^^nt, till after God had 
rejected the people ot Jirael, who lliffly adhered to 
their ceremonies, till their temple was burnt, and their 


4i6 Of the Ol D and New Book ^^ 

whole land' was fmitten with a curfe,^ which time of 
full liberty the Apoftle in his day, Heh. 2. 5, called, 
the world to tome. " 

Theclofe XVIII. Hence we fee, that the clofe of the Old 
of the Old -pgl^^j^gpjj.^ gj.2(jually vanifliing away, and the be- 
andoegin- Q^jj-jj^jj^o; of the new p;radua]lv .q-ainins; p;ronnd, both 
the New -centerea in one point ot time, ror, as on the birth 
Tefta- otGhriil, a more joyful period flione forth, and the 
ment coa- ^Qj^gg of the pious were heard, concerning the truth 
ne^ o^int' ^^ God's . covenant confirmed by the accomplilh- 
ment of the promifes •, fo Chrifl acknowledged 
himfelf to be fubjed to the laws of the Old leila- 
ment by his circumcifion, and the rites following 
upon it. And as the kingdom of heaven, which is 
a kingdom. of liberty, was preached by our Lord, 
John 4., 21,23, So he ordered, in the mean time^ 
the perfon cleanfed of his leprofy to offer the facri- 
fice enjoined by the law of Mofes^ Mat, 8. 4. 
Which is an evident indication of the Old Teftament 
flill maintaining its ground. Of right it was 
entirely abrogated, when, upon Chrifl's death, the 
vail of the terbple was rent, and the holy of holies 
before hid and concealed, was then fet open to all ; 
^nii by the blood of a dying Chrifl:,. the New Tefta- 
ment was fealed. However, for fome time the 
apofl:les themfclves apprehended, that there was a 
fandity in the ceremonies, till Peter was better 
taught by a heavenly vifion, A5fs \o. 11 &c. In 
fine, the church ftruggled with the obfervation of 
thele ceremonies, now in the pangs of death, till 
jerufalem was taken and def^royed by the Romans^ 
and the temple fct on fire, together with thefe, all 
remains of the Old Tefl:ament, which were long 
before condemned to death, quite expired, and 
made way for a New Teftament, then at lafl 
blazing forth in the full luilre of its liberty. 

XIX. And here again wc are to obfcrve various 
periods, v/hich are diftinftly dclcribed in the 
J^rophetic writings efpecial'y in the myftical rever 


Chap. 3. T E S T A M E N T, ^j^j 

lation of JoH'^ the church has already experienced alfo its 
lomcofthem, and expcds the reft with fair h "and r^'^°^^- 
patience. Periods, I fay, not relating to any new 
worfhip, either inftituted, or to be inftituted by 
God, after the preaching of the everlafting gofpel • 
but refpeding very different vicifHtudcs in the 
church, and times either more adverfe, or more 
profperous, in which truth and piety were either 
oppreflcd, and forced to conceal themfelves in deferts, 
being wounded and fpent by many perfecutions, or 
then vidlorioufly triumphed over their enemies, and 
were placed on an illuftrious throne, which dazzled 
the eyes with the refulgent beams of their licrht. 
Of all thefe we are to fpeak in their place, ^ ' 

XX. And tho* we imagine, we have reckond up oth 
properly enough, and agreeably to the facred wri- make'' 
tings, the peconomies of the times, yetfome very three oe- 
learned men have thought otherwife, who are better ^^"0""". 
pleafed with the trichotomy^ or threefold divifion, than 
with the received dichotomy^ ok twofold diftribution. 
They therefore confidcr the adminiflration of the 
covenant of grace, ift. Under the promise and before j ^^^^^ 
the law, which they contend to have been a promife the pro-' 
of mere grace and liberty, without any yoke, or "life. 
burden of an accufing law. 2dly. Under the law, ^ Undcr 
where they will have the Old Teftament begin. 3dly the law. 
Under the Gospel, where the new begins. This .^ , 
diverfity would not have been of that importance, L Gof' 
as to oblige us therefore to throw up the caufe, we pel. 
plead for, if it confifted only in the computation of 
times. But feeing a vaft difference is qiade between 
thefe ceconomies, it will not be from the purpofe 
more minutely to examine thefe thoughts. 

XXL It appears, that the fathers living before The fa- 
the Mofaic law, were loaded with a much lighter thn> br- 
burthcn of ceremonies than the Tfradites were undcr ^v' ■'^'^"<'!^' 
after Mofes : yet it does not appear,' that ihc^ en- ^!,^ "°|-^,^ 
joyed full liberty, without pny yoke and burthen liberty. ' 
of- an accufing law, For, not to mention the law of 
9 ^^^^' I. E e nature. 

4,i5 OftheOLD and New Boole 3, 

nature, which, with its appendages of curfes, was 

handed down by xonllant inftrudlion, they had 

precepts concerning lacrifices, not indeed binding 

them to a certain time and place, but yet enjoining 

facrifices (vyhich indeed were not wilUvyorfhip) 

and diltingiiifhing clean from the unclean beafts. 

This I irnagine the very learned perfons will not deny. 

At lead the celebrated Cocceius finds fault with 

Grotius^ who affirms, that the offering of yf^f/ was 

made without any command ofGod^ from the dictates 

of re af on only^ and he infifts, that Abel could not 

have offered in faith without the word of God \ and 

that he did not offer according to his own pkafure 

and fancy ^ but by the direction of the Holy Spirit^ 

Adam doubtlefs being the interpreter and fetting an 

example here. The fame thing he proves at large, 

in Siin}. dc foe4' ^, 305 : On Gen, 4. §. 14, 19, 2 p. 

Momma, And another of thole, whofe opinion we are now 

on the examining, writes to this purpofe: the facrifices of 

^believers were doubtlefs of divine inflitution: which 

book I. ^f^^'' h^ ^^^ proved by various arguments, he thu$ 

^hap. y concludes : in fine, if God made a dijlinolion between 

$• ?P« dean and unclean animals before the deluge \ which was 

done on account ef facrifices^ doubtlefs God alfo appointed 

facrifices. But in every facrifice there was a remem- 

trance of fins, not yet expiated, and as Athanofms 

fpeaks, ^s*"^ »c^»'7»^, a reproaching of, and a hand-writing 

againft the facrificers. For, the reproaching with 

V fm confiffs not only in this that the offering of 

facrifices was limited to a certain time and place, 

as was cjone under Mofes-, but in the very offering 

of the iacriSces, for, when a man flew and burnt 

the animals, which God granted him for food, he 

thereby fignified^tliat he himfelf deferved deffrudlion; 

nay, and to periOi in avenging flames for ever; 

^nd that he, who by the one offering of himfelf, 

was truly to expiate the ^m^:, of all the elcdi, was 

pot yet come: and that when he offered frolickfome 

^njmals, wiio are apt to go a fl:ray from the flock, 


unleis kept by the fhepherd, thereby were fignified 
the guilt of Cm and our going allray, as very learned 
men have obfefved from Ifa. 53. 6. 

XXII. It is therefore ilrange that a great m In, Before tht 
in anfwer to this queftion, whether Abel's facrifice ^^^ ^^"« 
was propitiatory, or cuchariltical ; fhould fay, ibat J^l[^J^^^ 
before Mofes's time fatrifices for fins were not inftititted {^^ {\n. 
by God^ the defign of which was td accufe of Jin. That Cocceius 
this is faid without proof, appears plain: ifl. Be- °''^ ^^"-^^ 
caufe, in that cafe no facrifices were inltituted ^* **• 
before Mofes^ to be types of the propitiatory facri- 
fice of Chrift. For, as it was neccflary there 
(hould be an agreement between the type and 
Antitype, thofe facrifices, which fhadowed forth the 
propitiatory facrifice of Chrift were alfo in their 
meafure, propitiatory •, that is, they fo expiated 
fm to the cleanfing of the flefh^ as at the fame time, 
to condemn fin, and to Hiew, that they Were not 
fufficient for its real expiation, becaufe they were 
to be often repeated. Neither do the learned doubt, 
but that the facrifices even of the oldeft patriarchs 
were facraments and types of Chrift*s facrifice ; for 
they write, in exprefs words-, ihTui the fathers offered i\y^^,,^-^ 
before Mofes^s time the fame facrifices with Mofes^ and 
apt toftgnify the fame things. 2dly. It alfo appears, 
that Job^ who, it is probable, lived before, certainly 
without the Mofaic polity, offered ni^iy burnt-offer- 
iiigs for his children and friends, in order to cxpi.itc 
the fins, they had committed. Job i. 5: and 42. 8. 
But the end of a burnt-offering is to be accepted for 
him., thwJ offers., to make atvfiement for him., Lev, i. 4. 
And by fiich facrifices the believers of that time teflfied 
(which is the learned perfon's own obfervation) that " ' ' 
they acknowledged., that fitch a fatisfaofion was due to 
God., which was not poffibk for themf elves to make : 
this was a charge of guilt and inability-, which the On Jot*, 
fame great man could not conceal, when he treats of 4-- ^• 
the burnt-offerings offered by Job, at the command 
of God, for his friends, and cxpreiTes himiclf thus : 

E e 2 For^ 

420 Cf theOLD andl^Ew Book ^. 

■For, tb/f ninny facrifices were Jlain^ and the man y indeed^ 
upon offering a heaft^ was no longer deemed a /inner ^ hut 
a righteous ,perfon among men^ yet conscience was 
ACCUSED OF SIN, and confequently offerings were to he 
accurnulated and repeated without end. See the fame 
author on Job, 9, 28 ; but efpecially on Job, 7. r. 
Job complains not., fays he, of that jervitude^ wherehy 
we obey God •, but of that laid on the fathers, which is 
a heavy yoke of fear., and of the terror of the law, with 
the greatejl incumbrance of ceremonies. — But thd* Job 
feems to have lived before the law of Mofes, and not to 
have been loaded with fo many ceremonies as the Ifraelites ; 
yet his condition was no better than theirs. There 
were therefore in the facrifices which, God enjoined 
from the beginning, a reproaching with, and anaccu- 
fationof fin ; and confequently a yoke, notconfiftent 
with that liberty of the fathers, which thefe learned 
men imagine. 
CircumcU XXIK. And what will they fay with refped to cir- 

Hon alio a c 5 Txr 1 ir ^ '. A- . 

yoke. cumcifion ? Was not that alio a yoke ? Since it was 
not to he "performed without blood, and mixed with much 
pain and ftjajne. Was there not in it anaccufation of 
fin ? IVhenthe new horn infant could n^t enter into God's 
covenant, without firfi fhedding his blood. Hence this 
facramcnt was perform d on the genital member, to de-^ 
note the original ftain\ and by the cutting off a fmall 
part of the flefb, the whole man was declared to he 
worthy of death. Let the learned perfons here ac- 
knowledge their own words. And what is more 
Synop^s"' P^^ii^ ^'^^on^ t'i<" writings of the New Tefiament, than 
lib.3.c'.6. ^^^^ circumcifion, was confidered by the Apoftles 
§. 19,12. as the principal part of the heavy yoke? A^s, 15. 5. 
compared with v. 10. Neverthclels, it does not 
appear, that Mofes made any addition of rigour to 
itj having been, long before, enjoined upon Abra- 
ham at ftrft under pain of being cut off. Wc con-* 
elude therefore, that the condition of the antient 
Patriarchs is too much extolled above that of the 
Jcvvifh church, wlien it is infilled, that they lived in 


Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 421 

liberty, without any charge of fin, without any 
yoke ; tho' we readily grant, that the fervitude was 
heightened; and the yoke made heavier by the Mo- 
faic polity. And this is what we had to fay on the 
firft period. 

XXIV. They mske the law to be the fecond pe- Theargu- 
riod, under which they would have the Old Tefta- "^^"^^ o^ 
ment to begin j which they define, to be the will and b^^^^^^the 
purpofe of God^ whereby he detennmed to give to fame o. Tella- 
ef Abraham's pofterity^ as his own people^ the inheri- ment 
tance of the land of Canaan as his own land\ adding, ^"^ 
that this teflament commenced frofn the Exodus out sinai" 

of Egypt and from Mount Sinai. Which a very learned Coccei 
perfon, endeavours to prove by feveral arguments ^^^' Th. 
briefly joined together in the following manner. ^* ^^'^ 3» 
The Scripture fays, Jer. 31. 32, that God made . . 
the Old Teflament with the fathers, when he feTad 
brought them out of Egypt \ that is, called them 83 queft. 
to the inheritance of the land, as of a pledge, §• 2 See 
&c. In like manner Paul^ Gal. 4. 24, fays, that the |-^^ P'"^" 
tv/o tefl:aments were fignified by Hagar and Sarah, "E.pMi, 
a'nd that the firfl:, was truly from mount Sinai. The Ephcf, 
fame Paul fays Heb. 9. 18, Neither the firfl teflament 
was [initiated] dedicated without blood. He has his 
eye on Exod. 24. 8. He fays £7«xa»v»rai it was [initiated J 
therefore that teflament then became 't«w»j, new. 
Confequently, that teflament was then introduced. 
Nay, Deut. 5. 2, 3, it is laid, the Lord our God 'made 
a covenant with us in Horeb : the Lord made not this co- 
venant with our fathers, j-lovv can we conceive, that 
the fathers had that, which, we are told, had not , 
been intimated to them ? 

XXV. We fhali make the following reHeaions on The Old 
this fubjedl, which wf fubmit to the examination of T^'^'f-'*- 
the learned: ift. Thev Icem to confine the Old '''^"' "°^ 

' 1 J 1 1 r> • conlilting 

reframent within too narrow bounds, who define it in the 
only by t!ie dcftinarion of the land of Canaan as a alone al- 
pledoc of heaven ; as v/e fhev/ed fcft. 2. Doubticfs ^'l^^^'^\ 0^ 
according to the Old i eftamenc, the ^n'^^'fitance or ^^^^^^^ 
th'* land of G;,';*?*'?;; was givirn to tiie Iliarlicc: : but 

E e :? this 

^24 Of the Old and New Book 3, 

this does not compleat the whole fubflance of the 
Old Teftament. Paul clearly enough declares GaL 
4. and Heb. 9, without fpeaking any thing of the 
land of Canaan^ that it confifted in a typical ex- 
hibition of the heavenly inheritance, and comprized 
every thing that imports a typical fervitude, and 
was to be abolifhed upon the introduclion of the New 
The pro- XXVI. 2dly. When learned men fay, that the 
mifeofthe q|^ Teitament commences from the exodus out of 
Canaan Egypt, and from mount Sinai and call it the will 
was not and purpofe of giving the land of Canaan, they 
made at underftand not, by that will, or that purpofe, the 
"^?""^ ^^' counfel or decree of God, from eternity, nor the 
430 years execution of that decree, which was not effeded 
before, at mount Sinai^ but forty years after, when, under 
the condu6l of Jojhua^ they were introduced into the 
land : but they underftand the declaration of the 
counfel of God by an irrevocable promife. But that 
promile was not firft made at mount Sinai^ but long 
before, even to the Patriarch Ahrahaniy four hun- 
dred and thirty years before the giving of the law. 
Gen 11, J y Unto thy feed will I give this land. And 
it was confirmed by folemn figns, and fealed by the 
blood of lacrifices. Gen. 15. 7. We therefore 
conclude, that, if the Old Teftament be the decla- 
ration of the will of God about giving the land of 
Canaan^ it did not comm.ence from Mofes^ but from 
Injer.31. XXVII. 3dly. Hence it appears, what anfwer 
32 and ^ ought to be given to J^r. 31. 32, and Gal, 4. 24; 
tl^g 'Cub!*^' namely, that the firft inftituiion of the Old Tefta- 
je£l is not m.ent is not treated of in thefe places, but the folemn 
thcfirftifi- renewal and confirmation of it, and the acceiTion of 
^fSi^^O "^^"y ^^^ xit^s,, which we mentioned fe(5l. 18. 
Telia. * For, God himlVlf often teftified concerning that 
ment, but time, that he did thofc things in virtue of his cove- 
its folemn ^ant entred into with Abraham^ Esod. 2. 24. And 
confirma- ^^^ remanbrd % covenant iiitb Abraham &c. and 


Chap, s, TESTAMENT. 42 j 

Chap. 6. 8, And I will bring you into the land^ c oncer ft- 
ing the which I did fwear to give it to Abraham^ Ifcuzc 
and Jacobs and I will give it you for an inheritance. It 
therefore remains, that the Tcilament, about giving 
the land o^ Oinaan^ was, not then firO: publifhed, 
but folemnly renewed, wheii God was now about to 
accompiilh it. Aiid this is what Jeremiah and Paul 
intend in the places quoted. 

XXVIII. 4thly. What the apoftle fays Heh, 9. 1 8, T^^ Jal- 
Neither the firft Tejlament was [initiated] ^^^"^^^^^ tjfe'g^ft *^^ 
without bloody is very general, and may be extended teiLment 
to the firft facrifices, which were flain at God's com- may be 
mand. The very learned Cloppenburg in Schola referrcdto 
Sacrificiorum^ Problem, i. §.3. would prove from ^Ij^/*^*^^** 
the fame palTage of Paul, that there was no interval 

of time, between the firft promileofthe future feed 
of the wdman, and the firft facrifice. ^e apojlle^ 
fays he, confirms this our opinion^ when he fais that thd 
Old Tejlament was not dedicated without bloody and that 
without Jhedding of blood there is no remijjion of finSi 
For^ hence it follows^ that^ with that -promife about the 
future feed of the woman^ there was either no folcmyiizing 
of the fpiritual covenant of God with man^ by which h^ 
might hope for^ and believe the remiffion of fins ^ or that 
there was none without fhedding of blood. The apoftle, 
indeed, mentions what we have in Ey^od, 24, as an ex* 
ample. But it does not follow, that no other example 
of that truth could be given before that-, or that 
any would miftake the fubje(fl, who fliould add to 
the apoftle's argument, what we find Gen, 15, 
about the beafts, which were flain by AbraharA, 

XXIX. And the term, dedicated ought not to be From the 
fo infifted upon, as if that ncccffarily inferred, that ?^*'"*, 
the teftament, thus dedicated, was entirely new. ^^/Jff'^^ld 
For, even that may be faid to be dedicated, which is no con- 
again folemnly dedicated, tho' the thing itfelf was clufio-i 
in being long before. Thus the author of the i ^^^^^, 
Maccabees chap, 6^ writes about the temple profaned tj^^t^Jj^^' 

by AntiochuS^ -//'^ k<,ir.a.\na^y\ t^ «7.«<7-p/.a ^i tq TTfo-rtfo ^nd the merit was 

E c 4 fanciuary 

424 ^f the Old and T^Te w Book 3. 

then en- JarMtiary was dedicated as hef ore » Yet Antiochus\\2^d. 
tire]y«^au. ^^^j profaned, but hot deflroyed the landuary, fo as 
to make it neceflary to build one entirely new, 
which Judas Maccabeus purified chap. 4. 43, and 
thus dedicated it to God. From this was '^"^ lyy-otmcc 
the feajl of the dedications John, 10. 22. On which 
place Gr otitis comments-, h^-a-mi^Biv to dedicate^ whence 
the appellation^ eyxccmu, and feajl of dedication^ in He^ 
hreWV^^ is ufed of any dedication^ whether thejirfl^^or 
that which is renewed. And indeed, when the 
Apoftle was faying, Heh. 10. 26, that CHrift 6»'«««»»'»'^^ 
confecrated a way to heaven, he by no means inti- 
mated, that there was no way to heaven before that 
it mav be XXX. But let US allow, the Old Teftament was 
granted, then new ; and that this may be proved by the word, 
ihetefta- lyy-sxamra*; let US alfo allow, that the apoftle, fpeaking 
J5;^;^^'J^'ofthe Ihedding of blood, with which the teftament 
notabfo-' was dedicated, does not look back to any time, 
lutely but prior to that defcribed Exod. 24. Yet nothing will 
circam. be concluded in favour of the hypothefis. For, the 
ilantially. ^|^^ Teftament was certainly new at that time, not 
abfolutely, and in its whole fubftance, but only 
with refpc6l to thofe circumftances, under which it 
was propofed to Ifrael^ prorniHng them the immediate 
pofleffion of the land of Canaan^ for an inheritance, 
together with the impofition of fo many new rites. 
We ought to be upon our guard againft being guilty 
of the fophifm, called arguing from what is hypo- 
tiietical to what is abfolute. As thefe things are 
neither unflvilfuily nor improbably obferved by very 
learned men, 1 could have wiflied, that hard laying 
had not dropt from the learned perfon, that they, 
vvhothus proceed, wreft this paffage contrary to the 
incanin^ of the Holy Ghcfl. Cannot fuch a difpute 
a-, this be determined, without fuch warmth and 
vehemence of'Jan?uacre ? 
The CO- XXXI. On Dev.t. 5. 2, 3, many things have 
v:iia:unQ: bcca taken notice of by interpreters. I imagine •, 


Chap. 3. TESTAMENT. 425 

nothing appears morefimple and folid, than what the exhibited 
very learned Dutch interpreters have obferved, to^^'^^/a- 
the following purpofe : that this covenant was not [he7ame 
entred into with the fathers, in the fame manner, form'^^^to 
with all its circumltances and particular laws, and tjie ifrae- 
in that form (as we ufe to fpeak) in which it was ^^'^^• 
revealed to Ifrael at Sinai or Horeb. For, even the 
believing patriarchs had the fubftance of the moral 
and ceremonial law, and, by the grace of God, 
managed their religious worfhip according to it. 
This expofition is confirmed chiefly by two reafons. 
I ft. That it is no new thing in the facred writings, 
for fomething to be faid not to be mentioned before, 
and to be revealed at that time, when it is more clearly 
difcovered, and fome new addition made to it. Thus 
the apoftle writes Rom, 16. 25, 26, IVhich uo as kept 
fecret fince the world hegan^ hut now is made manijeft : 
and yet the fame apoftle fais, preached before the 
Gofpel to Abraham^ Gal. 3. 8, and to the other ancient 
fathers, Heb. 4. 2. It was therefore kept fecret 
not fimply, but in a comparative fenfe : not preached 
in the fame manner, as now. The apoftle himfelf 
thus explains the matter E/;^. 3. 5, Which in other 
ages was not made known unto the fons of men., as it is 
now revealed to his holy apofiles. What God here fays 
may be taken in the fame fenfe ; that he did not 
make this covenant with their fathers, namely in 
the fame manner and form, by fpeaking to them 
from the midft of thunderings and lightenings, 
giving them the law of the covenant written with his 
own hand, v^ith an addition of fo many ceremonies. 
2dly. It alfo appears, that thefc words of God not 
only may, but ouglit to be explained in this man- 
ner. For fmce the decalogue, which conftitutes 
the principal part of the federal precepts, was 
likewife, with refped to irs fubftance, given to tlie 
ancient Patriarchs, as God's covenant-people, for a 
rule of gratitude and a new life ; and the fum of it 
was comprized in thofc words, ipjlie to Abrahajn, 


425 Of the Ol t) and New fiook ^. 

livllich God, when he formerly entered into cove- 
nant with him, faid, Gen» ty. i, I am tie Almighty 
Gody walk continually before me and be thou [fin cere] 
perfe^ : it cannot therefore abfolutely be denied, 
that that covenant, whofe firft and principal law is 
the decalogue, was alfo entered into with the antient 
Patriarchs. Neither, as has been often hinted, do 
all the ceremonies owe their original to Sinai or Horeb. 
From the whole I conclude, that it cannot be proved 
from the alledged paffages, that the Old Tefiament 
took its firft commencement from the Exodus out 
of Egypt y or from Mount Sinai ^ and that it is more 
probable, and more agreeable to the analogy of 
Scripture, to adhere to the received opinion. But 
how great the difference between the oeconomy of 
the Old and New Tefiament, and what prerogatives 
the laft has above the firft, we Ihall carefully explain, 
Hi its time and place. 

End of The First Volitme, 


PAGE I (^^Wnc ^ojc2id Hoornheckius. P. 2 1,1. 18, 
r. of landiification. F. 42, 1. 1 8, r. rates^ 1. 43, 1. 
33, r, rites. P. 45, 1. 24, r. prcmifed. P. 55^ 1- ^ i? r. 
f» y^/j. P. 59> 1- 22, r. p-T^;. P. 77, 1. 20, u is to. P. 
79,1. 24, r. into. P. 81,1. II, V.Adam's, P.93» 1- 22, 
r. contain. P. 98,1. 40, r. the prophecy. P. 120, 1. 36, 
r. Is it. P. 127, 1. 12, r. of his. P. 134, 1- 9-> r, 
thruftont. P. 159,!. 4, r. the very, P. 164, p. 21, 
Zcch. P. 169, 1. 17, r. tranfaded, I. 36, r. with the. 
P. 202, 1. 6, r. requires. P. 228, 1. 10, r. deliver 
them, P. 232, 1, 20, r. furetilhip-engagement. P. 
236,1. 22,v. of love. P.251,1. 6,r. happy. P. 256, 
1. 5, r. polTibly. P. 288, 1. ult. r. Q^OD'^. P. 306, 
1.20, r. incumbent on us. P. 315, 1. J» r. death. 
But. P. 316, 1. 36, r. "^^Vpr^ia. P. 318, note, 1. 7, 
r. the Son. P. 329, 1. 17, r. away. P. 32B, 1. 3^> 
r.expiation. In numbering t1ie pages after 329, r. 
330> 331- ^' 3 S2, I 10, r. death of, P. 353,1. 20, 
r. go before. P. 354, 1. 22, r. Gomarus, P. 373» 
L 16, dele in p. 390, marg. r. Job 19. 25. P. 413* 
1. 3, r. Ifraely by. P. 414, 1. 3, r. additions, by. 



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